Cabinet of the Netherlands

The cabinet of the Netherlands (Dutch: Nederlands kabinet) is the main executive body of the Netherlands. The latest cabinet of the Netherlands is the Fourth Rutte cabinet,[1] which has been in power since 10 January 2022. It is headed by Prime Minister Mark Rutte.[2]

Composition and role

edit
 
The Hague's Binnenhof. The Ministry of General Affairs, where the Council of Ministers meets every Friday, is in the centre.

The cabinet consists of the ministers and state secretaries. The cabinet is led by the Prime Minister. There are between twelve and sixteen Ministers, most of whom are also heads of specific government ministries, although there are often some ministers without portfolio who have areas of responsibility inside one or more ministries. For instance there has for some time been a minister for development cooperation, who works within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Most ministries also have a state secretary who is responsible for part of the relevant portfolio. State secretaries (such as that of Trade and Development Cooperation) are given the right to call themselves "Minister" in other countries and be treated as such for protocolary purposes, while not having any of the domestic rights given specifically to Ministers. Most significantly, state secretaries are not members of the Council of Ministers.

The policy of a cabinet is coordinated by the Council of Ministers, in which all ministers, including ministers without portfolio, take part. The Council initiates laws and policy. State secretaries do not attend the Council of Ministers unless invited, and even then they have no voting rights in the Council. The Council meets every Friday in the Trêveszaal (the Room of Treaties) in the Binnenhof. Meetings are chaired by the Prime Minister, or an acting Prime Minister if necessary. The Council makes decisions in a collegial manner; all ministers, including the Prime Minister, are (theoretically) equal. Behind the closed doors of the Trêveszaal, ministers can freely debate proposed decisions and express their opinion on any aspect of cabinet policy. Once a decision is made by the Council, all individual members are bound by it and are obliged to support it publicly. A member of Cabinet who is not prepared to publicly support a decision of the Council is obliged to step down. Typically, a good deal of effort is put into reaching relative consensus on any decision. A process of voting within the Council does exist, but is hardly ever used.

Together with the King, the Council of Ministers forms the Government, which makes all the major decisions. In practice, the King does not participate in the daily decision-making of government, although he is kept up to date by weekly meetings with the Prime Minister. The Dutch constitution does not speak of cabinet, but instead only of the Council of Ministers and Government.

The ministers, individually and collectively (as cabinet), are responsible to the States-General for government policy and must enjoy its confidence. It is not possible for a minister to be a member of parliament. Ministers or state secretaries who are no longer supported by a parliamentary majority are also expected by convention to step down. In contrast to the Westminster system, Dutch ministers may not simultaneously also be members of the States-General, although members of the States-General can be appointed as ministers, whereupon their seats become vacant.

An important question is whether the relationship between the cabinet and parliament should be dualistic or monistic. That is, whether ministers and leaders of governing parliamentary parties should prepare important political decisions. According to the dualistic position, members of parliament of governing parties should function independently of the Cabinet. The monistic position, by contrast, is that the Cabinet plays an important role in proposing legislation and policy.

The Cabinet typically meets at least once a week and is presided by the Prime Minister.[3]

Formation

edit

After a general election held generally every four years, or if a cabinet resigns during a parliamentary term, the process of cabinet formation starts. Because of the multi-party system of the Netherlands, no single party has had a majority in parliament since 1900, and formation of a coalition of two or often three parties is always necessary. This is a time-consuming process. The entire procedure is regulated by tradition and convention, with only the final appointment process specified by law.

Initially, the Dutch Monarch has secret individual meetings with the presidents of the Senate and House of Representatives, and the Vice-President of the Council of State. Next the Monarch has a meeting with the leader of each parliamentary party in the House of Representatives. This is followed by appointing an informateur who explores the options of a new cabinet. The informateur is often a relative outsider and a veteran politician, who has retired from active politics, perhaps a member of the Senate or Raad van State, though by convention has a background in the largest party in the House of Representatives. The Monarch may appoint multiple informateurs, with backgrounds in other parties. The informateur is given a specific task by the King or Queen regnant, often to "seek a coalition of parties with programmatic agreement and a majority in parliament." The informateur has one-on-one meetings with the leaders of the parliamentary parties, and chairs sessions of negotiations between the chairs of parliamentary parties as they compromise in order to achieve agreement. If negotiations break down, a new informateur is appointed and the information process begins afresh.

