Zabrze (//; Polish pronunciation: [ˈzabʐɛ] (listen); German: 1915–1945: Hindenburg O.S., full form: Hindenburg in Oberschlesien, 1905–1915: Zabrze, Silesian: Zobrze) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice. The west district of the Silesian Metropolis, a metropolis with a population of around 2 million. It is in the Silesian Highlands, on the Bytomka River, a tributary of the Oder.
|• Mayor||Małgorzata Mańka-Szulik|
|• City||80.40 km2 (31.04 sq mi)|
(31 December 2018)
|• City||173,374 (20th)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
41-800 to 41-820
|Area code(s)||+48 32|
Zabrze is in the Silesian Voivodeship, which was reformulated in 1999. Before 1999 it was in Katowice Voivodeship. It is one of the cities composing the 2.7 million inhabitant conurbation referred to as the Katowice urban area, itself a major centre in the greater Silesian metropolitan area which is populated by just over five million people. The population of Zabrze as of December 2018 is 173,374, down from June 2009 when the population was 188,122.
Biskupice (Biskupitz), which is now a subdivision of Zabrze, was first mentioned in 1243 as Biscupici dicitur cirka Bitom. Zabrze (or Old Zabrze) was mentioned in 1295-1305 as Sadbre sive Cunczindorf (sive = "or"). In the Late Middle Ages, the local Silesian Piast dukes invited German settlers into the territory, resulting in increasing German settlement. The settlement was part of the Silesian duchies of fragmented Poland. Zabrze became part of the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria in 1526, and was later annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia during the Silesian Wars. In 1774, the Dorotheendorf settlement was founded. When the first mine in Zabrze became operational in 1790, the town became an important mining center. In the 19th century, new coal mines, steelworks, factories and a power plant were created. A road connecting Gliwice and Chorzów and a railway connecting Opole and Świętochłowice were led through Zabrze.
Early 20th century and interwar yearsEdit
In 1905, the Zabrze commune was formed by the former communes Alt-Zabrze, Klein-Zabrze and Dorotheendorf. The Zabrze commune was renamed Hindenburg in 1915 in honour of Generalfeldmarschall Paul von Hindenburg. The name change was approved by King Wilhelm II on 21 February 1915.
In 1904 the "Sokół" Polish Gymnastic Society in Zabrze was established, which was also a Polish patriotic and pro-independence organization. As a result of the Prussian harassment it was liquidated in 1911, but it was reactivated twice, in 1913 and 1918. Its members took an active part in the post-war plebiscite campaign and the Silesian uprisings.
During the plebiscite held after World War I, 21,333 inhabitants (59%) of the Hindenburg commune voted to remain in Germany, while 14,873 (41%) voted for incorporation to Poland, which just regained its independence. In May 1921 the Third Silesian Uprising broke out and Hindenburg was captured by Polish insurgents, who held it until the end of the uprising. When Upper Silesia was divided between Poland and Germany in 1921, the Hindenburg commune remained in Germany. It received its city charter in 1922. Just five years after founding Hindenburg became the biggest city in German Upper Silesia and the second biggest City in German Silesia after Breslau. In the March 1933 elections, most of the citizens voted for the Nazi Party, followed by Zentrum and the Communist Party. Nazi politician Max Fillusch became the city's mayor and remained in the position until 1945. The town's synagogue, that had stood since 1872, was destroyed in the Kristallnacht pogroms of November 1938.
World War Two and aftermathEdit
During some of the time of the Nazi German control of the region, a subcamp of Auschwitz III was located here.
Following World War II, according to the Potsdam Agreement the city was handed over to Poland in 1945 and the town's name was changed to the historic Zabrze on May 19, 1945. Most of the German inhabitants were expelled.
On 17 September 2012, the Zabrze city council decided on a new administrative division of the city. Zabrze was subsequently divided into 15 districts and 3 housing estates.
Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from Bytom/Gliwice/Zabrze constituency
- Chojnacki Jan, SLD-UP
- Dulias Stanisław, Samoobrona
- Gałażewski Andrzej, PO
- Janik Ewa, SLD-UP
- Kubica Józef, SLD-UP
- Martyniuk Wacław, SLD-UP
- Okoński Wiesław, SLD-UP
- Szarama Wojciech, PiS
- Szumilas Krystyna, PO
- Widuch Marek, SLD-UP
- Górnik Zabrze - men's football team (Polish Champion 1957, 1959, 1961, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1971, 1972, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988; Polish Cup winner 1965, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972; Polish Supercup winner 1988)
- NMC Górnik Zabrze - handball club, playing in the Polish Superliga, the country's top division (Polish Champion 1989, 1990; Polish Cup winner 1984, 1988, 1990)
- Wojtek Wolski - Pro ice hockey player for the Washington Capitals of the National Hockey League
- Karl Godulla (1781–1848), Prussian industrialist
- James Kleist (1873-1949), German-American Jesuit scholar
- Heinz Fiebig (1897–1964), Wehrmacht general
- Wolfgang Jörchel (1907–1945), Standartenführer in the Waffen SS
- Fritz Laband (1925–1982), German footballer
- Friedrich Nowottny (born 1929), German television journalist
- Janosch (born 1931), German author
- Joachim Kroll (1933–1991), German serial killer
- Joachim Kerzel (born 1941), German actor
- Wojtek Wolski, Polish-Canadian hockey player playing for the Washington Capitals of the NHL, was born here in 1986.
- Krystian Zimerman, internationally renowned classical pianist, was born here in 1956.
- Czesław Śpiewa, (born 1979), singer
- Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz, Polish-Pakistani military scientist
- Jan Sawka, Polish-American artist, architect
- Bartłomiej Socha, footballer
- Waldemar Sorychta, heavy metal musician and producer
- The Dumplings, electropop band
Twin towns — Sister citiesEdit
Zabrze is twinned with these cities:
- "Local Data Bank". Statistics Poland. Retrieved 2 June 2019. Data for territorial unit 2478000.
- European Spatial Planning Observation Network (ESPON) 
- Historia - Hindenburg at the official website of Zabrze
- "Polskie Towarzystwo Gimnastyczne „Sokół" w Zabrzu, Historia Zabrza". Retrieved 10 June 2019.
- Encyklopedia powstań śląskich, Instytut Śląski w Opolu, Opole, 1982, p. 637
- Stadtkreis Zabrze at Geschichte on Demand website
- Ghetto Fighters' House archives, Photo No. 55805: a memorial monument placed by the Zabrze municipality in 1998 to commemorate its Jewish community.
- Zestawienie liczby mieszkańców z uwzględnieniem podziału na dzielnice na dzień: 30-09-2013.
- "The Dumplings — Free listening, videos, concerts, stats and photos at Last.fm". www.last.fm. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zabrze.|
- Municipal website ‹See Tfd›(in Polish)
- Zabrze Community ‹See Tfd›(in Polish)
- Portal Zabrze.com.pl ‹See Tfd›(in Polish)
- Encyclopædia Britannica Zabrze
- Jewish Community in Zabrze on Virtual Shtetl
- Old images of the city ‹See Tfd›(in German)