Eurovision Song Contest 1991
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The Eurovision Song Contest 1991 was the 36th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on 4 May 1991 in Rome. Due to the Gulf War and mounting tensions in Yugoslavia, RAI decided to move the contest from Sanremo to Rome, which was perceived to be more secure.
|Eurovision Song Contest 1991|
|Grand final||4 May 1991|
|Venue||Studio 15 di Cinecittà|
|Musical director||Bruno Canfora|
|Directed by||Riccardo Donna|
|Executive supervisor||Frank Naef|
|Executive producer||Silvia Salvetti|
|Host broadcaster||Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI)|
|Opening act||Sara Carlson performing "Celebration" amongst the ruins of ancient Rome; Toto Cutugno performing "Insieme: 1992" and Gigliola Cinquetti performing "Non ho l'età"|
|Interval act||Arturo Brachetti|
|Number of entries||22|
|Voting system||Each country awarded 12, 10, 8-1 point(s) to their 10 favourite songs|
|Winning song|| Sweden|
"Fångad av en stormvind"
This was the last event in which the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia participated. The 1992 contest saw the participation of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (comprising only Serbia and Montenegro). It was also the first time that Germany was represented in their reunited form since the East Germany joined West Germany by the German reunification.
Carola was the winner of this Contest with the song "Fångad av en stormvind". This was the third victory for Sweden, after 1974 and 1984. There was a tie between Carola and France's Amina, as both had received 146 points. This necessitated a 'count-back', a tie-breaking measure introduced after the infamous four-way tie in 1969. Both Sweden and France had received four sets of 12 points, but Sweden had received five sets of 10 points to France's two, so Carola was declared the winner. Nowadays, rules establish that the country which has more points of more countries wins Eurovision, therefore France would have won the contest (France 18/22 vs. Sweden 17/22 votes of countries).
The contest was originally scheduled to be held at Teatro Ariston in Sanremo, where the Sanremo Music Festival takes place annually. It was for the organisers to pay tribute to the Italian festival that inspired the creation of the Eurovision Song Contest. But following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq and the outbreak of the Gulf War, the host broadcaster RAI decided in January 1991, to better ensure the security of foreign delegations, it would move the contest to Rome. This caused serious organisational problems and delays.
Rome is the capital of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale). Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. Studio 15 of Cinecittà, a large film studio in Rome, was later confirmed as the new venue. With an area of 400,000 square metres, it is the largest film studio in Europe, and is considered the hub of Italian cinema. The studios were constructed during the Fascist era as part of a scheme to revive the Italian film industry.
The presenters were Gigliola Cinquetti and Toto Cutugno, who represented Italy when they won Eurovision in 1964 and 1990 respectively. Cutugno opened the contest singing Insieme: 1992, and Cinquetti performed Non ho l'età. Cutugno had some difficulty with the pronunciation of the song titles and names of the artists and conductors. Despite this, in Italy almost seven million people watched the show. In addition to tallying the vote numbers in English and French, Cinquetti and Cutugno gave each of the jury allotments in Italian as well.
Nearly all of the commentary during the voting was given in Italian, which is not an official language of the European Broadcasting Union (English and French are, and in the Eurovision Song Contest it is mandatory to provide commentary in at least one of those languages). The overall staging and production standard received considerable criticism afterwards, including for wasting time which saw the broadcast overshoot its scheduled time allotment and for the haphazard, casual and at times indecorous approach of the two presenters throughout but particularly during the voting, which saw Frank Neuf, the independent scrutineer of the European Broadcasting Union, being required to intervene in the process to an unprecedented level.
Sara Carlson gave the opening ceremony performance, titled Celebration, a mixture of modern dance in ancient settings of Ancient Rome. The performance featured Carlson singing, and a mixture of street dance and classical dance choreographed to popular sounding music of the time. At the time, Carlson had appeared numerous times on Italian TV, and this was seen as one of her largest audiences.
The Netherlands did not participate in this contest as it conflicted with the Remembrance of the Dead national holiday, and so Malta was allowed to participate in the Contest for the first time in 16 years, unable to before due to restrictions on the number of countries allowed to participate.
