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Tczew [tt͡ʂɛf] (Kashubian: Dërszewò; German: Dirschau (help·info)) is a town on the Vistula River in Eastern Pomerania, Kociewie, northern Poland with 60,279 inhabitants (June 2009). It is an important railway junction with a classification yard dating to the Prussian Eastern Railway. The city is known for its Old Town and the Vistula Bridge, or Bridge of Tczew, which played a key role in the Invasion of Poland during World War II.
Old Town seen from the Tczew Bridge
|Gmina||Tczew (urban municipality)|
|• Mayor||Mirosław Pobłocki|
|• Total||22.26 km2 (8.59 sq mi)|
|Elevation||25 m (82 ft)|
|• Density||2,700/km2 (7,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area code(s)||+48 58|
It is the capital of Tczew County in Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999, and was previously a town in Gdańsk Voivodeship (1975–1998). It is also the largest town of the ethnocultural region of Kociewie.
The town is the location for the annual English Language Camp arranged by the American-Polish Partnership for Tczew.
Tczew (Trsow, Dersowe, ‘weaver's town’) was first mentioned as Trsow in a document by Pomeranian Duke Grzymisław bestowing the land to the Knights Hospitaller in 1198. Around 1200 Sambor I, Duke of Pomerania, built a fortress here. In some documents, the name Derszewo appears, which stems from the name of a feudal lord, Dersław. It is unknown whether Trsow and Derszewo referred to the same or two neighboring settlements. In order to obtain better control of traffic on the Vistula, Pomeranian Duke Sambor II moved his residence form Lubiszewo Tczewskie to here. By 1252 the settlement was known by the names Tczew and Dirschau. In 1260 it became a town and received Lübeck rights. It was part of Poland until 1308. Following the Treaty of Soldin in 1309, Tczew was purchased from Brandenburg by Heinrich von Plötzke of the Teutonic Knights, despite the fact that the initial claims to the region by Brandenburg were of dubious legality. The townspeople were expelled by the Teutonic Knights and the town's organization ceased to exist for more than half a century. It was rebuilt from 1364–1384, and was granted Kulm law by Winrich von Kniprode. In 1434 the town was burnt down by the Hussites. In 1440 the town joined the Prussian Confederation, opposing Teutonic Order's rule. In 1457, during the Thirteen Years’ War, Bohemian mercenaries on the Order's service sold Tczew to Poland in lieu of indemnities. The Second Peace of Thorn (1466) confirmed the incorporation of Tczew to Poland. It became part of the Pomeranian Voivodeship in the newly created Polish province of Royal Prussia.
During the Protestant Reformation most of town's inhabitants converted to Lutheranism. In 1626 it was occupied by king Gustav II Adolf of Sweden, who built a pontoon bridge across river Vistula and who had his camp at the southern side of the town. Although it was rebuilt, it then suffered during the Polish-Swedish Wars. In a nearby battle on 2 September 1657, the Poles were defeated by the combined troops of Brandenburg and Sweden under general Josias II, Count of Waldeck-Wildungen.
The region was annexed from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by the Kingdom of Prussia during the First Partition of Poland in 1772. Tczew, as Dirschau, became part of the newly founded Province of West Prussia. During the Napoleonic invasion in Prussia the town was occupied by Polish troops of General Jan Henryk Dąbrowski in 1807, but became Prussian again in 1815. It became part of the German Empire in 1871.
Under Prussian and German rule, the Polish minority suffered from forced Germanization; for example Poles were denied Polish schools, and refused to teach their children German. The German official Heinrich Mettenmeyer wrote that German-appointed teachers were treated with highest disdain by Polish children and their parents
After World War I as a consequence of the Treaty of Versailles Tczew became part of the so-called Polish Corridor and was incorporated into the re-established Polish state. On January 30, 1920, Polish General Józef Haller arrived in the town with his troops. The town became a center of cultural activities of the German minority in Poland, a German-language school and a theater was founded. The regional member of the Polish Parliament represented the German minority.
