Eurovision Song Contest 2021
The Eurovision Song Contest 2021 was the 65th edition of the Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Rotterdam, Netherlands, following the country's victory at the 2019 contest with the song "Arcade" by Duncan Laurence. The Netherlands was due to host the 2020 contest, before it was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It was the fifth time that the Netherlands had hosted the contest, having previously done so in 1958, 1970, 1976 and 1980. Organised by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and host broadcasters Nederlandse Publieke Omroep (NPO), Nederlandse Omroep Stichting (NOS) and AVROTROS, the contest was held at Rotterdam Ahoy, and consisted of two semi-finals on 18 and 20 May, and the final on 22 May 2021. The three live shows were presented by Chantal Janzen, Edsilia Rombley, Jan Smit and Nikkie de Jager.
|Eurovision Song Contest 2021|
|Semi-final 1||18 May 2021|
|Semi-final 2||20 May 2021|
|Final||22 May 2021|
|Executive supervisor||Martin Österdahl|
|Number of entries||39|
|Returning countries|| Bulgaria|
|Non-returning countries|| Armenia|
|Voting system||Each country awards two sets of 12, 10, 8–1 points to 10 songs: the first–from a professional jury, the second–from viewers.|
|Nul points||United Kingdom[a]|
|Winning song|| Italy|
"Zitti e buoni"
Thirty-nine countries participated in the contest, of which twenty-six re-entered the artists chosen for 2020 (albeit with different songs, as per the contest's rules). Bulgaria and Ukraine returned after their absences from the 2019 contest, while Hungary and Montenegro did not return after their 2019 participation. Armenia and Belarus had originally planned to participate, but Armenia later withdrew due to social and political crises following the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war and Belarus was disqualified after their intended entry was found to be in violation of the contest's rules.
The winner was Italy with the song "Zitti e buoni", performed by Måneskin and written by the band's members Damiano David, Ethan Torchio, Thomas Raggi, and Victoria De Angelis. This was Italy's third victory in the contest, following their wins in 1964 and 1990, and making them only the second member of the "Big Five" to win the contest since the group's establishment, following Germany's victory in 2010. Måneskin's victory also made them the first band to win the contest since Lordi for Finland in 2006. France, Switzerland, Iceland and Ukraine rounded out the top five, with France and Switzerland achieving their best results since 1991 and 1993 respectively. This was the fifth time since the juries were reintroduced alongside the televoting in 2009 that the winner did not place first in the jury voting; Switzerland was the jury winner, while Italy was the televote winner. For the first time since 1995, none of the top three entries were performed in English.
Also, for the first time since the current voting system was implemented in 2016, more than one country received nul points from the televote in the final; these were Germany, Spain, the host country the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, the last of those becoming the first country to receive nul points from both the jury and televote. This was the fifth time that the host country ranked in the bottom five since 2015, with the Netherlands finishing 23rd in the final, as well as the second time that the United Kingdom had received nul points in the contest, the last time having been in 2003. For the first time since its debut in 2015, Australia failed to qualify for the final, making Ukraine the only country that never failed to qualify from the semi-finals since their introduction in 2004.[b]
The EBU reported that the contest had an audience of 183 million viewers in 36 European markets, an increase of a million viewers from the previous edition, with an increase of seven percent in the 15–24 year old age range.
The 2021 contest was held in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, following the country's victory at the 2019 edition with the song "Arcade", performed by Duncan Laurence. It was the fifth time that the Netherlands had hosted the contest, having previously done so in 1958, 1970, 1976 and 1980. The selected venue was the 16,400-seat Ahoy Arena in Rotterdam Ahoy, a convention centre and multi-purpose indoor arena located on Ahoyweg, which serves as a venue for many events, including concerts, exhibitions, trade fairs, and conferences. Rotterdam Ahoy had previously hosted the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2007, and was set to host the 2020 contest before its cancellation.
Selection of the host cityEdit
By Eurovision tradition, the Netherlands received the right to host the Eurovision Song Contest after the country won the competition in 2019. The Dutch host broadcasters NPO, NOS and AVROTROS launched the bidding process in the same month, on 29 May, in which five cities – Arnhem, 's-Hertogenbosch, Maastricht, Rotterdam, and Utrecht – submitted their bid books during a ceremonial event held in Hilversum on 10 July 2019. On 16 July, Maastricht and Rotterdam were shortlisted, and after the NPO visited both cities, on 30 August 2019, Rotterdam was announced as the host city of the Eurovision Song Contest 2020.
Following the cancellation of the 2020 contest, the EBU began talks with broadcasters NPO, NOS and AVROTROS, as well as the city of Rotterdam, on the possibility of staging the 2021 contest in the city. On 23 April 2020, the municipal council of Rotterdam approved an increased budget after Dutch media reported that the city would require an additional €6.7 million to host the contest. The decision was imminent as it was required that the EBU be informed by late April if Rotterdam was willing to host the contest. If Rotterdam declined to host the event, NPO, NOS and AVROTROS had until mid-May 2020 to find an alternative.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2021 was a co-production between three related Dutch television organisations – Nederlandse Publieke Omroep (NPO), Nederlandse Omroep Stichting (NOS) and AVROTROS – of which each assumed a different role. Sietse Bakker and Astrid Dutrénit served as executive producers, while Emilie Sickinghe and Jessica Stam served as deputy executive producers.
In January 2020, the EBU announced that Martin Österdahl would become the executive supervisor for the Eurovision Song Contest after the 2020 edition, succeeding Jon Ola Sand. Before his appointment, Österdahl had been an executive producer for the 2013 and 2016 editions, and had been a member of the Eurovision Song Contest reference group between 2012 and 2018.
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemicEdit
On 7 May 2020, Dutch authorities prohibited all mass gatherings in the country until a COVID-19 vaccine becomes available. The host broadcasters stated that they were assessing the decision and how it would impact the event.
- The event being held as in previous years (Scenario A);
- The event being held with social distancing measures in place (Scenario B);
- Providing the option for acts to perform from their home country if they are unable to travel to Rotterdam (Scenario C);
- A fully-remote contest hosted from Rotterdam (Scenario D), with all acts performing from their home country, and no in-person festivities or audience in Rotterdam. This scenario was trialled during the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2020 in November 2020.
