Lancaster (//, /-/) is a city[a] in Lancashire, England and the main cultural hub, economic and commercial centre of City of Lancaster district. The city is on the River Lune and directly inland from Morecambe Bay. Lancaster was the county town of Lancashire until the county council's administrative headquarters moved to Preston in 1974. The city's long history is marked by Lancaster Roman Fort, Lancaster Castle, Lancaster Priory Church, Lancaster Cathedral and the Ashton Memorial. It is the seat of Lancaster University and has a campus of the University of Cumbria. It had a population of 52,234 in the 2011 census compared to the district which had a population of 138,375. The city is an economic hub for the surrounding districts of Ribble Valley and Wyre as well as the Westmorland and Furness unitary area of Cumbria.
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Postcode district||LA1, LA2|
The Port of Lancaster and the 18th-century Lancaster slave trade played a major role in the city's growth, but for many years the outport of Glasson Dock, downstream, has been the main shipping facility.
Lancaster was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086, as Loncastre, where "Lon" refers to the River Lune and "castre" from the Old English cæster and Latin castrum for "fort" to the Roman fort that stood on the site.
Roman and Saxon eras edit
A Roman fort was built by the end of the 1st century CE on the hill where Lancaster Castle now stands, possibly as early as the 60s, based on Roman coin evidence. Coin evidence also suggests that the fort was not continuously inhabited in its early years. It was rebuilt in stone about 102. The fort name is known only in a shortened form; the only evidence is a Roman milestone found 4 miles outside Lancaster, with an inscription ending L MP IIII, meaning "from L – 4 miles, and that its name began with an L. The fort was perhaps named Lunium.[unreliable source]
Roman baths were found in 1812 and can be seen near the junction of Bridge Lane and Church Street. There was presumably a bath-house with the 4th-century fort. The Roman baths incorporated a reused inscription of the Gallic Emperor Postumus, dating from 262 to 266. The 3rd-century fort was garrisoned by the ala Sebosiana and numerus Barcariorum Tigrisiensium.
The ancient Wery Wall was identified in 1950 as the north wall of the 4th-century fort, which was a drastic remodelling of the 3rd-century one, while retaining the same orientation. The later fort is the only example in north-west Britain of a 4th-century type, with massive curtain-wall and projecting bastions typical of the Saxon Shore or Wales. Extension of the technique as far north as Lancaster shows that the coast between Cumberland and North Wales was not left defenceless after the west-coast attacks and the disaster in the Carausian Revolt of 296, which followed from those under Albinus in 197.
The fort at its largest extent covered 9–10 acres (4–4 ha). Evidence suggests that it stayed in use until the end of Roman occupation of Britain. Church Street and some of St Leonard's Gate probably mark the initial course of the Roman road up the valley to the fort at Over Burrow.
Little is known of Lancaster from the end of Roman rule to the early 5th century and the Norman Conquest of the late 11th century. Despite a lack of documentation for the period, it is thought that Lancaster remained inhabited. It lay on the fringes of the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria and over time may have passed from one to the other. Archaeological evidence suggests there was a monastery on or near the site of today's Lancaster Priory by the 700s or 800s. The Anglo-Saxon runic "Cynibald's cross" found at the Priory in 1807 is thought to date from the late 9th century. Lancaster was probably one of several abbeys founded under Wilfrid.
After the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Lancaster fell under the control of William I, as stated in the Domesday Book of 1086, which has the earliest known mention of Lancaster as such in any document. The founding Priory charter dated 1094 is the first known document specific to Lancaster. By this time William had passed Lancaster and its surroundings to Roger de Poitou. The document also suggests the monastery was refounded as a parish church some time before 1066.
Lancaster Castle, partly built in the 13th century and enlarged by Elizabeth I, stands on the site of a Roman garrison. During The Great Raid of 1322, damage was done to the castle by Robert the Bruce, though it resisted the attack and was restored and strengthened by John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, who added much of the Gateway Tower and a turret on the keep or Lungess Tower, which has been named "John o' Gaunt's Chair". In 1322 the Scots burnt the town. It was rebuilt but removed from its position on the hill to the slope and foot. Again in 1389, after the Battle of Otterburn, it was destroyed by the Scots. Lancaster Castle is known as the site of the Pendle witch trials in 1612. It was said that the court based in the castle (the Lancaster Assizes) sentenced more people to be hanged than any other in the country outside London, earning Lancaster the nickname, "the Hanging Town". It also figured prominently in the suppression of Catholicism during the Reformation – at least eleven Catholic priests were executed and a memorial to them as the Lancaster Martyrs stands by the city centre.
The traditional emblem of the House of Lancaster is the Red Rose of Lancaster, similar to that of the House of York with a white rose. The names derive from emblems of the Royal Duchies of Lancaster and York in the 15th century. This erupted into a civil war over rival claims to the throne during the Wars of the Roses.
More recently the term "Wars of the Roses" has been applied to rivalry in sports between teams from Lancashire and Yorkshire. It is also applied to the annual Roses Tournament between Lancaster and York universities.
18th-century port edit
Many of the city's central buildings, including those lining St George's Quay date from the 18th century, as the Port of Lancaster became one of the UK's busiest and the Lancaster slave trade was the fourth most important in the UK slave trade. Among prominent Lancaster slavers were Dodshon Foster, Thomas Hinde and his namesake son. The last slave ship to be constructed in Lancaster was the 267-tonne Trafalgar, built in 1806 at Brockbank’s shipyard for Samuel Hinderland and William Hinde. Lancaster's role as a major port diminished as the river began to silt up and Morecambe, Glasson Dock and Sunderland Point became preeminent for brief periods. Heysham Port has now eclipsed all others on the Lune.