Once an informateur is successful, the Monarch appoints the formateur,[4] conventionally the leader of the largest party in the prospective coalition and the likely Prime Minister. the formateur leads any remaining negotiations between those parties willing to cooperate to form a cabinet. Often, these negotiations cover the details of the program of policies, the composition of the Cabinet, and the division of Ministerial portfolios.

If the formateur is successful, the Monarch appoints all ministers and state secretaries individually by Royal Decision (Koninklijk Besluit). Each Minister privately swears an oath of loyalty to the Constitution. After this the entire Council of Ministers and the King or Queen regnant are photographed on the stairs of the palace Huis ten Bosch during the bordes scene. The new cabinet then proposes its plans to parliament.

Between the dissolution of the States-General before general elections and the appointment of a new Cabinet, the incumbent Cabinet is termed demissionair, that is, a caretaker government limiting itself to urgent and pressing matters and traditionally not taking any controversial decisions. If a Cabinet falls during a parliamentary term because one of the coalition partners withdraws its support, the coalition partner in question may leave. This does not result in a demissionair Cabinet, unless the Prime Minister is granted a dissolution of the States-General. Instead, the remaining parties in the governing coalition form a rompkabinet ("rump cabinet"). If the parties do not between them control a majority of the House of Representatives, the Cabinet continues as a minority government.

The formation is often considered as important as or even more important than the elections themselves. Because of the importance of negotiations, which can lead to policies that no party has promoted during the election, cabinet formations are sometimes seen as undemocratic. Recently it was attempted to make the process more democratic, with the formateur and informateur accounting for their actions before both the House of Representatives and the Dutch Monarch. Another source of discontent with this process is the role of the monarch in it.