This is the last contest where the official logo is in a language other than English (here, it is in Italian). From 1992, the official logo of the Eurovision Song Contest remains in English.
Each performance had a conductor who directed the orchestra.
- Yugoslavia – Slobodan Marković
- Iceland – Jón Ólafsson
- Malta – Paul Abela
- Greece – Charis Andreadis
- Switzerland – Flaviano Cuffari
- Austria – Richard Österreicher
- Luxembourg – Francis Goya
- Sweden – Anders Berglund
- France – Jérôme Pillement
- Turkey – Turhan Yükseler
- Ireland – Noel Kelehan
- Portugal – Fernando Correia Martins
- Denmark – Henrik Krogsgård
- Norway – Pete Knutsen
- Israel – Kobi Oshrat
- Finland – Olli Ahvenlahti
- Germany – Hermann Weindorf
- Belgium – Roland Verlooven
- Spain – Eduardo Leiva
- United Kingdom – Ronnie Hazlehurst
- Cyprus – Alexander Kirov Zografov
- Italy – Bruno Canfora
|Stefán Hilmarsson (part of Stefán & Eyfi)||Iceland||1988 (part of Beathoven)|
|Eiríkur Hauksson (part of Just 4 Fun)||Norway||1986 (for Iceland, part of ICY)|
|Hanne Krogh (part of Just 4 Fun)||1971, 1985 (part of Bobbysocks!, winner)|
Each country had a jury who awarded 12, 10, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 point(s) for their top ten songs.
During the final vote (Italy) none of the top three contenders - Sweden, Israel and France - had received any points up until the last 12-point vote. This vote went to France and for the first time in twenty-two years, there was a tie for first place, with France overcoming a large deficit to catch up with Sweden. However, since the four-way tie of 1969, the rules had been altered to ensure a single outright winner. The first step in the procedure was to check the number of 12-point votes awarded to each country. Sweden and France were still tied. But when counting the number of 10-point votes, Sweden had more and was finally declared the winner.
|Place||Country||Artist||Points||12 points||10 points|
Below is a summary of all 12 point in the final:
The singers were asked to sing a known Italian song which would then be used as a short clip for the postcard. The songs were in order:
Commentators and spokespersonsEdit
- Yugoslavia - Mebrura Topolovac
- Iceland - Guðríður Ólafsdóttir
- Malta - Dominic Micallef
- Greece - Fotini Giannoulatou
- Switzerland - Michel Stocker
- Austria - Gabriele Haring
- Luxembourg - Jean-Luc Bertrand
- Sweden - Bo Hagström
- France - Daniela Lumbroso
- Turkey - Canan Kumbasar
- Ireland - Eileen Dunne
- Portugal - Maria Margarida Gaspar
- Denmark - Bent Henius
- Norway - Sverre Christophersen
- Israel - Yitzhak Shim'oni
- Finland - Heidi Kokki
- Germany - Christian Eckhardt
- Belgium - An Ploegaerts
- Spain - María Ángeles Balañac
- United Kingdom - Colin Berry
- Cyprus - Anna Partelidou
- Italy - Rosanna Vaudetti
- Yugoslavia – Serbian: Mladen Popović (TVB1), Croatian: Ksenija Urličić (HTV1), Slovene: Miša Molk (SLO1)
- Iceland – Arthúr Björgvin Bollason (Sjónvarpið)
- Malta – Toni Sant (TVM)
- Greece – Dafni Bokota (ET1)
- Switzerland – German: Bernard Thurnheer (Schweizer Fernsehen), French: Lolita Morena (TSR), Italian: Emanuela Gaggini (TSI)
- Austria – Herbert Dobrovolny (FS1)
- Luxembourg – Valérie Sarn (RTL TV)
- Sweden – Harald Treutiger (SVT TV2)
- France – Léon Zitrone (Antenne 2)
- Turkey – Başak Doğru (TV1)
- Ireland – Pat Kenny (RTÉ 1)
- Portugal – Ana do Carmo (Canal 1)
- Denmark – Camilla Miehe-Renard (DR TV)
- Norway – John Andreassen and Jahn Teigen (NRK)
- Israel – No commentator (IBA)
- Finland – Erkki Pohjanheimo (YLE TV1)
- Germany – Max Schautzer (Erstes Deutsches Fernsehen/Deutscher Fernsehfunk)
- Belgium – Dutch: André Vermeulen (BRTN TV1), French: Claude Delacroix (RTBF La Une)
- Spain – Tomás Fernando Flores (TVE2)
- United Kingdom – Terry Wogan (BBC 1)
- Cyprus – Evi Papamichail (RIK)
- Italy – No commentator (Raiuno)
Some participating countries did not provide radio broadcasts for the event; the ones who did are listed below.