In February 2021, the EBU and the host broadcasters stated that it had ruled out hosting the contest as normal (Scenario A). Scenario C was also modified – all acts would perform remotely like in scenario D. A health and safety protocol for the contest was published on 2 March 2021, with the EBU affirming that the contest will be held under scenario B, while reiterating that downscaling options remain on the table should circumstances change. On 30 April 2021, the EBU confirmed scenario B for the contest.
|Contest aspect||Scenario A
|Shows from Ahoy||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Participants in Rotterdam||All||All/most||None||None|
|Audience in the arena||100%||0–80%||0–80%||None|
|Side events in Rotterdam||Yes||Adapted||Reduced||None|
|Press Centre||1,500 on site||500 on site
|1,500 virtual||1,500 virtual|
On 1 April 2021, it was announced that an audience of 3,500 people would be allowed at each of the nine shows, including the three live shows and six rehearsals; the Dutch cabinet later gave its approval on 29 April. All audience members must have tested negative for COVID-19.
Due to pandemic precautions, the "Turquoise Carpet" event was the only in-person side event to take place in 2021. Impacted side events include: the Opening Ceremony event, which was not held; the Eurovision Village, which took place from 15 to 23 May in an online-only form; and the EuroClub, which was cancelled for this year.
On 18 September 2020, along with possible scenarios, the EBU confirmed that the planned visual design and slogan for 2020, "Open Up", would be used for the 2021 contest as well. The revamped official logo and branding was unveiled on 4 December 2020. Designed by Clever°Franke, it is "an abstract presentation inspired by the map of the world and visually connects the location of the capitals of the [then] 41 participating countries with Rotterdam as Europe's beating heart". The revamped visual identity, designed by MediaMonks and NEP, was built around patterns and 'tracks' that symbolises the Netherlands and "opening up".
On 18 September 2020, along with possible scenarios, the EBU confirmed that the 2020 planned presenters would be appointed as presenters for the 2021 contest as well: actress and television host Chantal Janzen, singer and commentator for the contest Jan Smit, singer Edsilia Rombley, who represented the Netherlands in the 1998 and 2007 contests, and beauty vlogger Nikkie de Jager (NikkieTutorials).
In addition, De Jager and Krista Siegfrids (Finland's representative in the 2013 contest) were the presenters of the contest's online content. Siegfrids hosted Krista Calling, a weekly YouTube series with behind-the-scenes coverage from Rotterdam, and De Jager hosted LookLab with NikkieTutorials, an online talk show series featuring 38 participants with Queen Máxima as a special guest.[c] Koos van Plateringen, Hila Noorzai and Samya Hafsaoui moderated the contest's press conferences, while Van Plateringen and Fenna Ramos hosted the "Turquoise Carpet" event.
During the announcement of the dates of the 2021 contest, Sietse Bakker, executive producer of the 2021 contest, stated that the planned 2020 stage design would also be used in the 2021 contest. The design was inspired by the slogan "Open Up" and the typical Dutch flat landscape. The Eurovision stage was designed by German stage designer Florian Wieder, who also designed the stages for the contests in 2011–12, 2015, and 2017–19. Its features included a revolvable primary LED screen that is 52 metres (171 ft) wide and 12 metres (39 ft) high, and a retractable semi-transparent LED screen which could be used as a backdrop for the secondary stage. The stage design was complemented by augmented reality effects. Unlike the 2019 contest, the green room was placed in the main performance venue, and encompassed the entire floor space previously reserved for the standing audience, so as to facilitate social distancing.
On 18 June 2020, the EBU announced that, for this year, delegations would have the option to use pre-recorded backing vocals. Each delegation could still choose to use backing singers, whether on or off stage, or a combination of live and recorded backing vocals. All lead vocals performing the melody of the song must still be live, according to the rules.
On 18 November 2020, the EBU revealed that, as a measure to guarantee that all participants could take part in the contest, every national broadcaster would create a 'live-on-tape' backup recording prior to the contest which could be used if a participant was unable to travel to Rotterdam, or subjected to quarantine on arrival. The recordings took place in a studio setting, in real-time (as it would be at the contest) without any edits to the vocals or any part of the performance itself after the recording. A set of production guidelines was also revealed to ensure fairness and the integrity of the recordings.
Other rules for the entries stayed the same in the 2021 contest. This includes that the maximum length for a song is three minutes, that there can be at most six performers on stage, and that the compositions (lyrics and music) must not have been commercially released before 1 September of the year before. Following the cancellation of the 2020 contest, the EBU explored the option of allowing the songs selected for the 2020 contest to compete in the 2021 contest, which needed to be discussed with the Eurovision Song Contest reference group and the national broadcasters. Victoria, Bulgaria's representative for 2020 and 2021, publicly expressed her support for such a move. However, on 20 March 2020, the reference group decided that, in accordance with the rules of the Eurovision Song Contest, the 2020 songs would not be eligible to compete in the 2021 contest.
Semi-final allocation drawEdit
On 17 November 2020, the EBU confirmed that the semi-final allocation draw for the 2021 contest would not be held. Instead, the semi-finals would feature the same line-up of countries as determined by the draw for the 2020 contest's semi-finals, which was held on 28 January 2020 at Rotterdam's City Hall and hosted by contest presenters Chantal Janzen, Jan Smit and Edsilia Rombley. The draw also determined which semi-final each of the six automatic qualifiers – the Big Five plus the Netherlands – would have to vote in. The EBU also decided to maintain the Netherlands' grand final running order position – 23.