Recent history edit
Since the industrial revolution, the city was home to many industries from the 18th century to the 20th century. The main industries in the city at the time were candle making, sailcloth making, rope making and shipbuilding. Since the decline of the industrial revolution, Lancaster suffered from economic decline and high unemployment rates like many parts of the north of England. The city underwent regeneration and is now a tourist destination.
Lancaster is mainly a service-oriented city. Products include animal feed, textiles, chemicals, livestock, paper, synthetic fibre, farm machinery, HGV trailers and mineral fibres. In recent years, a high-tech sector has emerged from Information Technology and Communications firms investing in the city.
The former City and Municipal Borough of Lancaster and the Municipal Borough of Morecambe and Heysham, along with other authorities, merged in 1974 to form the City of Lancaster district within the shire county of Lancashire. This was given city status and Lancaster City Council became the governing body for the district. Lancaster is an unparished area and has no separate council. It is divided into wards (for elections to Lancaster City Council), such as Bulk, Castle, Ellel, John O'Gaunt (named after John of Gaunt, the 1st Duke of Lancaster), Scotforth East, Scotforth West, Skerton East, Skerton West, and University and Scotforth Rural.
For elections to Lancashire County Council, Lancaster is split into the electoral divisions of Lancaster Central (the city centre and an area extending south including Cockerham and Glasson Dock), Lancaster East (south of the River Lune and east of the Lancaster Canal), Lancaster South East (bordered by the River Conder with the University at its southern point), and Skerton (north of the River Lune).
Political representation edit
Most of the city lies in the Lancaster and Fleetwood constituency for elections of Members of Parliament to the House of Commons, represented since 2015 by Cat Smith of the Labour Party. The Skerton part of the city lies in the Morecambe and Lunesdale constituency, represented since 2010 by David Morris of the Conservative Party.
In the late 1990s and early first decade of the 21st century, the city council was under the control of the Morecambe Bay Independents (MBIs), who campaigned for an independent Morecambe council. In 2003, their influence waned and Labour became the largest party on the council. They formed a coalition with the Liberal Democrats and Greens. At the May 2007 local elections, Labour lost ground to the Greens in Lancaster and the MBIs in Morecambe, resulting in no overall control, with all parties represented in a PR administration. The 2011 elections saw Labour emerge as the largest party. They reached a joint administrative arrangement with the Greens.
The 2019 Lancaster City Council election results put no party in overall control. The council was run by a coalition of Labour, Green, Eco-Socialist Independent and Liberal Democrat councillors, supported by the Independent Group, with Conservatives and MBIs in opposition. The cabinet consisted of 4 Labour, 4 Green, 1 Eco-Socialist, 1 Independent Group. At 10 seats, Lancaster had one of the country's largest Green Party representations. The 2023 Lancaster City Council election resulted in a council with Labour as the largest party but not in overall control, with 24 of the 61 seats.
After the 2021 Lancashire County Council election, Lancaster East, Lancaster South East and Skerton were represented on the county council by Labour, while Lancaster Central was represented by the Green Party.
Lancaster is Lancashire's northernmost city, three miles (4.8 km) inland from Morecambe Bay. It is on the River Lune (from which comes its name), and the Lancaster Canal. It becomes hillier from the Lune Valley eastwards, with Williamson Hill in the north-west a notable height at 109 m (358 ft) and recognised as a TuMP: a hill with "thirty and upwards metres prominence". The central area of the city can be roughly defined by the railway to the west, the canal to the south and east, and the river to the north.
Built-up area edit
Lancaster, Morecambe and Heysham have been identified by the Office for National Statistics as forming the Lancaster/Morecambe Built-up area, with a population of 97,150 in the 2011 census. Within this, ONS identifies a Lancaster Built-up area sub division with a 2011 population of 48,085.
Green belt edit
There is a small portion of green belt on the northern fringe of Lancaster, covering the area into Carnforth and helping to prevent further urban expansion towards nearby Morecambe, Hest Bank, Slyne and Bolton-le-Sands.
The A6 road, one of the main historic north–south roads in England, passes through the city centre, with northbound and southbound traffic on separate streets, and crosses the Lune at Greyhound Bridge northbound and Skerton Bridge southbound (these are the two furthest-downstream road crossing points of the Lune). The road leads south to Preston, Chorley and Manchester and north to Carnforth, Kendal, Penrith and Carlisle.
Lancaster's main bus operator, Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire, operates network of services from Lancaster bus station throughout the Lancaster District and services to more distant places such as Kendal, Keswick, Kirkby Lonsdale, Preston and Blackpool. There are buses to Lancaster University, the No. 1 and No. 1A services run every 10–15 minutes using double-deckers, with less frequent services 4, 41 and 42. Other routes are covered by Kirkby Lonsdale Coach Hire, including the 582 to Kirkby Lonsdale, Settle and Skipton and the 89 to Knott End-on-Sea.
Lancaster is served by the West Coast Main Line from Lancaster railway station. The station was formerly named Lancaster Castle, to differentiate it from Lancaster Green Ayre on the Leeds–Morecambe line, which closed in 1966. There are train services to and from London, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds and Barrow-in-Furness, and a local service to Morecambe.
