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The Eurovision Song Contest 1991 was the 36th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on 4 May 1991 in Rome. Due to the Gulf War and mounting tensions in Yugoslavia, RAI decided to move the contest from Sanremo to Rome, which was perceived to be more secure.

Eurovision Song Contest 1991
ESC 1991 logo.png
Dates
Final4 May 1991
Host
VenueStudio 15 di Cinecittà
Rome, Italy
Presenter(s)Gigliola Cinquetti
Toto Cutugno
ConductorBruno Canfora
Directed byRiccardo Donna
Executive supervisorFrank Naef
Host broadcasterRadiotelevisione Italiana (RAI)
Opening actSara Carlson performing "Celebration" amongst the ruins of ancient Rome; Toto Cutugno performing "Insieme: 1992" and Gigliola Cinquetti performing "Non ho l'età"
Interval actArturo Brachetti
Participants
Number of entries22
Debuting countriesNone
Returning countries Malta
Withdrawing countries Netherlands
Vote
Voting systemEach country awarded 12, 10, 8-1 point(s) to their 10 favourite songs
Nul points Austria
Winning song Sweden
"Fångad av en stormvind"

This was the last event in which the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia participated. The 1992 contest saw the participation of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (comprising only Serbia and Montenegro). It was also the first time that Germany was represented in their reunited form since the East Germany joined West Germany by the German reunification.

Carola was the winner of this Contest with the song "Fångad av en stormvind". This was the third victory for Sweden, after 1974 and 1984. There was a tie between Carola and France's Amina, as both had received 146 points. This necessitated a 'count-back', a tie-breaking measure introduced after the infamous four-way tie in 1969. Both Sweden and France had received four sets of 12 points, but Sweden had received five sets of 10 points to France's two, so Carola was declared the winner.

Contents

LocationEdit

Location of Sanremo (the proposed host city) and the capital, Rome (the eventual host city).
 
Cinecittà, Rome – host venue of the 1991 contest.

The contest was originally scheduled to be held at Teatro Ariston in Sanremo, where the Sanremo Music Festival takes place annually. It was for the organisers to pay tribute to the Italian festival that inspired the creation of the Eurovision Song Contest. But following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq and the outbreak of the Gulf War, the host broadcaster RAI decided in January 1991, to better ensure the security of foreign delegations, it would move the contest to Rome. This caused serious organisational problems and delays.

Rome is the capital of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale). Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. Studio 15 of Cinecittà, a large film studio in Rome, was later confirmed as the new venue. With an area of 400,000 square metres, it is the largest film studio in Europe, and is considered the hub of Italian cinema. The studios were constructed during the Fascist era as part of a scheme to revive the Italian film industry.

Contest overviewEdit

The presenters were Gigliola Cinquetti and Toto Cutugno, who represented Italy when they won Eurovision in 1964 and 1990 respectively. Cutugno opened the contest singing Insieme: 1992, and Cinquetti performed Non ho l'età. Cutugno had some difficulty with the pronunciation of the song titles and names of the artists and conductors. Despite this, in Italy almost seven million people watched the show. In addition to tallying the vote numbers in English and French, Cinquetti and Cutugno gave each of the jury allotments in Italian as well.

Nearly all of the commentary during the voting was given in Italian, which is not an official language of the European Broadcasting Union (English and French are, and in the Eurovision Song Contest it is mandatory to provide commentary in at least one of those languages).

Sara Carlson gave the opening ceremony performance, titled Celebration, a mixture of modern dance in ancient settings of Ancient Rome. The performance featured Carlson singing, and a mixture of street dance and classical dance choreographed to popular sounding music of the time. At the time, Carlson had appeared numerous times on Italian TV, and this was seen as one of her largest audiences.

The Netherlands did not participate in this contest as it conflicted with the Remembrance of the Dead national holiday, and so Malta was allowed to participate in the Contest for the first time in 16 years, unable to before due to restrictions on the number of countries allowed to participate.

This is the last contest where the official logo is in a language other than English (here, it is in Italian). From 1992, the official logo of the Eurovision Song Contest remains in English.

This is also the last time for six years where an up-tempo song won the contest. The next time this would happen is in Dublin 1997, with Katrina and The Waves' song, Love Shine a Light.

ConductorsEdit

Each performance had a conductor who directed the orchestra.

Returning artistsEdit

Artist Country Previous year(s)
Thomas Forstner   Austria 1989
Stefán Hilmarsson (part of Stefán & Eyfi)   Iceland 1988 (part of Beathoven)
Eiríkur Hauksson (part of Just 4 Fun)   Norway 1986 (for Iceland, part of ICY)
Hanne Krogh (part of Just 4 Fun) 1971, 1985 (part of Bobbysocks!, winner)
Carola   Sweden 1983

ResultsEdit

Voting structureEdit

Each country had a jury who awarded 12, 10, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 point(s) for their top ten songs.