The pots used initially for the 2020 contest featured as follows:
|Pot 1||Pot 2||Pot 3||Pot 4||Pot 5|
The "postcards" are short introduction videos shown on television whilst the stage is being prepared for the next contestant to perform their entry, and are 40 seconds long. Filmed between January and April, and directed by Martijn Nieman and Laurence Drenthe, with Kevin Soares serving as executive producer, the 2021 postcards are based on the "Open Up" theme of the contest. In a departure from the initial concept created for the 2020 contest's postcards owing to travel restriction concerns, the postcards involved the acts being presented through footage shot in their country of origin, inserted via chroma keying on the framework of a 'tiny house' set-up in various locations around the Netherlands, decorated with items personal to the artist(s). At the end of each postcard, a light streak hits the house and refracts into a country-specific coloured streak, mimicking the prism and transitions to the stage, where the ceiling is lit up with that country's flag colours using augmented reality. The postcards were produced by Amsterdam-based agency IDTV, with additional post-production and VFX work by Antwerp-based agency STORM. The following locations were used for each participating country:
- Albania – Hoge Brug, Maastricht
- Australia – Sparta Stadion Het Kasteel, Rotterdam
- Austria – Nannewiid, Frisian Lakes
- Azerbaijan – Giethoorn
- Belgium – Bourtange
- Bulgaria – Agelo
- Croatia – Broek op Langedijk
- Cyprus – 's-Hertogenbosch
- Czech Republic – Almere
- Denmark – Nijmegen
- Estonia – Circuit Zandvoort
- Finland – Sibelco silver sand quarry, Heerlen
- France – Houtribdijk
- Georgia – Port of Rotterdam
- Germany – Scheveningen
- Greece – Halley Astronomical Observatory, Vinkel
- Iceland – Zeeburgereiland, Amsterdam
- Ireland – Hermitage Amsterdam
- Israel – Utrecht Centraal railway station
- Italy – Arnhem
- Latvia – Middelburg
- Lithuania – Rotterdam Centraal railway station
- Malta – Vlissingen
- Moldova – Schiermonnikoog
- Netherlands – Ouddorp
- North Macedonia – Dolmen D14, Eext
- Norway – Koppelpoort, Amersfoort
- Poland – Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
- Portugal – Markt, Delft
- Romania – Leeuwarden
- Russia – Bolwoningen, 's-Hertogenbosch
- San Marino – Evoluon, Eindhoven
- Serbia – Keukenhof, Lisse
- Slovenia – Marker Wadden
- Spain – Doornspijk
- Sweden – Museumplein, Amsterdam
- Switzerland – Noordereiland, Rotterdam
- Ukraine – Veluwezoom National Park
- United Kingdom – Gasselte
Opening and interval actsEdit
On 4 May 2021, the EBU released information about the opening and interval acts.
The first semi-final was opened by Duncan Laurence, performing "Feel Something", and featured singer and YouTuber Davina Michelle and actress Thekla Reuten in an interval act titled "The Power of Water", centering on the Netherlands' history of water management. Michelle performed her new single "Sweet Water" in the performance. In both acts, augmented reality was used.
The second semi-final was opened by breakdancer Redouan Ait Chitt (Redo) and singer-songwriter Eefje de Visser, with ballet dancer Ahmad Joudeh and BMX-er Dez Maarsen performing during the interval; the acts are titled "Forward Unlimited" and "Close Encounter of a Special Kind", respectively.
The final was opened with the traditional flag parade, introducing all twenty-six finalists, accompanied by a remix of "Venus" produced and performed by 16-year-old DJ Pieter Gabriel, with co-presenters Chantal Janzen, Jan Smit and Edsilia Rombley singing parts of the song. The interval acts included a medley of "Hero", "Ten Feet Tall" and "Titanium" performed by DJ Afrojack, singers Glennis Grace (who represented the Netherlands in the 2005 contest) and Wulf together with a symphony orchestra composed of young musicians from across the Netherlands; the "Rock the Roof" interval act, where six former Eurovision winners – Lenny Kuhr (1969), Teach-In with Getty Kaspers (1975), Sandra Kim (1986), Helena Paparizou (2005), Lordi (2006) and Måns Zelmerlöw (2015) – performed their winning songs – "De troubadour", "Ding-a-dong", "J'aime la vie", "My Number One", "Hard Rock Hallelujah" and "Heroes" respectively – atop several venues in Rotterdam; and Duncan Laurence, who performed his winning song "Arcade" and his new single "Stars".[f] During the final seconds of voting, a dance sketch titled "The Human Countdown" was performed.
The EBU initially announced on 26 October 2020 that 41 countries would participate in the contest, featuring the same line-up of countries that were set to participate in the cancelled 2020 edition. Bulgaria and Ukraine marked their return to the contest after their absences from the 2019 contest, while Hungary and Montenegro were confirmed as non-returning following their latest appearances in 2019.
In March 2021, Armenia and Belarus confirmed their non-participation in the contest; Armenia withdrew due to social and political crises in the aftermath of the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war, while Belarus was disqualified after submitting an entry in violation of the rules, thereby reducing the number of participating countries to 39.
After the cancellation of the 2020 contest, the participating broadcasters of 24 countries announced that, for the 2021 contest, they would internally select the same artists initially selected for 2020. In addition, the artists initially selected for Estonia and Lithuania in 2020 won their national finals to represent their countries in 2021.
Discounting 2020, the contest featured three representatives who also previously performed as lead vocalists for the same country, and five artists who participated in other Eurovision events or as backing vocalists for the same or for another country.
|Natalia Gordienko||Moldova||2006 (alongside Arsenium)|
|Sanja Vučić (member of Hurricane)||Serbia||2016|
|Ksenija Knežević (member of Hurricane)||2015 (as backing vocal for Knez, representing Montenegro)|
|Mladen Lukić (backing vocal for Hurricane)||2018 (as a member of Balkanika)|
|Destiny Chukunyere||Malta||Junior Eurovision 2015 (winner)|
|2019 (as backing vocal for Michela Pace)|
|Stefania||Greece||Junior Eurovision 2016 (representing the Netherlands as a member of Kisses)|
|Vincent Bueno||Austria||2017 (as backing vocal for Nathan Trent)|
|Vasil||North Macedonia||2019 (as backing vocal for Tamara Todevska)|
The first semi-final took place on 18 May 2021 at 21:00 (CEST). Sixteen countries participated in the first semi-final. Those countries plus Germany, Italy and the Netherlands voted in this semi-final. Belarus was originally allocated to participate in the first half of the semi-final, but was disqualified from the contest after submitting an entry in violation of the rules. The highlighted countries qualified for the final.
|03||Russia||Manizha||"Russian Woman"||Russian, English||3||225|
|06||North Macedonia||Vasil||"Here I Stand"||English||15||23|
|08||Cyprus||Elena Tsagrinou||"El Diablo"||English[h]||6||170|
|11||Belgium||Hooverphonic||"The Wrong Place"||English||9||117|
|12||Israel||Eden Alene||"Set Me Free"||English[i]||5||192|
|16||Malta||Destiny||"Je me casse"||English[k]||1||325|
The second semi-final took place on 20 May 2021 at 21:00 (CEST). Seventeen countries participated in the second semi-final. Those countries plus France, Spain and the United Kingdom voted in this semi-final. Armenia was originally allocated to participate in the second half of the semi-final, but withdrew from the contest due to social and political crises in the aftermath of the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war. The highlighted countries qualified for the final.