The city council aims to open a railway station serving the university and south Lancaster, although this is not feasible in the short or medium term with current levels of demand. The Caton–Morecambe section of the former North Western railway is now used as a cycle path.
Water and air edit
The Port of Lancaster gained importance in the 18th century. In 1750 the Lancaster Port Commission was established to develop the port. However, in more recent years, shipping visits Glasson Dock, where the Port commission is now based. Heysham Port, about 5 miles (8.0 km) west of Lancaster, is used by ferry services to the Isle of Man, Northern Ireland and Ireland.
In 2005, Lancaster was one of six English towns chosen to be cycling demonstration towns to promote cycling as a means of transport. Lancaster has cycle routes to many nearby places, many are off road using disused railways or canal towpaths.
- Ashton Memorial
- The Dukes
- Custom House (Maritime Museum)
- Grand Theatre
- The Gregson Centre
- Greaves Park
- Judges' Lodgings
- Lancaster Castle
- Lancaster Cathedral
- Lancaster City Museum
- Lancaster Priory
- Lancaster Royal Grammar School
- Lancaster Town Hall
- Lune Millennium Bridge
- Queen Victoria Memorial
- The Ruskin - Library, Museum and Research Centre at Lancaster University
- The Storey
- Westfield War Memorial Village
- Williamson Park
The city's main war memorial is in a garden adjacent to the Town Hall, near Dalton Square, and commemorates those who died in the first and second world wars, Korea and the Falklands; it is grade II listed.
Listed buildings edit
There are more than 330 listed buildings in Lancaster (excluding those in nearby civil parishes such as the Lune Aqueduct in Halton-with-Aughton parish). They include four at grade I and 22 at grade II*, the others being at grade II. Those at grade I, the highest level, are the Ashton Memorial, the Judges' Lodgings, Lancaster Castle and Lancaster Priory.
Lancaster has a range of historic buildings and venues, having retained many fine examples of Georgian architecture. Lancaster Castle, the Priory Church of St. Mary and the Edwardian Ashton Memorial are among the sites of historical importance. Its many museums include Lancaster City Museum, Maritime Museum, the Cottage Museum, and the Judges' Lodgings Museum.
Lancaster Friends Meeting House, dating from 1708, is the longest continual Quaker meeting site in the world, with an original building built in 1677. George Fox, founder of Quakerism, was near the site several times in the 1660s and spent two years imprisoned in Lancaster Castle. The meeting house holds regular Quaker meetings and a wide range of cultural activities including adult learning, meditation, art classes, music and political meetings. Lancaster Grand Theatre is another historic cultural venue, under its many names. It has played a major part in social and cultural life since it was built in 1782.
In 2009 several major arts bodies based in the district formed a consortium called Lancaster Arts Partners (LAP) to champion strategic development of arts activities in Lancaster District. Notable partners include Ludus Dance, More Music, the Dukes among others. LAP curates and promotes "Lancaster First Fridays", a monthly multi-disciplinary mini-festival under its brand "Lancaster Arts City".
Lancaster University has a public arts organisation, part of LAP, known as Lancaster Arts at Lancaster University. Its programmes include Lancaster's Nuffield Theatre, one of the largest professional studio theatres in Europe, the Peter Scott Gallery, with the most significant collection of Royal Lancastrian ceramics in Britain, and the Lancaster International Concerts Series, drawing nationally and internationally renowned classical and world-music artists.
The gallery in the Storey Creative Industries Centre is now programmed and run by Lancaster City Council. In 2013 the previous incumbent organisation "The Storey Gallery" moved out of the building and reformed as "Storey G2". The Storey Creative Industries Centre is also home to Lancaster's Litfest, which runs an annual literature festival. In the summer months Williamson Park hosts outdoor performances, including a Dukes "Play in the Park", which over the past 26 years has attracted 460,000 people, as the UK's biggest outdoor walkabout theatre event.
Lancaster is known as the Northern City of Ale, with almost 30 pubs serving cask ale. The pubs include the White Cross, Three Mariners, Borough and Water Witch. There are two cask ale breweries: Lancaster Brewery and a microbrewery run by the Borough. There is a local CAMRA (Campaign for Real Ale) branch at Lunesdale.
The Lancaster Grand Theatre and the Dukes are notable venues for live performance, as are the Yorkshire House (currently closed), Jailors Barrel, The John O' Gaunt and The Bobbin. Throughout the year events are held in and around the city, such as the Lancaster Music Festival, Lancaster Jazz Festival, and Chinese New Year celebrations in the city centre.
Lancaster still has two city-centre cinemas; Vue and the Dukes playhouse. The 1930s art deco Regal Cinema closed in 2006. The Gregson Centre is also known for small film screenings and cultural events.
Art and literature edit
John Henderson (c.1770-1853) painted many views of the town. One of these together with a poetical illustration (which relates to the treacherous sands of Morecambe Bay) by Letitia Elizabeth Landon was published in Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book, 1833
This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2016)
The city's semi-professional Haffner Orchestra has a reputation for classical music. It performs in the Ashton Hall in the city centre and at Lancaster University.
During parades and festivals it is common to see two other long standing musical groups perform, Lancaster City Brass, which is the oldest remaining brass band in the city celebrating its 75th anniversary in 2021 and Batala who recently completed 15 years of Samba Regge drumming.