Incumbent Cabinet

edit
Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Ministers in the fourth Rutte cabinet
Title Minister Term of office Party
Image Name Start End
Prime Minister   Mark Rutte 14 October 2010[i] Incumbent VVD
First Deputy Prime Minister   Sigrid Kaag 10 January 2022 8 January 2024[ii] D66
  Rob Jetten 8 January 2024 Incumbent
Second Deputy Prime Minister   Wopke Hoekstra 10 January 2022 1 September 2023[ii] CDA
  Karien van Gennip 5 September 2023 Incumbent
Third Deputy Prime Minister   Carola Schouten 26 October 2017[i] Incumbent CU
Ministers in the fourth Rutte cabinet
Title Minister Term of office Party
Image Name Start End
Minister of General Affairs   Mark Rutte 14 October 2010[i] Incumbent VVD
Minister of Finance   Sigrid Kaag 10 January 2022 8 January 2024[ii] D66
  Rob Jetten (ad interim)[iii] 8 January 2024 12 January 2024
  Steven van Weyenberg 12 January 2024 Incumbent
Minister of Foreign Affairs   Wopke Hoekstra 10 January 2022 1 September 2023[ii] CDA
  Liesje Schreinemacher (ad interim) 1 September 2023 5 September 2023 VVD
  Hanke Bruins Slot 5 September 2023 Incumbent CDA
Minister of Justice and Security   Dilan Yeşilgöz-Zegerius 10 January 2022 Incumbent VVD
Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations   Hanke Bruins Slot 10 January 2022 5 September 2023[iv] CDA
  Hugo de Jonge 5 September 2023 Incumbent
Minister of Education, Culture and Science   Robbert Dijkgraaf 10 January 2022 Incumbent D66
Minister of Defence   Kajsa Ollongren 10 January 2022 Incumbent D66
Minister of Infrastructure and Water Management   Mark Harbers 10 January 2022 Incumbent VVD
Minister of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy   Micky Adriaansens 10 January 2022 Incumbent VVD
Minister of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality   Henk Staghouwer 10 January 2022 5 September 2022[ii] CU
  Carola Schouten (ad interim) 5 September 2022 4 October 2022
  Piet Adema 4 October 2022 Incumbent
Minister of Social Affairs and Employment   Karien van Gennip 10 January 2022 Incumbent CDA
Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport   Ernst Kuipers 10 January 2022 10 January 2024[ii] D66
  Conny Helder 10 January 2024 Incumbent VVD
Ministers without portfolio in the fourth Rutte cabinet
Ministry Title Minister Term of office Party
Image Name Start End
Social Affairs and Employment Minister for Poverty Policy, Participation and Pensions   Carola Schouten 10 January 2022 Incumbent CU
Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation   Liesje Schreinemacher 10 January 2022 4 December 2023[v] VVD
  Geoffrey van Leeuwen (acting) 4 December 2023 15 April 2024
  Liesje Schreinemacher 15 April 2024 Incumbent
Justice and Security Minister for Legal Protection   Franc Weerwind 10 January 2022 Incumbent D66
Interior and Kingdom Relations Minister for Housing and Spatial Planning   Hugo de Jonge 10 January 2022 5 September 2023[vi] CDA
Education, Culture and Science Minister for Primary and Secondary Education   Dennis Wiersma 10 January 2022 22 June 2023[ii] VVD
  Mariëlle Paul 21 July 2023 Incumbent
Economic Affairs and Climate Policy Minister for Climate and Energy Policy   Rob Jetten 10 January 2022 Incumbent D66
Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality Minister for Nature and Nitrogen Policy   Christianne van der Wal 10 January 2022 Incumbent VVD
Health, Welfare and Sport Minister for Long-term Care and Sport   Conny Helder 10 January 2022 10 January 2024[vii] VVD
Minister for Medical Care   Pia Dijkstra 2 February 2024 Incumbent D66
State secretaries in the fourth Rutte cabinet
Ministry Title State secretary Term of office Party
Image Name Start End
Justice and Security State Secretary for Justice and Security[viii]   Eric van der Burg 10 January 2022 28 October 2023[ix] VVD
  Christophe van der Maat (acting) 30 October 2022 24 November 2023
  Eric van der Burg 24 November 2023 Incumbent
Interior and Kingdom Relations State Secretary for Kingdom Relations and Digitalisation[x]   Alexandra van Huffelen 10 January 2022 Incumbent D66
Education, Culture and Science State Secretary for Culture and Media   Gunay Uslu 10 January 2022 1 December 2023[ii] D66
  Steven van Weyenberg 6 December 2023 12 January 2024[xi]
  Fleur Gräper 12 December 2024 Incumbent
Finance State Secretary for Tax Affairs and the Tax Administration   Marnix van Rij 10 January 2022 Incumbent CDA
State Secretary for Benefits and Customs   Aukje de Vries 10 January 2022 Incumbent VVD
Defence State Secretary for Defence   Christophe van der Maat 10 January 2022 30 October 2022[xii] VVD
24 November 2023 Incumbent
Infrastructure and Water Management State Secretary for Infrastructure and Water Management[xiii]   Vivianne Heijnen 10 January 2022 24 May 2024[v] CDA
Economic Affairs and Climate Policy State Secretary for the Extractive Industries   Hans Vijlbrief 10 January 2022 Incumbent D66
Health, Welfare and Sport State Secretary for Health, Welfare and Sport   Maarten van Ooijen 10 January 2022 Incumbent CU
  1. ^ a b c Retained this position from the previous cabinet.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Resigned from this position.
  3. ^ Tasks were de facto delegated to State Secretary Marnix van Rij.
  4. ^ Appointed as Minister of Foreign Affairs.
  5. ^ a b Took maternity leave.
  6. ^ Appointed as Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations.
  7. ^ Appointed as Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport.
  8. ^ Allowed to use the title "Minister for Migration" while on foreign business.
  9. ^ Took an extended medical leave of absence.
  10. ^ Allowed to use the title "Minister for Digitalisation" while on foreign business.
  11. ^ Appointed as Minister of Finance.
  12. ^ Appointed as acting State Secretary for Justice and Security.
  13. ^ Allowed to use the title "Minister for the Environment" while on foreign business.

Ministries

edit

There are now twelve ministries, all with their own Minister, there are also several Ministers without portfolio and in some ministries there is a State Secretary next to the Minister. The number of Ministers and State Secretaries and the division of their tasks may vary somewhat from one cabinet to another. The ministries are:

Ministries Responsibilities Agencies /
Independent Agencies
Minister
Ministry of General Affairs
(Dutch: Ministerie van
Algemene Zaken
)
AZ Government policyPlanning
InformationDutch royal house
Government Information Service
Scientific Council for Government Policy
Cabinet Office
Review Committee on the Intelligence and Security Services [nl]
Mark Rutte
as Prime Minister
and
Minister of General Affairs
Ministry of the Interior
and Kingdom Relations