|02||Estonia||Uku Suviste||"The Lucky One"||English||13||58|
|03||Czech Republic||Benny Cristo||"Omaga"||English[n]||15||23|
|08||Iceland[o]||Daði og Gagnamagnið||"10 Years"||English||2||288|
|12||Portugal||The Black Mamba||"Love Is on My Side"||English||4||239|
|13||Bulgaria||Victoria||"Growing Up Is Getting Old"||English||3||250|
|14||Finland||Blind Channel||"Dark Side"||English||5||234|
|15||Latvia||Samanta Tīna||"The Moon Is Rising"||English||17||14|
|16||Switzerland||Gjon's Tears||"Tout l'univers"||French||1||291|
|17||Denmark||Fyr & Flamme||"Øve os på hinanden"||Danish||11||89|
The final took place on 22 May 2021 at 21:00 (CEST). Twenty-six countries participated in the final, with all thirty-nine participating countries eligible to vote.
|Split results (Semi-final 1)|
|Voting procedure used:
100% Jury vote
|Voting procedure used:
100% Jury vote
Below is a summary of the maximum 12 points awarded by each country's professional jury and televote in the first semi-final. Countries in bold gave the maximum 24 points (12 points apiece from professional jury and televoting) to the specified entrant.
|N.||Contestant||Nation(s) giving 12 points|
|8||Malta||Australia, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Norway, Romania, Russia, Sweden|
|3||Russia||Azerbaijan, Belgium, Netherlands|
|2||Israel||Italy, North Macedonia|
|N.||Contestant||Nation(s) giving 12 points|
|6||Ukraine||Australia, Croatia, Italy, Lithuania, Romania, Russia|
|5||Lithuania||Cyprus, Germany, Ireland, Norway, Ukraine|
|2||Croatia||North Macedonia, Slovenia|
|Split results (Semi-final 2)|
|Voting procedure used:
100% Jury vote
|Voting procedure used:
100% Jury vote
Below is a summary of the maximum 12 points awarded by each country's professional jury and televote in the second semi-final. Countries in bold gave the maximum 24 points (12 points apiece from professional jury and televoting) to the specified entrant.
|N.||Contestant||Nation(s) giving 12 points|
|7||Switzerland||Albania, Austria, Denmark, Estonia, Georgia, Iceland, Spain|
|4||Bulgaria||Finland, Moldova, Portugal, Switzerland|
|3||Iceland||Latvia, Serbia, United Kingdom|
|N.||Contestant||Nation(s) giving 12 points|
|8||Moldova||Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Latvia, Greece, Portugal, San Marino, Serbia|
|3||Iceland||Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom|
|Split results (Final)|
|Voting procedure used:
100% Jury vote
|Voting procedure used:
100% Jury vote
Below is a summary of the maximum 12 points awarded by each country's professional jury and televote in the final. Countries in bold gave the maximum 24 points (12 points apiece from professional jury and televoting) to the specified entrant.
|N.||Contestant||Nation(s) giving 12 points|
|8||France||Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, San Marino, Serbia, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom|
|Switzerland||Albania, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Israel, Latvia|
|4||Italy||Croatia, Georgia, Slovenia, Ukraine|
|Malta||Australia, Norway, Romania, Sweden|
|N.||Contestant||Nation(s) giving 12 points|
|5||Italy||Bulgaria, Malta, San Marino, Serbia, Ukraine|
|Lithuania||Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Norway, United Kingdom|
|Serbia||Austria, Croatia, North Macedonia, Slovenia, Switzerland|
|Ukraine||France, Israel, Italy, Lithuania, Poland|
|4||France||Belgium, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain|
|3||Finland||Estonia, Iceland, Sweden|
|Iceland||Australia, Denmark, Finland|
|Moldova||Czech Republic, Romania|
Eligibility for potential participation in the Eurovision Song Contest requires a national broadcaster with active EBU membership that would be able to broadcast the contest via the Eurovision network. The EBU issued an invitation to participate in the contest to all active members. Associate member Australia did not need an invitation for the 2021 contest, as it had previously been granted permission to participate at least until 2023.
Active EBU membersEdit
- Andorra – In November 2019, Democrats for Andorra, the ruling party of Andorra, stated that the country would eventually return to the contest, with a cost assessment as a prerequisite. Susanne Georgi, the 2009 Andorran representative, stated in May 2020 that she had secured the funding required for the country to return. Later that year, on 1 August 2020, Georgi explained on Eurovision fan website Wiwibloggs' podcast that she had held a meeting with Prime Minister of Andorra Xavier Espot Zamora, in which they verbally agreed to make a return in 2022 (as they did not want to participate under the circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic).
- Armenia – Having intended to compete in 2020, Armenia were initially confirmed for the 2021 contest when the list of participants was announced by the EBU in October 2020, and were set to perform in the second half of the second semi-final. However, on 5 March 2021, the Public Television Company of Armenia (AMPTV) confirmed that they were subsequently unable to participate due to social and political crises in the country in the aftermath of the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war.
- Belarus – Having intended to compete in 2020, Belarus were initially confirmed for the 2021 contest when the list of participants was announced by the EBU in October 2020, and were set to perform in the first half of the first semi-final. However, on 26 March 2021, Belarus was disqualified by the EBU after their entry "Ya nauchu tebya (I'll Teach You)" by Galasy ZMesta was rejected due to violating the rules, and not being able to submit an eligible replacement entry. Six days after the final, the EBU voted to suspend Belarusian broadcaster BTRC's membership. BTRC was given two weeks to respond before the suspension comes into effect on 11 June, but there was no public response. The broadcaster was expelled from the EBU on 1 July, rendering future participations impossible.
- Bosnia and Herzegovina – In October 2020, Bosnian broadcaster Radio and Television of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BHRT) confirmed that the country would not return in 2021, citing ongoing financial issues. Bosnia and Herzegovina last participated in 2016.