Lancaster has been producing successful bands and musicians since the 1990s, notably the drummer Keith Baxter of 3 Colours Red and folk-metal band Skyclad, who also featured Lancaster guitarist Dave Pugh, and the thrash metal band D.A.M., who were all from Lancaster, recording two albums for the Noise International label, with Dave Pugh appearing on the second.
The all-girl punk-rock band Angelica used the Lancaster Musicians' Co-operative, the main rehearsal and recording studio in the area.
The city has also produced many other musicians, including singer and songwriter John Waite, who first became known as lead singer of The Babys and had a solo #1 hit in the US, "Missing You". As part of the band Bad English, John Waite also had a #1 hit in the Billboard top hundred in the 1970s called "When I See You Smile". Additionally, Paul James, better known as The Rev, former guitarist of English punk band Towers of London who is now in the band Day 21 and plays guitar live on tour for The Prodigy; Chris Acland, drummer of the early 1990s shoegaze band Lush; Tom English, drummer of North East indie band Maxïmo Park and Steve Kemp, drummer of the indie band Hard-Fi.
Lancaster continues to produce bands and musicians such as singer-songwriter Jay Diggins, and acts like The Lovely Eggs, receiving considerable national radio play and press coverage in recent years. More recently, Lancaster locals Massive Wagons signed to Nottingham-based independent label Earache Records. The city is also the founding home of the dance-music sound systems Rhythm Method and ACME Bass Company. Pioneers in the field of the free party, these two systems and others forged strong representations of the genre in the North West of England in the 1990s.
Since 2006, Lancaster Library has hosted regular music events under the Get it Loud in Libraries initiative. Musicians such as Clean Bandit, The Long Blondes, Ellie Goulding, Marina And The Diamonds, Jessie J, Wolf Alice, The Wombats, The Thrills, Kate Nash, Adele and Bat for Lashes have taken part. Get It Loud in Libraries has gained national exposure, featuring on The One Show on BBC1 and having gigs reviewed in Observer Music Monthly, NME and Art Rocker. Launched in 2005. by Stewart Parsons BEM, who worked as chief music librarian in Lancaster Library from 1999- 2013, the programme still hosts the best new and emerging artists inc Erland Cooper and ENNY at Lancaster, funded by Arts Council England as a National Portfolio Organisation.
Notable popular music venues include The Dukes, The Grand Theatre, The Gregson Centre, The Bobbin, The Pub and The Yorkshire House, which since 2006 has hosted such acts as John Renbourn, Polly Paulusma, Marissa Nadler, Baby Dee, Diane Cluck, Alasdair Roberts, Jesca Hoop, Lach, Jack Lewis, Tiny Ruins and 2008 Mercury Prize nominees Rachel Unthank and the Winterset. Other venues include the Dalton Rooms, the Park Hotel and The Hall, China Street. These host Lancaster's diverse music culture, such as the Lancaster Speakeasy or Stylus.
The Lancaster Jazz and Lancaster Music Festivals are respectively held every September and October, at venues throughout the city. In 2013 the headline jazz act was The Neil Cowley Trio, performing at The Dukes, whilst one of the Lancaster Music Festival headline acts was Jay Diggins at the Dalton Rooms.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2016)
Heart North Lancashire & Cumbria (formerly "The Bay") has been a commercial radio station for north Lancashire and south Cumbria. Its studios are based at St George's Quay in the city and it broadcasts on three frequencies: 96.9 FM (Lancaster), 102.3 FM (Windermere) and 103.2 FM (Kendal). It is now part of the Manchester-based Heart North West.
Beyond Radio is a voluntary, non-profit community radio station for Lancaster and Morecambe and broadcasts on 103.5FM and online. Operated by Proper Community Media (Lancaster) Ltd, the station and broadcasts 24 hours a day from The Old Bowling Pavilion in Palatine Avenue Park, Bowerham. It took over from Diversity FM, a community radio station run by Lancaster and District YMCA, which had closed in April 2012.
Lancaster University has its own student radio station, Bailrigg FM, broadcasting on 95.3 FM, and an online student-run television station called LA1TV (formerly LUTube.tv) and a student-run newspaper named SCAN.
Commercially available newspapers include the tabloids The Lancaster Guardian and The Visitor (mainly targeted at residents of Morecambe). Both are based on the White Lund Industrial Estate in Morecambe. Virtual Lancaster, founded in 1999, is a non-commercial volunteer-led resource website also featuring local news, events and visitor information.
Twinned cities edit
Higher education edit
At Bailrigg south of the city is Lancaster University, a research university founded in 1964 as one of the seven "plate glass universities". It has an annual income of about £325 million (2020/21), 3,000 staff and 16,403 Lancaster-based students in 2021/22. Its business school is one of two in the country to gain a six-star research rating. Its physics department rated #1 in the United Kingdom in 2008. InfoLab21 at the university is a Centre of Excellence for Information and Communication Technologies. LEC (Lancaster Environment Centre) has over 200 staff and shares premises with the government-funded CEH. In 2023 it was 10th, 12th and 14th out of 120 UK universities in "the three main UK league tables". In 2017 it was rated 21st nationally for research in The Times Higher league table. For teaching, it gained the highest Gold ranking for quality in the 2017 government TEF, and in 2018 was ranked 9th for its teaching by The Independent and 9th by The Guardian. The Times Higher placed it 137th worldwide for research and 58th worldwide for arts and humanities. Lancaster University was named International University of the Year by The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide in 2020. It has campuses in Malaysia, China and Ghana and plans one in Leipzig, Germany.