According to the city's website, Tczew was the location of the start of World War II when German bombers attacked Polish sapper installations to prevent the bridge from being blown up at 04:34 on 1 September 1939 (the shelling of Westerplatte commenced at 04:45). During the time span 1939–45 Dirschau was integrated into Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia of the administrative district of Regierungsbezirk Danzig of Germany's Third Reich. After World War II the town, was one of the most damaged cities of Gdańsk Pomerania. Virtually none of its remaining factories were capable of production. There had been considerable loss of population down to around 18-20 thousand people. Shortly before the end of World War II it was occupied by the Soviet Army. After the end of war the town became part of People's Republic of Poland and renamed Tczew again. German residents were dispossessed and forcefully expelled; Polish residents took the first effort of reconstruction, and revitalization. Currently, there are several companies in the electrical industry and machine building.
Number of inhabitants by yearEdit
Coat of armsEdit
- Parish Church of the Holy Cross – situated in the centre of the Old Town, by Wyszyńskiego street. It is the oldest building in Tczew. The church was built in the 13th century and features a Baroque interior. The high brick tower is the oldest part of the church and its wooden top was destroyed during the fire in 1982. The interior church walls feature old frescoes, the oldest of which dates back to the latter half of the 15th century.
- Post-Dominican Church of Saint Stanislaus Kostka – located on Świętego Grzegorza square. It comes from the 14th century and is built in the Gothic style, with a characteristic octagonal tower. After the liquidation of the order, it was rebuilt into a school and later, till 1945, used by Protestants.
- Bridges on the Vistula River – located by Jana z Kolna street and the Vistula boulevard are Tczew's main sights. The road bridge was the first one to be constructed, between 1851 and 1857. At the time, with its 837 metres’ length, it was one of the longest bridges in the world. Originally, the bridge had ten towers and two gateways – today only four towers remain. The other, railway bridge, was built between 1888 and 1890, when one bridge was no longer sufficient. On 1 September 1939 at 5:30AM, the bridges were destroyed by Polish sappers in order to prevent the German Army from accessing the city from the other side of the Vistula River. The bridges were rebuilt in 1940 and destroyed again in 1945 by the Germans. The final reconstruction of the bridges took place between 1958 and 1959.
- Museum of the Vistula River – situated by 30 Stycznia street, in the pre-war agricultural machine factory where during World War II, the Nazi transitional camp for the people of Tczew was located. Then, the gas-meter factory operated in the building and after this the first museum of the Vistula River was established. In 2007, the building was renovated and now operates as the Museum of the Vistula River and Regional Centre of the Lower Vistula.
- Water Tower – located on the corner of 30 Stycznia and Bałdowska streets. It was built in 1905. The water tower presents former architectural style of municipal facilities. The 40-metre-high tower with the power of natural pressure distributed the water to the houses.
- Town Hall – the old town hall was situated in Hallera square, in the centre of the Old Town. It was destroyed during the fire in 1916 and has never been rebuilt since. Now only the outline of the former town hall can be seen in the square. The new town hall was built in the Piłsudskiego square in the early 20th century.
- Dutch-type windmill – situated by Wojska Polskiego street. It was built in 1806. The windmill is wooden with brick foundations and has rarely seen five sails and a rotary head.
- Post Office – situated on the corner of Dąbrowskiego and Obrońców Westerplatte streets. It is the oldest post office in Tczew, built in 1905. On the front wall we can see the crests of Gdańsk and Tczew and also the Polish state emblem.
- The building of former Naval School – located by Szkoły Morskiej street. Built in 1911. At the beginning the girls’ school was situated there and later, between 1920 and 1930, it was the location of the first Naval School in Poland which was later moved to Gdynia. Nowadays, the building houses a secondary school.
- The building of former municipal baths – situated on Łazienna street. Built in 1913. Now the powiat council is based in this building.