- Luxembourg – In July 2020, RTL Télé Lëtzebuerg confirmed that Luxembourg would not participate in 2021, stating that they have no "focus on entertainment and music shows" and that participating "would put the broadcaster under a financial strain". Luxembourg last participated in 1993.
- Monaco – Monégasque broadcaster TMC confirmed in September 2020 that they would not participate in 2021.
- Montenegro – Montenegrin broadcaster Radio and Television of Montenegro (RTCG) confirmed in October 2020 that they would not participate in 2021. They had previously withdrawn from competing in the later-cancelled 2020 contest due to a series of poor results and the costs associated with participation.
- Morocco – In response to rumours that the EBU had been in discussions with Morocco regarding participation, Karim Sbai, the Director of Communications of Morocco's Société Nationale de Radiodiffusion et de Télévision, stated in February 2020 that Morocco's possible return had not yet been discussed. Ultimately, Morocco was not included on the final list of participants for 2021.
- Slovakia – In July 2020, a spokesperson from Radio and Television of Slovakia (RTVS) stated that the broadcaster was unlikely to participate, and confirmed their non-participation in August 2020.
- Turkey – In May 2020, Faruk Kaymakcı, Turkish Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs & Director for EU Affairs, stated that he hoped to see Turkey returning. However, Turkey was not included on the final list of participants for 2021. Turkey last took part in 2012.
Associate EBU membersEdit
- Kazakhstan – In August 2020, the EBU stated that they had no intention to invite Kazakhstan for this year.
- Kosovo – In August 2020, the EBU stated that they had no intention to invite Kosovo for this year.
- Liechtenstein – In July 2020, Liechtensteiner broadcaster 1 FL TV announced that they had ruled out debuting in 2021. The broadcaster had attempted to become an EBU member in the past but halted its plans when its director, Peter Kölbel, unexpectedly died. It would also need the backing of the Liechtenstein government to be able to carry the cost of becoming an EBU member and paying the participation fee for the contest.
Broadcasters, commentators and spokespersonsEdit
The European Broadcasting Union provided international live streams of both semi-finals and the final through their official YouTube channel with no commentary. The live streams were geo-blocked to viewers in Australia, Greece, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, United States and the United Kingdom. After the live broadcasts, all three shows were made available for every country listed above except the United States.
The spokespersons announced the 12-point score from their respective country's national jury in the following order:
- Israel – Lucy Ayoub (Co-presenter of the 2019 contest)
- Poland – Ida Nowakowska (Co-presenter of Junior Eurovision 2019 and 2020)
- San Marino – Monica Fabbri
- Albania – Andri Xhahu
- Malta – Stephanie Spiteri
- Estonia – Sissi
- North Macedonia – Vane Markoski
- Azerbaijan – Ell & Nikki (Winners of the 2011 contest; Eldar Gasimov co-presented the 2012 contest)
- Norway – Silje Skjemstad Cruz
- Spain – Nieves Álvarez
- Austria – Philipp Hansa
- United Kingdom – Amanda Holden
- Italy – Carolina Di Domenico
- Slovenia – Lorella Flego
- Greece – Manolis Gkinis
- Latvia – Aminata Savadogo (Latvian representative in 2015)
- Ireland – Ryan O'Shaughnessy (Irish representative in 2018)
- Moldova – Sergey Stepanov (Moldovan representative in 2010 and 2017 as part of SunStroke Project, also known as "Epic Sax Guy")
- Serbia – Dragana Kosjerina
- Bulgaria – Joanna Dragneva (Bulgarian representative in 2008 as part of Deep Zone Project)
- Cyprus – Loukas Hamatsos
- Belgium – Danira Boukhriss
- Germany – Barbara Schöneberger
- Australia – Joel Creasey
- Finland – Katri Norrlin
- Portugal – Elisa
- Ukraine – Tayanna
- Iceland – Hannes Óli Ágústsson (in character as Olaf Yohansson from Eurovision Song Contest: The Story of Fire Saga)
- Romania – Cătălina Ponor
- Croatia – Ivan Dorian Molnar
- Czech Republic – Taťána Kuchařová
- Georgia – Oto Nemsadze (Georgian representative in 2019)
- Lithuania – Andrius Mamontovas (Lithuanian representative in 2006 as part of LT United)
- Denmark – Tina Müller
- Russia – Polina Gagarina (Russian representative in 2015)
- France – Carla (French representative in Junior Eurovision 2019)
- Sweden – Carola (Swedish representative in 1983 and 2006; winner of the 1991 contest)
- Switzerland – Angélique Beldner
- Netherlands – Romy Monteiro[s]
Broadcasters and commentatorsEdit
All participating broadcasters may choose to have on-site or remote commentators providing an insight about the show and voting information to their local audience. While they must broadcast at least the semi-final they are voting in and the final, most broadcasters air all three shows with different programming plans. Similarly, some non-participating broadcasters may still want to air the contest. These are the broadcasters that had confirmed their broadcasting plans and/or their commentators:
|Albania||All shows||RTSH 1, RTSH Muzikë, Radio Tirana 1||Andri Xhahu|||
|Australia||All shows[t]||SBS||Myf Warhurst and Joel Creasey|||
|Austria||All shows||ORF 1||Andi Knoll|||
|Azerbaijan||All shows||İTV||Murad Arif|||