Lancaster is also home to a campus of the University of Cumbria – more centrally located on the site of the former St Martin's College – which was inaugurated in 2007. It provides undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the arts, social sciences, business, teacher training, health care and nursing. St Martin's college was founded in 1962 as Lancaster College of Education, and took its name from Martin of Tours, a Roman soldier who converted to Christianity, because its premises were a former barracks of the King's Own Royal Regiment. The college merged with Cumbria Institute of the Arts, in Carlisle, and parts of the University of Central Lancashire, having previously absorbed Charlotte Mason College in Ambleside, to become the University of Cumbria.
Further education edit
Secondary schools edit
- Lancaster Royal Grammar School and Lancaster Girls' Grammar School are selective-entry grammar schools. In 2016 both were rated by the Sunday Timesin the top 50 UK schools based on student achievement.
- Ripley St Thomas Church of England Academy
- Our Lady's Catholic College
- Central Lancaster High School
- Skerton Community High School (now closed
- Jamea Al Kauthar Islamic College, in the former Royal Albert Hospital building on Ashton Road, is an independent girls' school, providing education in a Muslim tradition.
Primary schools edit
- Lancaster Steiner School
- Scotforth St Pauls CofE Primary School
- Moorside Primary School
- St Bernadette's Catholic Primary School
- Bowerham Primary School
- The Cathedral Catholic Primary School
- Dallas Road Community Primary School
- Willow Lane (formerly Marsh) Community Primary School
- Castle View (formerly Ridge) Community Primary School
- Lancaster Christ Church CofE Primary School
- St Joseph's Catholic Primary School
- Skerton St Lukes CofE Primary School
- Lancaster Ryelands Primary School
Special Educational Needs (SEN) Schools
- The Loyne
- Morecambe Road School
Religious sites edit
Lancaster is home to many churches and other places of worship. Notable churches in the city include the grade II*-listed Lancaster Cathedral (Catholic), which is located on the brow of the hill beside the canal to the east of the city centre. Its spire can be seen on the cityscape. It was built in 1798 originally as a mission church for the city before it was rebuilt between 1857 and 1859 on a different site with the spire and tower. It is an active place of worship.
The Friends Meeting House, near the station, dates from 1708 and is grade II* listed.
Other notable churches in the city include:
- Christ Church - (Grade II listed parish church)
- Ripley School Chapel - (Part of the Church of England school)
- St Thomas' Church - (Grade II listed and active parish church)
- St Paul's Church, Scotforth - (Grade II listed and parish church)
- St Luke's Church, Skerton - (Grade II listed and parish church)
- Lancaster Cemetery Chapels - (Disused?)
- St John the Evangelist's Church - (Closed 1981 and is now in the Churches Conservation Trust
- St Michael's Chapel, Lancaster Moor Hospital - (Converted into flats)
The city has places of worship for Catholic, Baptist, Jehovah's Witness, Latter Day Saints and Methodists as well as the Salvation Army and community churches. Lancaster is also home to several mosques. Notable mosques are: Moorlands Islamic Centre, Lancaster Islamic Society, Raza Mosque Lancaster and prayer rooms in the University of Cumbria in Lancaster and University of Lancaster.
Lancaster City, plays in the Northern Premier League Premier Division having won promotion as champions of Division One North in 2016–2017. The club plays home matches at the Giant Axe, which has a capacity of 3,500 (513 seated) and was formed in 1911 as Lancaster Town F.C. The club has been seven-times Lancashire FA Challenge cup winners and in 2010-11 won the Northern Premier League President's cup for a second time.
Lancaster John O' Gaunt Rowing Club is the fifth-oldest surviving rowing club in the UK, outside the universities. It competes nationally at regattas and heads races run by British Rowing. The clubhouse stands next to the weir at Skerton.
The city holds the Lancaster International Youth Games, a multi-sport 'Olympic' style event featuring competitors from Lancaster's twin towns: Rendsburg (Germany), Perpignan (France), Viana do Castelo (Portugal), Aalborg (Denmark), Almere (Netherlands), Lublin (Poland) and Växjö (Sweden).
Lancaster Cricket Club is sited near the River Lune. It has two senior teams that participate in the Palace Shield. Rugby union is a popular sport in the area, with the local clubs being Vale of Lune RUFC and Lancaster CATS.
Lancaster is home to the Golf Centre, Lansil Golf Club, Forest Hills and Lancaster Golf Club. Lancaster Amateur Swimming and Waterpolo Club competes in the north-west. It trains at Salt Ayre and at Lancaster University Sports Centre. Lancaster is home to a senior UK team. Water polo is also popular in the area.
The local athletics track near the Salt Ayre Sports Centre is home to Lancaster AC and Morecambe AC. It fields athletes across disciplines including track and field, cross country, road and fell running. It competes in several local and national leagues including the Young Athletics League, the Northern Athletics League and the local Mid Lancs League (Cross-Country in Winter, and Track and Field in Summer).
Notable people edit
Arts and entertainment edit
- Joe Abercrombie (born 1974) – fantasy writer and film editor, was born in Lancaster and attended LRGS.
- Cherith Baldry (born 1947) – children's and fantasy writer, was born in Lancaster.
- Laurence Binyon (1869–1943) – poet and dramatist, was born in Lancaster.
- Hubert Henry Norsworthy (1885–1961) – organist and composer, died in Lancaster.