(Dutch: Ministerie van Binnenlandse
Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties
)
BZK Domestic policyCivil servicePublic administration
ElectionsLocal governments
IntelligenceKingdom Relations
Safety Board
General Intelligence and Security Service
PKIoverheid
Hugo de Jonge
as Minister of the Interior
and Kingdom Relations
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
(Dutch: Ministerie van
Buitenlandse Zaken
)
BZ Foreign relationsForeign policyInternational development
International tradeEuropean UnionNATOBeneluxDiaspora
Diplomatic Service
Center for the Promotion of Imports
Hanke Bruins Slot
as Minister of
Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Finance
(Dutch: Ministerie van Financiën)
FIN Economic policyMonetary policyFiscal policy
Tax policyIncomes policyFinancial market
RegulationsGovernment budget
Tax and Customs Administration
Fiscal Information and Investigation Service
Authority for the Financial Markets
Rob Jetten
as Minister of Finance
Ministry of
Justice and Security

(Dutch: Ministerie van
Justitie en Veiligheid
)
J&V Justice systemLaw enforcementPublic security
Emergency managementCounter-terrorismImmigration policy
Legal aidDrug policyIncarcerations
National Police Corps
Public Prosecution Service
National Coordinator for Security and Counterterrorism
Forensic Institute
Immigration and Naturalisation Service
Custodial Institutions Agency
Dilan
Yeşilgöz-Zegerius

as Minister of Justice
and Security
Ministry of Economic Affairs
and Climate Policy

(Dutch: Ministerie van Economische
Zaken en Klimaat
)
EZK Commercial policyEnergy policyEnvironmental policy
Climate change policyRenewable energy policyNuclear energy policy
Industrial policyInvestment policyTechnology policy
MiningTradeSpace policy
Natural resourceTourism
Foreign Investment Agency
Space Office
Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis
Department of Nuclear Safety, Security and Safeguards
Patent Office
Central Agency for Statistics
Environmental Assessment Agency
Micky Adriaansens
as Minister of
Economic Affairs
and Climate Policy
Ministry of Defence
(Dutch: Ministerie van Defensie)
DEF Armed forcesMilitary policyNational securityVeterans Affairs
Military policeDefence diplomacyHumanitarian aid
Army
Navy
Air Force
Marechaussee
Coastguard
Military Intelligence and Security Service
Kajsa Ollongren
as Minister of Defence
Ministry of Health,
Welfare and Sport

(Dutch: Ministerie van
Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport
)
VWS Health careHealth policyHealth insurance
Pharmaceutical policyVaccination policyWelfare
Biomedical sciencesSport
Institute for Public Health and the Environment
Health Care Inspectorate
Ernst Kuipers
as Minister of Health,
Welfare and Sport
Ministry of Social Affairs
and Employment

(Dutch: Ministerie van Sociale Zaken
en Werkgelegenheid
)
SZW Social policyEmploymentLabour economics
Occupational safety and healthSocial security
Consumer protectionTrade unionsTrade associationsEmancipation
Social and Economic Council
Inspectorate SZW [nl]
Karien van Gennip
as Minister of
Social Affairs
and Employment
Ministry of Education,
Culture and Science

(Dutch: Ministerie van Onderwijs,
Cultuur en Wetenschap
)
OCW Education policyCultural policyScience policy
Knowledge policyResearchInnovation
ArtGender equalityCommunicationMedia
Public Broadcasting Agency
National Archives
National Library
Equal Treatment Commission
Robbert Dijkgraaf
as Minister of Education,
Culture and Science
Ministry of Infrastructure
and Water Management

(Dutch: Ministerie van Infrastructuur
en Waterstaat
)
I&W TransportAviationHousing policyPublic works
Spatial planningLand managementWater Management
Rijkswaterstaat
Driving License and Certificates Agency [nl]
Meteorological Institute
Mark Harbers
as Minister of
Infrastructure and
Water Management
Ministry of Agriculture,
Nature and Food Quality

(Dutch: Ministerie van Landbouw,
Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit
)
LNV Agricultural policyFood policyFood safetyFisheries
Natural conservationForestryAnimal welfare
Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority [nl] Piet Adema
as Minister of Agriculture,
Nature and Food Quality


History

edit

The first real cabinet was formed in 1848 after a constitution was adopted which limited the power of the King and introduced the principle of ministerial responsibility to parliament. Until 1888 cabinets lacked a real coordinating role, and instead ministers were focused on their own department. After 1888 cabinets became more political.