|Belgium||All shows||Eén||Dutch: Peter Van de Veire|||
|Ketnet||Dutch audio description|
|Final||Radio 2||Dutch: Anja Daems and Showbizz Bart|
|All shows||La Une,[u] RTBF Auvio||French: Fanny Jandrain[v] and Jean-Louis Lahaye|||
|1st semi-final and final||VivaCité[w]|
|Bulgaria||All shows||BNT 1, BNT 4||Elena Rosberg and Petko Kralev|||
|Croatia||All shows||HRT 1||Duško Ćurlić|||
|Cyprus||All shows||RIK 1, RIK HD, RIK Sat||Louis Patsalides|||
|Czech Republic||Both semi-finals||ČT2||Jan Maxián and Albert Černý|||
|Denmark||All shows||DR1||Henrik Milling and Nicolai Molbech|||
|Estonia||All shows||ETV||Estonian: Marko Reikop|||
|ETV+||Russian: Aleksandr Hobotov and Julia Kalenda|||
|ERR||Sign language: various interpreters|||
|Finland||All shows||Yle TV1||Finnish: Mikko Silvennoinen
Swedish: Eva Frantz and Johan Lindroos
Russian: Levan Tvaltvadze
|Yle Radio Suomi||Finnish: Sanna Pirkkalainen and Toni Laaksonen|
|Yle X3M||Swedish: Eva Frantz and Johan Lindroos|
|France||Both semi-finals||Culturebox (France 4)||Laurence Boccolini|||
|Final||France 2||Stéphane Bern and Laurence Boccolini|
|Georgia||All shows||First Channel||Nika Lobiladze|||
|Germany||All shows||One||Peter Urban|||
|Final||Das Erste, Deutsche Welle|
|Greece||All shows||ERT1||Maria Kozakou and Giorgos Kapoutzidis|||
|ERT Second Programme, Voice of Greece||Dimitris Meidanis|||
|Iceland||All shows||RÚV||Icelandic: Gísli Marteinn Baldursson|||
|RÚV 2||Sign language: Elsa G. Björnsdóttir|||
|2nd semi-final and final||Rás 2||Unknown|||
|All shows||RUV.is||English: Alex Elliott|||
|Ireland||Both semi-finals||RTÉ2||Marty Whelan|||
|1st semi-final||RTÉ Radio 1||Neil Doherty and Zbyszek Zalinski|||
|Israel||All shows||Kan 11, Kan Educational,[x] Kan Tarbut||Asaf Liberman and Akiva Novick|||
|Italy||Both semi-finals||Rai 4||Ema Stokholma and Saverio Raimondo|||
|Final||Rai 1||Gabriele Corsi and Cristiano Malgioglio|
|Both semi-finals||Rai Radio 2||Ema Stokholma and Saverio Raimondo|
|Final||Ema Stokholma and Gino Castaldo|
|Latvia||Both semi-finals||LTV1||Toms Grēviņš|||
|Final||Toms Grēviņš and Marie N|
|Lithuania||All shows||LRT televizija, LRT Radijas||Ramūnas Zilnys|||
|Malta||All shows||TVM||No commentary|||
|Moldova||All shows||Moldova 1, Radio Moldova||Doina Stimpovschi|||
|Netherlands||All shows||NPO 1, BVN||Cornald Maas and Sander Lantinga|||
|NPO 1 Extra||Sign language: various interpreters|||
|NPO Zappelin Extra||Dutch audio description|
|Final||NPO Radio 2||Wouter van der Goes and Frank van ’t Hof|||
|North Macedonia||All shows||MRT 1, MRT 2||Eli Tanaskovska|||
|Norway||All shows||NRK1||Marte Stokstad|||
|Final||NRK3||Martin Lepperød and Adelina Ibishi|||
|NRK P1||Ole-Christian Øen|||
|Poland||All shows||TVP1, TVP Polonia||Marek Sierocki and Aleksander Sikora|||
|Portugal||All shows[y]||RTP1, RTP Internacional, RTP África||José Carlos Malato and Nuno Galopim|||
|Romania||All shows||TVR 1, TVRi||Bogdan Stănescu|||
|Russia||All shows||Channel One||Yuri Aksyuta and Yana Churikova|||
|San Marino||All shows||San Marino RTV, Radio San Marino||Lia Fiorio and Gigi Restivo|||
|Serbia||All shows||RTS 1, RTS Planeta, RTS Svet||Duška Vučinić|||
|Final||Radio Belgrade 1||Katarina Epštajn and Nikoleta Dojčinović|||
|Slovenia||Both semi-finals||TV Slovenija 2||Mojca Mavec|||
|Final||TV Slovenija 1|
|All shows||RTV 4D, Radio Val 202|
|Spain||Both semi-finals||La 2||Tony Aguilar, Julia Varela and Víctor Escudero|||
|Final||La 1, TVE Internacional|
|Radio Nacional, Radio Exterior, Radio 5||Imanol Durán|||
|Sweden||All shows||SVT1||Edward af Sillén and Christer Björkman|||
|SR P4||Carolina Norén|||
|Switzerland||Both semi-finals||SRF zwei||German: Sven Epiney|||
|Both semi-finals||RTS 2||French: Jean-Marc Richard, Nicolas Tanner|||
|Final||RTS 1||French: Jean-Marc Richard, Nicolas Tanner, and Joseph Gorgoni|
|2nd semi-final||RSI La 2||Italian: Clarissa Tami|||
|Final||RSI La 1||Italian: Clarissa Tami and Sebalter|
|Ukraine||All shows||UA:First||Timur Miroshnychenko|||
|Final||UA:Ukrainian radio||Olena Zelinchenko|||
|UA:Radio Promin||Anna Zakletska and Dmytro Zakharchenko|||
|United Kingdom||Both semi-finals||BBC Four||Scott Mills, Sara Cox[z] and Chelcee Grimes|||
|Final||BBC One||Graham Norton|
|BBC Radio 2||Ken Bruce|
|Canada||All shows||Omni Television||No commentary|||
|Kazakhstan||All shows||Khabar Agency||Kaldybek Zhajsanbaj and Mahabbat Esen|||
|Slovakia||Final||Rádio FM||Daniel Baláž, Lucia Haverlík, Pavol Hubinák and Juraj Malíček|||
|United States||All shows||Peacock||No commentary||[aa]|
|Final||WJFD-FM||Ewan Spence and Ross Middleton|||
|Country||Viewership (in millions)||Ref(s)|
|0.45 (La Une)|
|Germany||6.54 (Das Erste)|||
|Poland||1.40 (TVP 1)|||
|0.07 (TVP Polonia)|
|Switzerland||0.47 (SRF 1)|||
|0.02 (RSI La 1)|
|United Kingdom||7.7 (BBC One, Final)|||
|0.73 (BBC Four, SF1)|
|0.75 (BBC Four, SF2)|
Two days after "Ya nauchu tebya (I'll Teach You)" was announced as the Belarusian entry for the contest, the EBU ruled that the song did not comply with the contest's rules against political entries, and that the song was not eligible to compete in the contest unless it was modified or replaced. After failing to meet an extended deadline for submitting an eligible entry, with their second submission "Pesnya pro zaytsa (Song About Hares)" also being found to not comply with the rules, it was announced on 26 March 2021 that Belarus was disqualified from the contest.