- Mabel Pakenham-Walsh (1937–2013) – artist, was born in Lancaster.
- Jon Richardson (born 1982) – comedian, grew up in Lancaster and attended LRGS.
- Thomas Thompson (1880–1951) – writer and broadcaster.
- John Waite (born 1952) – rock musician, was born in Lancaster.
- Dustin Demri-Burns (born 1978) – actor, writer and comedian.
- Keith Wilkinson – television news reporter, was born in Lancaster
- Henry Cort (c. 1741–1800) – English ironmaster and inventor, was probably born in Lancaster.
- James Crosby (born 1956) – chief executive of HBOS until 2006, attended Lancaster Royal Grammar School.
- Thomas Edmondson (1792–1851) – businessman and inventor of the Edmondson railway ticket, was born in Lancaster.
- Robert Gillow (1704–1772) was the founder of Gillows of Lancaster, an English furniture manufacturer.
- Sir Ronald Halstead (1927–2021) – chair and Chief Executive of the Beecham Group in 1984–1985 and Deputy Chair of British Steel in 1986–1994 was born in Lancaster and attended Lancaster Royal Grammar School.
- James Williamson (1842–1930) – businessman and politician who created Williamson Park and Ashton memorial, was born in Lancaster and attended Lancaster Royal Grammar School.
- Lauren Jeska (born 1974) – an athlete who was convicted of the attempted murder of an official, Ralph Knibbs.
- Buck Ruxton (1899–1936) – marital murderer, resided and practised medicine at 2 Dalton Square.
Politics and journalism edit
- Henry D. Gilpin (1801–1860) – Attorney General of the United States, was born in Lancaster.
- Erik de Mauny (1920–1997) – foreign correspondent, died in Lancaster.
- Sir Lancelot Sanderson (1863–1944) – Conservative MP and judge, died in Lancaster.
Science and humanities edit
- J. L. Austin (1911–1960) – philosopher and developer of the theory of speech acts, was born in Lancaster.
- John Ambrose Fleming (1849–1945) – electrical engineer and physicist, was born in Lancaster.
- Edward Frankland (1825–1899) – chemist who originated the concept of valence, was born near Lancaster and educated at LRGS.
- Jaroslav Krejčí (1916–2014) – Czech-British sociologist, was a professor at the University of Lancaster and died in Lancaster.
- Geoffrey Leech (1936–2014) – linguistics researcher, was a professor at the University of Lancaster and died in Lancaster.
- Richard Owen (1804–1892) – biologist who coined the term "dinosaur", lived in Brock Street.
- William Turner (1832–1916) – anatomist and academic, was born in Lancaster.
- Paul Wellings (born 1953) – ecologist, served as a professor and Vice-Chancellor of Lancaster University.
- Emily Williamson (1855–1936), English philanthropist and co-founder of the RSPB, was born in Lancaster.
- Gavin Wood (born 1980) – co-founded and headed Ethereum.
- Michael Allen (1933–1995) – international cricketer, died in Lancaster.
- Arthur Bate (1908–1993) – professional footballer, died in Lancaster.
- James Beattie (born 1978) – professional footballer, was born in Lancaster.
- Harold Douthwaite (1900–1972) – first-class cricketer, was born and died in Lancaster.
- Scott Durant (born 1988) – Olympic gold medal-winning rower, was a pupil at Lancaster Royal Grammar School.
- Trevor Glover (born 1951) – first-class cricketer and rugby union player, was born in Lancaster.
- William Gregson (1877–1963) – first-class cricketer, died in Lancaster.
- Sarah Illingworth (born 1963) – international cricketer (New Zealand), was born in Lancaster.
- Edward Jackson (1849–1926) – first-class cricketer, was born in Lancaster.
- John Jackson (1841–1906) – first-class cricketer, was born in Lancaster.
- Scott McTominay (born 1996) – professional footballer currently with Manchester United, was born in Lancaster.
- John Pinch (1870–1946) – international rugby union player, was born and died in Lancaster.
- Jason Queally (born 1970) – Olympic gold medal-winning cyclist, was a pupil at Lancaster Royal Grammar School.
- Matt Rogerson (born 1993) – professional Rugby Union player currently with London Irish, was born in Lancaster.
- Fred Shinton (1883–1923) – professional footballer, died in Lancaster.
- Alan Warriner-Little (born 1962) – champion darts player, was born in Lancaster.
See also edit
- St John the Evangelist's Church, Lancaster
- St Thomas' Church, Lancaster
- Christ Church, Lancaster
- Duke of Lancaster
- Duchy of Lancaster
- Lancaster power stations
- The area that is the subject of this article does not have legal city status of itself, but is widely regarded as a city since it is the main and nominate settlement in the City of Lancaster local government area
- Lancaster City has nine wards: Bulk, Duke, Castle, Skerton East and West, Scotforth East and West, University and John O'Gaunt.  Archived 14 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- "Definition of Lancaster | Dictionary.com". www.dictionary.com. Archived from the original on 24 November 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
- Roach, Peter; Hartman, James; Setter, Jane; Jones, Daniel, eds. (2006). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (17th ed.). Cambridge: CUP. ISBN 978-0-521-68086-8.
- Ayto, John; Crofton, Ian, eds. (2005). "Lancaster". Brewer's Britain and Ireland. London: Weidenfeld Nicolson. p. 641. ISBN 978-0-304-35385-9.
- UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Lancaster Local Authority (E07000121)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics.
- Evans, Jacqueline. "Lancashire's Population, 2011". Lancashire County Council. Lancashire County Council. Archived from the original on 30 April 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- Eilert Ekwall, 'The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Placenames' (1960), 4th edition, p. 285.
- "Lancaster". opendomesday.org. Domesday Book. Retrieved 28 July 2023.
- Shotter, p. 5.
- I. A. Richmond: Excavations on the Site of the Roman Fort at Lancaster (1950)  Archived 6 June 2021 at the Wayback Machine
- Shotter, p. 9.
- Shotter, p. 10.
- Rivet, A. L. F.; Smith, Colin (1979). The Place-Names of Roman Britain. London: B. T. Batsford. p. 382. ISBN 0713420774.
- "Map, etc. Retrieved 11 July 2020". Archived from the original on 13 July 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
- Birley, CW- XXXIX, p. 222.[full citation needed]
- Shotter, p. 14.
- Shotter, p. 27.
- Ratledge, David. "The Roman Road from Lancaster to Burrow (in Lonsdale)". Roman Roads Research Association. Archived from the original on 13 January 2021. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
- White 2001, p. 33
- White, p. 34.
- White, p. 57.
- White, p. 35.
- public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lancaster". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 148–149. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the
- "Lancaster Castle". www.capitalpunishmentuk.org. Archived from the original on 8 April 2018. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
- Students celebrate..."STUDENTS CELEBRATE AS LANCASTER TRIUMPHS IN WAR OF THE ROSES | the National Student". Archived from the original on 10 August 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
- "Lancaster Timeline". www.timetravel-britain.com. Archived from the original on 12 July 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
- "Former Mayors of the City of Lancaster". Archived from the original on 19 October 2014.
- Andrew White (2003). Lancaster: A History. Phillimore & Co. p. 63.
- Schofield, M. M. (1976). "The Slave Trade from Lancashire and Cheshire ports outside Liverpool c 1750-1790" (PDF). Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire. 126: 30–72. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
- "The Last Slave Ship Built in Lancaster". Centre for the Study of the Legacies of British Slavery. 15 August 2022. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- "Army: King's Own Royal Regiment, Lancaster – Regimental Depot". BBC. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
- "Records of the 1st/5th Battalion, King's Own Royal Lancaster Regiment". King's Own Royal Regiment Museum, Lancaster. Archived from the original on 2 January 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
- Lambert, Tim (2 May 2021). "A History of Lancaster". Local Histories. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- "Lancashire and the Industrial Revolution". History Learning Site. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- "Cities win Fairtrade recognition". BBC News. 5 March 2004. Archived from the original on 21 February 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- "Reebok in plan to quit town". The Bolton News. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
- "Her Majesty the Queen Duke of Lancaster visits Lancaster Castle". Lancaster Castle. 29 May 2015. Archived from the original on 11 July 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
- "The English Non-metropolitan Districts (Definition) Order 1972". UK Statutory Instruments1972 No. 2039. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
- "About the council". www.lancaster.gov.uk. Lancaster City Council. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
- "2023 local election results". Lancaster City Council. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
- "Lancashire County Council: Elections ". elections.lancashire.gov.uk. Lancashire County Council. Retrieved 23 July 2023. (Map)
- "Cat Smith: Parliamentary career". UK Parliament. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
- "David Morris: Parliamentary career". UK Parliament. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
- "Results and Explanations: United Kingdom". European Parliament Election 1999. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
- "Williamson Park". www.hill-bagging.co.uk. Hill Bagging. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
- "Lancaster (map)" (PDF). Lancaster Visitor Information Centre. Retrieved 28 July 2023.
- UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Lancaster/Morecambe Built-up area (E34004686)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Lancaster Built-up area sub division (E35001347)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 28 July 2023.
- "Environmental studies". Lancaster City Council. Archived from the original on 28 February 2018. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
- "Heysham link road opens". ITV News. Archived from the original on 21 July 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
- "Lancaster Network Change Jan 2019". Archived from the original on 19 January 2019. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
- "Bailrigg Garden Village and South Lancaster Growth" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 May 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
- "Lancaster Port Commission". www.lancasterport.org. Lancaster Port Commission. Archived from the original on 2 March 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
- "My Word Press Website – Just another WordPress site". Archived from the original on 28 October 2007.
- "Lancaster and Morecambe Bay Cycling Map" (PDF). Visit Lancaster. Lancaster City Council. Retrieved 28 July 2023.
- Historic England. "War Memorial (1211793)". National Heritage List for England.
- "Lancaster". War Memorials Register. Imperial War Museums. Retrieved 28 July 2023.
- Historic England. "Ashton Memorial (1288429)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 23 July 2023.
- Historic England. "The Judges' Lodgings, attached forecourt, steps, gate piers, gates and railings (1298414)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 23 July 2023.
- Historic England. "Lancaster Castle (1194905)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 23 July 2023.
- Historic England. "Priory and Parish Church of St Mary (1195068)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 23 July 2023.