- Municipal Park – located in the centre of Tczew, between Kołłątaja, Bałdowska, and Sienkiewicza streets occupies the area of 37 acres (15 ha). The lower part of the park arose in the second part of the 19th century, the upper part in the 20th century. In the park you can see an amphitheatre where, during the summer, many concerts take place. By the entrance to the park a monument of Tczew's scouts killed during the World War II is situated.
English Language CampEdit
For the last 19 years, the town has been the host location for the annual English Language Camp. The camp, often nicknamed "Camp Tczew" is hosted by the American-Polish Partnership for Tczew and offers students a three-week program where they have the opportunity to interact with Americans and improve their English.
- Alexander von Suchten (1520–1575) a German alchemist, doctor and writer
- Johann Reinhold Forster (1729–1798) a Reformed (Calvinist) pastor and naturalist, contributed to early ornithology
- Bernhard Kamnitzer (1890–1959) a German jurist and Senator of the Free City of Danzig
- Alfred Eisenstaedt (1898–1995) a German-born American photographer and photojournalist
- Roman Korynt (1929–2018) a Polish footballer, played 327 games for Lechia Gdańsk and 32 for Poland
- Kazimierz Zimny (born 1935) a Polish 5000 metre athlete, competed at the 1960 Summer Olympics
- Teresa Budzisz-Krzyżanowska (born 1942) a Polish stage and film actress
- Grzegorz Kołodko (born 1949), professor of economics, former deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance
- Barbara Wenta-Wojciechowska (born 1953) a Polish rower, competed in the 1976 Summer Olympics
- Janusz Akermann (born 1957) a Polish painter and Professor of Fine Arts in Gdańsk
- Grzegorz Ciechowski (1957–2001), singer, composer, record producer, leader of Republika
- Czesława Kościańska (born 1959) a Polish rower, competed in the 1980 Summer Olympics
- Krzysztof Kosedowski (born 1960) a retired boxer from Poland, bronze medallist at the 1980 Summer Olympics
- Wojciech Wentura (born 1972) a musician, actor, composer, pianist and Polish Operatic tenor
- Jarosław Kukowski (born 1972) a Polish contemporary painter dealing with moral and social issues
- Kornelia Stawicka (born 1973) a Polish swimmer, competed in the 1988 Summer Olympics
- Sebastian Wenta (born 1975) is a former shot putter, strongman and Highland Games competitor
- Zbigniew Grzybowski (born 1976) a former Polish footballer, over 350 pro games
- Zbigniew Robert Promiński (born 1978), black/death metal drummer
- Michał Zblewski (born 1980), Polish bobsledder competed in the 2010 Winter Olympics
- Piotr Trochowski (born 1984), footballer, 280 pro games and 35 for Germany
- Bartosz Piasecki (born 1986) a Norwegian fencer
- Paweł Wszołek (born 1992), footballer, over 200 pro games and 11 for Poland.
Tczew is twinned with:
- Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, 6th edition, Vol. 5, Leipzig and Vienna 1903, p. 43.
- Norman Davies. God's Playground: A History of Poland in Two Volumes. Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-19-925339-0.
- Witold Mikołajczyk, Wojny polsko-krzyżackie, Wydawnictwo Replika Zakrzewo, 2009, p. 26.
- Józef Wiesław Dyskant, Zatoka Świeża 1463, p. 115–116.
- Historia Pomorza, Tom 3, Część 2, Gerard Labuda Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 1996, page 144.
- Johann Friedrich Goldbeck: Vollständige Topographie des Königreichs Preußen. Teil II, Marienwerder 1789, p. 52, no 2.
- Michael Rademacher: Deutsche Verwaltungsgeschichte Westpreußen, Kreis Dirschau Archived 2010-05-16 at the Wayback Machine (2006) (in German).
- August Eduard Preuß: Preußische Landes- und Volkskunde. Königsberg 1835, pp. 390–391, no. 24.
- "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District" (PDF). © 2009 Twins2010.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 28, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-28. External link in
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Dirschau.|