Ukrainian rehearsal stand-inEdit
Before Ukraine's second rehearsal on 12 May, lead singer of the band Go_A, Kateryna Pavlenko, reported feeling unwell. In accordance with the contest's health and safety protocols, Pavlenko was required to quarantine in her hotel room. The other band members tested negative and were able to rehearse, with Dutch stand-in singer Emmie van Stijn providing vocals instead of Pavlenko. Pavlenko took a COVID-19 PCR test, which came back negative the following day, allowing her to perform again.
Van Stijn received positive reactions for her performance, in particular for her pronunciation of the Ukrainian lyrics, and was invited to sit with the Ukrainian delegation in the green room during the first semi-final.
Ahead of the "Turquoise Carpet" event, one member of each of the Polish and Icelandic delegations tested positive for COVID-19. As a result, those delegations were absent from the event, having gone into self-isolation in accordance with the contest's health and safety protocols. The Romanian and Maltese delegations were also absent from the event on a precautionary measure, as they were based in the same hotel as the Polish and Icelandic delegations.
All other members of the Polish and Icelandic delegations tested negative, and remained in quarantine until the jury show for the second semi-final. However, it was later confirmed that a member of the Icelandic group Daði og Gagnamagnið had tested positive, and as a result, the group withdrew from performing in the live shows. Footage from their rehearsal at Rotterdam Ahoy was broadcast instead during both the jury show and the live show for the second semi-final; this footage was also shown in the final. The remaining members of the Polish delegation were subsequently released from isolation.
On 20 May, the EBU confirmed that Duncan Laurence had tested positive and would not perform live in the final. He was due to perform his winning song "Arcade" and his new single "Stars" during the interval, and present the points on behalf of the Dutch jury; the latter role was filled by Romy Monteiro. Pre-recorded rehearsal footage of Laurence's interval performance was broadcast instead during the final. Due to the positive test result, Laurence was also not present to hand over the trophy to the winner; the presenters handed over the trophy instead.
The day after the final, a member of the Norwegian delegation tested positive and was forced to remain in Rotterdam for isolation. It was later confirmed that six additional members of the delegation had tested positive after returning to Norway.
Jury show issuesEdit
During the jury show for the first semi-final, the Romanian, Ukrainian and Maltese delegations reported problems with their performances; most notably, Roxen was heard to be offbeat with the chorus of their song "Amnesia." The EBU later confirmed that in-ear monitoring issues had occurred and that all artists involved would be given a second chance to perform. No issues occurred during the second performances.
During San Marino's jury final performance, the rotating platform did not stop when it was supposed to, leading Senhit to have to jump from it while in motion. The Sammarinese delegation later filed a complaint, also claiming that all the camera shots were distorted due to these timing issues. The delegation offered to allow Senhit and Flo Rida to withdraw from the event, though they ultimately decided to stay. The contest's executive supervisor, Martin Österdahl, apologised to the delegation and reaffirmed that the issue would be addressed moving forward and that they would be protected to the highest degree.
Camera breaking prior to Ireland's performanceEdit
During the setup for Ireland's performance in the first semi-final, a camera broke, which caused an extended delay after the postcard was shown. Co-presenter Chantal Janzen improvised in the green room during the live broadcast to fill in the time.
False allegation of drug useEdit
During a green room segment in the final, Damiano David, lead singer of the Italian band Måneskin, was claimed by some online viewers on social media to be seen snorting a line of cocaine when leaned over a table, although there were no drugs in the footage and the singer was sitting away from the table, close to the Italian delegation members. In the band's press conference following their victory, Torbjörn Ek, a journalist working at the Swedish newspaper Aftonbladet, asked about the allegations, which David denied by suggesting that fellow member Thomas Raggi had broken a glass which David was picking up off the floor, going on to say "I don't use drugs, please guys, do not say that." The band later put out a statement on their official Instagram account, stating: "We are really shocked about what some people are saying about Damiano doing drugs. We really are AGAINST drugs and we never used cocaine. We are ready to get tested, cause we got nothing to hide." The EBU released a statement the following day, stating that the band, their management and the Italian head of delegation had denied any allegation, and the singer in question, Damiano, requested to be tested the same night, but as testing could not be immediately organized, he would "take a voluntary drug test after arriving home." It was also confirmed that "broken glass was found after an on site check". The allegation case was mostly forced in the French press and got even commented by the French foreign minister Jean-Yves Le Drian, but France Télévisions announced that they won't file any official charges, while in the Italian press it was described as a social media joke that had gone too far and become fake news.
On 24 May, the EBU released a statement confirming that no drug use took place in the green room during the final, following a negative drug test and inspection of all available footage. The EBU also expressed concern over "inaccurate speculation leading to fake news [that] has overshadowed the spirit and the outcome of the event and unfairly affected the band."
Dutch televoting issuesEdit
The EBU confirmed on 24 May that they had issues handling the Dutch televote in the final. Many people on social media complained about their votes not being counted and had only received their confirmation texts hours after the show. The EBU later confirmed to NOS that those votes were not counted due to a problem with the Dutch branch of the telecom provider T-Mobile, while clarifying that they had no authority over the issue. The Dutch televote, however, remains valid.
In addition to the main winner's trophy, the Marcel Bezençon Awards and the Barbara Dex Award were contested during the Eurovision Song Contest 2021. The OGAE (French: Organisation Générale des Amateurs de l'Eurovision; English: General Organisation of Eurovision Fans) voting poll also took place before the contest.