During the final vote (Italy) none of the top three contenders - Sweden, Israel and France - had received any points up until the last 12-point vote. This vote went to France and for the first time in twenty-two years, there was a tie for first place, with France overcoming a large deficit to catch up with Sweden. However, since the four-way tie of 1969, the rules had been altered to ensure a single outright winner. The first step in the procedure was to check the number of 12-point votes awarded to each country. Sweden and France were still tied. But when counting the number of 10-point votes, Sweden had more and was finally declared the winner.

Tiebreak resultsEdit

Place Country Artist Points 12 points 10 points Points from each country
1   Sweden Carola 146 4 5 17 of 21
2   France Amina 146 4 2 18 of 21

Score sheetEdit

Results
Total score
Yugoslavia
Iceland
Malta
Greece
Switzerland
Austria
Luxembourg
Sweden
France
Turkey
Ireland
Portugal
Denmark
Norway
Israel
Finland
Germany
Belgium
Spain
United Kingdom
Cyprus
Italy
Contestants
Yugoslavia 1 1
Iceland 26 4 10 5 7
Malta 106 1 2 6 4 10 12 2 7 12 7 6 10 4 6 7 10
Greece 36 4 5 2 1 1 4 1 1 5 10 2
Switzerland 118 5 5 7 8 12 8 4 2 2 6 5 3 8 5 6 12 8 8 4
Austria 0
Luxembourg 29 4 5 1 3 2 4 3 2 3 2
Sweden 146 6 12 10 10 7 6 3 10 12 8 10 8 12 10 4 12 6
France 146 10 7 3 8 7 12 5 7 5 12 12 10 8 7 8 6 7 12
Turkey 44 7 7 8 7 2 5 8
Ireland 47 3 4 3 1 8 4 7 1 2 2 5 4 3
Portugal 62 8 4 1 2 7 10 5 1 2 7 10 4 1
Denmark 8 3 5
Norway 14 6 1 1 2 4
Israel 139 12 10 8 5 8 5 6 3 12 8 4 10 7 6 8 12 10 5
Finland 6 1 1 4
Germany 10 6 1 3
Belgium 23 3 2 5 3 3 2 5
Spain 119 8 2 6 10 12 7 6 4 6 8 6 8 4 2 4 7 6 1 12
United Kingdom 47 10 3 5 6 3 1 1 3 5 3 1 6
Cyprus 60 2 3 12 12 4 12 5 3 6 1
Italy 89 7 2 6 2 8 10 10 12 10 3 12 7

12 pointsEdit

Below is a summary of all 12 point in the final:

N. Contestant Voting nation
4 France Austria, Israel, Italy, Norway
Sweden Denmark, Germany, Iceland, United Kingdom
3 Cyprus France, Greece, Malta
Israel Spain, Turkey, Yugoslavia
2 Italy Finland, Portugal
Malta Ireland, Sweden
Spain Cyprus, Switzerland
Switzerland Belgium, Luxembourg

PostcardsEdit

CommentatorsEdit

TelevisionEdit

Participating countriesEdit

Non-participating countriesEdit

RadioEdit

Some participating countries did not provide radio broadcasts for the event; the ones who did are listed below.

SpokespersonsEdit

National jury membersEdit

From this year, half of the members had to be music professionals.

ReferencesEdit

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  4. ^ Oberösterreichische Nachrichten, 3 May 1997
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  14. ^ a b Savvidis, Christos (OGAE Cyprus)
  15. ^ "Peppino Di Capri Comme è ddoce o mare Eurofestival 1991". YouTube. Retrieved 2012-08-10.
  16. ^ Times of Malta, 5 May 1991
  17. ^ "Εκφωνητές της ΕΡΤ για τις ψήφους της Ελλάδας στην EUROVISION - Page 3". Retromaniax.gr. Archived from the original on 2012-09-11. Retrieved 2012-08-10.
  18. ^ Baumann, Peter Ramón (OGAE Switzerland)
  19. ^ Zitrone, Léon et al. (May 4, 1991). 36ème Concours Eurovision de la Chanson 1991 [36th Eurovision Song Contest 1991] (Television production). Italy: RAI, Antenne 2 (commentary).
  20. ^ Dyrseth, Seppo (OGAE Norway)
  21. ^ "פורום אירוויזיון". Sf.tapuz.co.il. 1999-09-13. Archived from the original on October 8, 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-10.
  22. ^ "Selostajat ja taustalaulajat läpi vuosien? • Viisukuppila". Viisukuppila.fi. Retrieved 2012-08-10.
  23. ^ "ESC 1991 Belgian Votes by An Ploegaerts and a jumping Carola". YouTube. 2011-04-13. Retrieved 2012-08-10.
  24. ^ "María Ángeles Balañac". Imdb.es. 2009-05-01. Archived from the original on 2012-03-12. Retrieved 2012-08-10.
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External linksEdit