Of the thirty coalition governments since World War II, only three excluded the largest party (all three times PvdA) and the largest number of parties in a coalition was 5 (in 1971 and 1973). After that, the three major Christian-democratic parties merged into CDA, and 2- or 3-party coalitions became standard.

Since 1945 there have been thirty cabinets, which were headed by 15 Prime Ministers. Willem Drees and Jan Peter Balkenende both chaired the most cabinets (four) and Ruud Lubbers served as Prime Minister the longest (between 1982 and 1994). The second Rutte cabinet was the longest lasting cabinet since World War II (1,816 days); only the cabinet led by Theo Heemskerk sat longer (2025 days). The first Balkenende cabinet is the shortest lasting normal cabinet since World War II (87 days); only the fifth cabinet of Hendrikus Colijn lasted shorter (10 days).

Third Van Agt cabinetSecond Van Agt cabinetFirst Van Agt cabinetDen Uyl cabinetSecond Biesheuvel cabinetFirst Biesheuvel cabinetDe Jong cabinetZijlstra cabinetCals cabinetMarijnen cabinetDe Quay cabinetSecond Beel cabinetThird Drees cabinetSecond Drees cabinetFirst Drees cabinet

First Beel cabinet

Fourth Rutte cabinetThird Rutte cabinetSecond Rutte cabinetFirst Rutte cabinetFourth Balkenende cabinetThird Balkenende cabinetSecond Balkenende cabinetFirst Balkenende cabinetSecond Kok cabinetFirst Kok cabinetThird Lubbers cabinetSecond Lubbers cabinetFirst Lubbers cabinet
  Prime minister member of CDA (KVP/ARP)
  Prime minister member of PvdA (VDB)
  Prime minister member of VVD

Council of Ministers of the Kingdom

edit

The Cabinet of the Netherlands also takes responsibility for day-to-day affairs in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which is distinct from the Netherlands, as it also includes the constituent countries of Aruba, Curaçao and Sint-Maarten. If affairs are decided which are of vital importance of the Kingdom as a whole, the Council of Ministers of the Netherlands is joined by a Minister Plenipotentiary for Aruba, Curaçao and Sint-Maarten to form the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom.

Types

edit

There are different types of cabinets:

  • A demissionary cabinet (demissionair kabinet) is a caretaker government during the election campaign and the formation of a new cabinet.
  • An extra-parliamentary cabinet (extraparlementair kabinet) not based on a parliamentary majority. The last extra-parliamentary cabinet was the Den Uyl cabinet. It consisted of members of the three progressive parties (the social democratic PvdA, the social liberal D66, and the progressive Christian PPR) and progressive members from the Christian democratic ARP and KVP. It is contrasted with a parliamentary cabinet, which does have an explicit majority in parliament.
  • A rump cabinet (rompkabinet) is the continuation of a Dutch cabinet when it has lost a coalition partner, typically a form of minority government, where the cabinet has not become demissionary, but seeks support from a majority of parliament to finish the work that was already introduced by the cabinet to the parliament. Normally the Dutch Monarch will call for dissolution of parliament somewhat later, since the basis behind the coalition agreement is gone.
  • A broad basis cabinet (brede basiskabinet) is an oversized coalition or national cabinet. Between 1945 and 1959, several cabinets have included more parties than were necessary for a parliamentary majority. The first one of which was the Schermerhorn cabinet. Other parties were included to give the cabinet and its far-reaching proposals, like the formation of a welfare state, a broad basis in parliament and society. The core of these cabinets were formed by the social democratic PvdA and the catholic KVP, the Roman/Red alliance which by themselves had a large majority in parliament.

See also

edit

References

edit
  1. ^ Zaken, Ministerie van Algemene (2022-01-07). "Government - Government.nl". www.government.nl. Retrieved 2022-03-18.
  2. ^ Zaken, Ministerie van Algemene (2015-04-17). "Members of the government - Government - Government.nl". www.government.nl. Retrieved 2022-03-18.
  3. ^ Zaken, Ministerie van Algemene (2014-02-20). "How the Dutch Cabinet works - Government - Government.nl". www.government.nl. Retrieved 2022-03-18.
  4. ^ Zaken, Ministerie van Algemene (2017-12-12). "Forming a new government - Government - Government.nl". www.government.nl. Retrieved 2022-03-18.