- Council, Lancashire County. "The Cottage Museum". Archived from the original on 15 June 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "Judges' Lodgings Museum". Lancashire.gov.uk. Lancashire County Council. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
- "Friends Meeting House, Lancaster – Church/Chapel in Lancaster, Lancaster – Visit Lancashire". Archived from the original on 15 August 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "History". Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
- "Arts boss praises city's culture". Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "Economic Impact Study: Executive Summary". Archived from the original on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "About Us". 18 March 2016. Archived from the original on 29 May 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "Ludus Dance – Dance Classes in Lancaster – Dance School Lancaster". Archived from the original on 30 June 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "More Music – Education & Music Charity – More Music Morecambe". Archived from the original on 14 June 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "Lancaster Theatre and Cinema". Laleham. Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
- "About Us ‹ Welcome to Lancaster Arts". Archived from the original on 10 August 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "Storey G2 : About StoreyG2 - previously known as Storey Gallery". www.storeyg2.org.uk. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- Pidd, Helen (4 July 2013). "Lancaster's Dukes theatre: the great outdoors". TheGuardian.com. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- Price, Chris. "Lancaster Northern City of Ale". www.northerncityofale.co.uk. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
- "City centre cask ale trail is £16m Holy Grail". www.lancasterguardian.co.uk. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
- "Lunesdale CAMRA: Home Page". www.lunesdalecamra.org.uk. Archived from the original on 25 August 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
- "Lancaster Chinese New Year Festival – Lancaster Business Improvement District Joins Us for Chinese New Year 2016".
- Light Up Lancaster, May 2016 Archived 14 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
- ianjackson (12 March 2012). "Lancaster Fireworks Spectacular 2012". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 31 August 2012.
- "Lancaster Guardian".
- Landon, Letitia Elizabeth (1832). "poetical illustration". Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book, 1833. Fisher, Son & Co.Landon, Letitia Elizabeth (1832). "picture". Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book, 1833. Fisher, Son & Co.
- "Lancashire County Library and Information Service – Get it Loud in Lancaster Music Library". Lancashire County Council. Archived from the original on 6 September 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
- "Lancaster Music Library - Get It Loud". Archived from the original on 26 September 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
- "The Yorkshire House". Archived from the original on 9 March 2008. Retrieved 24 March 2008.
- "Lancaster Speakeasy". www.facebook.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
- "Facebook". www.facebook.com. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- Tina (9 October 2013). "Lancaster Music Festival – Something for Everyone". Archived from the original on 13 August 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- Online broadcasting Beyond Radio Archived 6 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Bailrigg FM – Your Student Sound". Retrieved 2 May 2023.
- "LA1TV". LA1TV. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
- "SCAN – SCAN: Student Comment and News at Lancaster University". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
- "A1 PICTURES LTD filing history - Find and update company information - GOV.UK". find-and-update.company-information.service.gov.uk. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
- Lancaster City Council, Twin Towns Archived 21 January 2019 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "Aalborg Twin Towns". Europeprize.net. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- "Miasta Partnerskie Lublina" [Lublin – Partnership Cities]. www.lublin.eu (in Polish). Urząd Miasta Lublin (City of Lublin). Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- "Seven decades: seven acts of service". www.lancaster.ac.uk. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- "Financial statements 2021" (PDF). Lancaster University. Retrieved 28 July 2023.
- "Student Statistics". www.lancaster.ac.uk. Retrieved 28 July 2023.
- "RAE 2008: Business & Management Studies". Archived from the original on 30 April 2009.
- University, Lancaster. "Physics – Lancaster University". Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2009.
- "RAE 2008: physics results". TheGuardian.com. 18 December 2008. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "Business". www.lancaster.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
- "Rankings and reputation". www.lancaster.ac.uk. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- "These are the best universities in 2018". The Independent. 26 April 2017. Archived from the original on 29 September 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
- "University league tables 2018". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 December 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
- "Lancaster University". Times Higher Education (THE). 9 September 2019. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
- "Lancaster named International University of the Year". www.lancaster.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
- "Lancaster Campus". www.cumbria.ac.uk. University of Cumbria. Retrieved 28 July 2023.
- "History". www.cumbria.ac.uk. University of Cumbria. Retrieved 28 July 2023.
- "200 invalid-request". www.lrgs.org.uk.
- "Jamea Al Kauthar Girls' Islamic College | Lancaster | UK". Jamea. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
- "Lancaster businesses and heritage charity join forces to regenerate historic church". Beyond Radio. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- "Lancaster Islamic Society – All Welcome." Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- British Rowing Almanack and ARA Year Book 2003. Hammersmith, London: The Amateur Rowing Association. 2003. pp. 351, 352, 355, 356. ISBN 978-0-7146-5251-1.
- https://www.regentantiques.com/blog/robert-gillow/ Archived 6 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine Robert Gillow
- Fell-runner admits attempted knife murder of British athletics official |Lancashire Evening Post Archived 10 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine.
- Hirst, Lauren (1 July 2021). "RSPB's Emily Williamson: The woman who saved a million birds". BBC News. Archived from the original on 22 January 2022. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
- Shotter, David (2001), "Roman Lancaster: Site and Settlement", A History of Lancaster, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 3–31, ISBN 0-7486-1466-4
- White, Andrew (2001), "Continuity, Charter, Castle and County Town, 400–1500", A History of Lancaster, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 33–72, ISBN 0-7486-1466-4
- Lancaster City Council – Homepage of Lancaster City Council
- Ordnance survey map of Lancaster circa 1890
- Regional Europe - Lancaster
- Visit Lancaster Website – Tourism Website for Lancaster
- A Virtual Tour of Lancaster - from Lancaster Archaeological and Historical Society
- "Mackreth's 1778 Plan of Lancaster" – via Lancaster Archaeological and Historical Society.