- Greece – Giorgos Mitropoulos (ERA ERT1)
- Austria – Walter Richard Langer (Hitradio Ö3)
- Luxembourg – André Torrent (RTL Radio)
- Sweden – Kalle Oldby and Rune Hallberg (SR P3)
- France – Évelyne Dhéliat (France Inter)
- Turkey – Erhan Konuk (TRT Radyo 3)
- Ireland – Larry Gogan (RTÉ Radio 1)
- Portugal – TBC (RDP Antena 2)
- Denmark – Camilla Miehe-Renard, Jesper Bæhrenz and Andrew Jensen (DR P3)
- Israel – Yigal Ravid (Reshet Gimel)
- Finland – Kai Ristola (YLE Radiomafia)
- Germany – Ado Schlier (Deutschlandfunk/hr3)
- Belgium – Dutch: Julien Put and Marc Brillouet (BRTN Radio 2), French: Stéphane Dupont (RTBF La Première)
- United Kingdom – Ken Bruce (BBC Radio 2)
- Cyprus – Pavlos Pavlou (CyBC Radio 2)
- Italy – Antonio De Robertis and Peppi Franzelin (Rai Radio 2)
National jury membersEdit
From this year, half of the members had to be music professionals.
- Turkey - Ümit Eroğlu (Turkish conductor at the 1990 and 1998 contests), Müjdat Akgün, Güneri Munzur, Durul Gence, Nejat Başeğmezler, Seda Bağcan, Taner Erdem, Göksan Arman
- Ireland – Danny Guinan, Anne Bushnell
- Portugal – Carlos Alberto Moniz, Thilo Krasmann
- Denmark – Eli Berenthz
- Norway – Christine Holm, Julie Holm, Tine Smith, Jan Paul Brekke, Rune Arnesen, Nils Einar Vinjor, Kristin Skaare, Vibeke Wesenlund, Jean-Paul Choukroun, Gustavo Pollastri, Ragnhild Vaaler, Reidun Hansen, Kari Olstad, Erik Wesseltoft, Egil Storeide, Knut Reiersrud
- Israel – Shaul Adar
- Finland – Raimo Henriksson, Maisa Kanerva, Jussi Saksa, Martin Brushane, Päivi Ahola, Anna-Mari Kähärä, Kalle Chydenius, Johanna Almark, Jorma Tulonen, Eino Lehtinen, Riitta Haapala, Timo Linnala, Jaana Lindholm, Harri Antikainen, Pauliina Pohjanheimo, Harri Salmi
- Germany - Jürgen Jürgens
- Belgium - Nelly Byl, Lou Roman, Patrick Hiketick, Rik Vervecken
- Spain – Antonio Sempere (journalist and teacher), María Isabel Lloret (gymnast), Marcos Fernández (student), Celia Cosgaya (music student), Gabriel Jaraba (journalist), María Antonia Valls (journalist), Paco Clavel (artist), Salomé (singer, joint winner of the 1969 contest), Loles León (actress), Alfonso del Real (actor), María Casal (actress), Ricardo Cantalapiedra (journalist), Nuria Esther Martín (dancer), Jesús de Vega (doctor), María Eugenia Castellanos (public relations), Begoña Castro (dancer)
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