Marcel Bezençon AwardsEdit
The Marcel Bezençon Awards honour the best competing songs in the final. Named after the founder of the contest, the awards were created and first handed at the 2002 contest by Christer Björkman (Sweden's representative in the 1992 contest and the country's current Head of Delegation), and Richard Herrey (a member of the Herreys who won the 1984 contest for Sweden). The awards are divided into three categories: Artistic Award, Composers Award, and Press Award. The winners are revealed shortly before the Eurovision final.
|Artistic Award||France||"Voilà"||Barbara Pravi||Barbara Pravi, Igit, Lili Poe|
|Composers Award||Switzerland||"Tout l'Univers"||Gjon's Tears||Gjon Muharremaj, Nina Sampermans, Wouter Hardy, Xavier Michel|
OGAE is an international organisation which conducts a voting poll for the favourite songs among its members before the annual contest. It consists of a network of over forty Eurovision Song Contest fan clubs across Europe and beyond. The top five overall results, after all votes were cast, are shown below.
|Malta||Destiny||"Je me casse"||363|
|Switzerland||Gjon's Tears||"Tout l'Univers"||358|
|Cyprus||Elena Tsagrinou||"El diablo"||238|
Barbara Dex AwardEdit
The Barbara Dex Award is a fan award given each year to the artist who wore the most notable outfit. First awarded in 1997, the award originally highlighted the worst-dressed artists in the competition, until this criterion was changed in 2019. Named after Belgium's representative who came last in the 1993 contest, wearing her self-designed dress, the award was handed by the fansite House of Eurovision from 1997 to 2016 and is being carried out by the fansite Songfestival.be since 2017.
|4||United Kingdom||James Newman|
Eurovision Song Celebration: Live-On-TapeEdit
The EBU announced on 29 March 2021 that the Eurovision Song Celebration would return for a second edition, premiering on the contest's official YouTube channel. Krista Siegfrids presented the show, which was aired in two parts on 28 and 29 May, and provided a showcase for the 'live-on-tape' back-up performances along with additional bonus material.
The first part of the show featured the back-up performances of the semi-finalists that failed to qualify for the final (excluding Ireland), while the second part featured the back-up performances of the finalists (excluding the United Kingdom).
Like in the previous year's Song Celebration, fans were asked to contribute to the show by sending video clips of their favourite entries.
|Eurovision Song Contest: Rotterdam 2021|
|Compilation album by|
|Released||23 April 2021|
|Eurovision Song Contest chronology|
Eurovision Song Contest: Rotterdam 2021 is the official compilation album of the contest, put together by the European Broadcasting Union and was released by Universal Music Group digitally on 16 April 2021 and physically on 23 April 2021. The album features all 39 entries including the semi-finalists that failed to qualify for the final.
|Australian Albums (ARIA)||23|
|Austrian Compilation Albums (Ö3 Austria)||2|
|Dutch Compilation Albums (Compilation Top 30)||1|
|German Compilation Albums (Offizielle Top 100)||2|
|Greek Albums (IFPI)||5|
|Irish Compilation Albums (IRMA)||26|
|Swedish Albums (Sverigetopplistan)||54|
|UK Compilation Albums (OCC)||3|
- The United Kingdom was the only country to finish the competition with 0 points. Despite scoring points from the professional juries, Germany, Spain and the Netherlands all failed to score points from the public televote.
- No country has always participated in the final since the introduction of semi-finals in 2004. Ukraine, despite having always reached the final, did not participate in 2015 and 2019. Additionally, the 2020 contest was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
- Tornike Kipiani from Georgia opted not to participate in the series.
- Armenia withdrew from the contest on 5 March 2021.
- Belarus was disqualified from the contest on 26 March 2021.
- Pre-recorded performance due to Laurence testing positive for COVID-19 two days prior to the final.
- Due to travel restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic in the country, Australia competed using their 'live-on-tape' performance, filmed at SBS Studios in Sydney.
- Contains repeated words in Spanish
- Contains several phrases in Hebrew
- Contains one repeated chant in Azerbaijani
- Contains one repeated phrase in French
- Performance contains uncredited live vocals from Flo Rida.
- Contains one repeated word in Italian
- Contains one sentence in Czech
- Following a positive COVID-19 test result for a member of Gagnamagnið, Iceland competed using footage from their rehearsal at Rotterdam Ahoy, recorded on 13 May.
- Contains one phrase in English and one repeated word in Spanish
- Despite finishing with the same number of points as Bulgaria, Greece is deemed to have finished in tenth place due to receiving a greater number of points in the televote.
- Contains two spoken sentences in German
- Replacement for Duncan Laurence, who tested positive for COVID-19.
- All shows were broadcast live, with a primetime rebroadcast in the evening between 21 and 23 May.
- The second semi-final was broadcast on La Une on a 90-minute delay.
- Late replacement for Maureen Louys who was absent due to testing positive for COVID-19.
- The final was broadcast on VivaCité on a 60-minute delay.
- Due to the 2021 Israel–Palestine crisis, the shows would be deferred to Kan Educational in the event that the main broadcast on Kan 11 is interrupted.
- The first semi-final was broadcast on a two-hour delay, starting at 22:15 WEST.
- Late replacement for Rylan Clark-Neal who was absent due to illness but still appeared in pre-recorded segments.
- Peacock is an over-the-top video streaming service owned by NBCUniversal Television and Streaming, which also owns NBC who is an Associate Member of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) for the United States. After announcing that NBC would broadcast the American Song Contest in 2022, the EBU later announced that Peacock acquired rights to distribute both the Eurovision Song Contest 2021 and 2022 in the United States. All three shows were streamed live with video-on-demand viewing available afterwards, with no commentary.
- Including Suspilne online stream, Facebook stream and eurovision.ua stream
- "183 million viewers welcome back the Eurovision Song Contest". European Broadcasting Union (EBU). 31 May 2021. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
- "182 million tune in to 64th Eurovision Song Contest as young audience numbers surge". European Broadcasting Union. 28 May 2019. Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
- "Eurovision 2021: How this year's acts are aiming for a Covid-safe contest". BBC News. 15 May 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- "Eurovision: several cities in the Netherlands already candidates to host the 2020 edition". Teller Report. 19 May 2019. Archived from the original on 12 April 2021.
- Groot, Evert (29 May 2019). "Which Dutch city or region will host Eurovision 2020?". European Broadcasting Union. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019.
- Zwart, Josianne (10 July 2019). "5 Dutch cities in the race to become Eurovision 2020 Host City". European Broadcasting Union. Archived from the original on 10 July 2019.
- Oomen, Eefje (16 July 2019). "Rotterdam en Maastricht strijden om Songfestival, andere steden vallen af" [Rotterdam and Maastricht compete for the Song Contest, other cities are dropped]. Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 16 July 2019.
- Jiandani, Sanjay (19 July 2019). "Eurovision 2020: Highlights from NPO's visit to Rotterdam". ESCToday. Archived from the original on 19 July 2019.
- LaFleur, Louise (30 August 2019). "Rotterdam to host Eurovision 2020!". European Broadcasting Union. Archived from the original on 2 October 2019. Retrieved 2 October 2019.