Televisión Española (acronym TVE, branded tve, lit. transl. "Spanish Television") is Spain's national state-owned public television broadcaster and the oldest regular television service in the country. It was also the first regular television service in Equatorial Guinea.

Televisión Española
TypeTelevision broadcaster
  • Spain
  • Worldwide (international channels and online)
HeadquartersPrado del Rey, Pozuelo de Alarcón (Madrid)
ParentRadiotelevisión Española (RTVE)
TVE test card
Launch date
28 October 1956; 67 years ago (1956-10-28)
Picture format
La 1: 4K UHDTV
(downscaled to 1080i for the HDTV feed)
Others: 1080i HDTV
WebcastWatch Live
Official website

TVE began as a standalone company dependent on the Ministry of Information and Tourism. After undergoing several restructurings and reorganizations, since 1 January 2007 it is the television division –while Radio Nacional de España (RNE) is the radio division– of Radiotelevisión Española (RTVE), the public corporation which has the overall responsibility for the national broadcasting public services under a parliament-appointed president who, in addition to being answerable to a board of directors, reports to an all-party committee of the national parliament, as provided for in the Public Radio and Television Law of 2006.

TVE launched its first channel on 28 October 1956 as the first regular television service in Spain. It was the only one until 15 November 1966, when TVE launched a second channel. As TVE held a monopoly on television broadcasting in the country, they were the only television channels until the first regional public television station was launched on 16 February 1983, when Euskal Telebista started broadcasting in the Basque Country. Commercial television was launched on 25 January 1990, when Antena 3 started broadcasting nationwide. On 20 July 1968, TVE also became the first regular television service in Equatorial Guinea, with the inauguration of its broadcasts in the then-Spanish autonomous region of Equatorial Guinea.

Its headquarters and main production centre is Prado del Rey in Pozuelo de Alarcón, with additional production centres in San Cugat del Vallés and in the Canary Islands. TVE's news services are located at its Torrespaña facilities, at the foot of the broadcasting tower in Madrid. Although almost all the programming of its channels is in Spanish and is the same for all of Spain, TVE has territorial centers in every autonomous community and produces and broadcasts some local programming in regional variations in each of them in the corresponding co-official language.[1]

TVE's activities were previously financed by a combination of advertising revenue and subsidies from the national government, but since 1 January 2010, it has been supported by subsidies only.[2]

History edit

1950s edit

Televisión Española was established at a building of Paseo de la Habana in Madrid, and after some time of technical tests, its free-to-air black-and-white fullscreen standard-definition monaural live analogue terrestrial television transmissions on VHF frequencies were officially launched on 28 October 1956 with a special inaugural program. The next day, three evening hours a day of regular live broadcasting began from its single 250 square metres (2,700 sq ft) studio, becoming the first regular television service in Spain. At that time, there were only 600 receivers in operation in the city and the coverage barely reached a radius of 70 kilometres (43 mi).[3]

An initial news bulletin, called Últimas Noticias, was created within a week and a weather forecast was first aired on 2 November 1956. On 13 January 1957, the first fiction was produced, an adaptation of the 1916 one-act play Before Breakfast by Eugene O'Neill, and in February 1957, the first fiction series, the sitcom Los Tele-Rodríguez.[4] On 15 September 1957, the evening edition of the flagship Telediario newscast was premiered, with the afternoon edition following on 28 April 1958.[5]

On 27 April 1958, TVE aired its first live broadcast from out-of-studio, the 1957–58 La Liga season football match between Atlético Madrid and Real Madrid CF from the Metropolitano Stadium in Madrid. On 12 October 1958, the broadcasting centre in Zaragoza was inaugurated and on the first week of February 1959, the broadcasting center in Barcelona began to operate. On 14 July 1959, the Miramar studios in Barcelona were opened.[6]

1960s edit

The first TVE production for abroad was the coverage for the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) of the arrival in Madrid of the President of the United States Dwight D. Eisenhower on 21 December 1959. As the link with the Eurovision telecommunications network was not ready yet, it was taped and sent by plane to the nearest Eurovision node in Marseille. Once the link was ready, the first live broadcast from Spain to abroad was the 1959–60 European Cup season football match between Real Madrid and OGC Nice from the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium in Madrid on 2 March 1960 through it. The first live broadcast from abroad to Spain was the second half of the European Cup final match between Real Madrid and Eintracht Frankfurt from Hampden Park in Glasgow on 18 May 1960 through Eurovision.[6] The first full live coverage from abroad to Spain was the Wedding of Baudouin of Belgium and Fabiola de Mora y Aragón from Brussels on 15 December 1960, also through Eurovision.[7] TVE took part in the Eurovision Song Contest for the first time in its 6th edition on 18 March 1961 in Cannes, with the song "Estando contigo" by Conchita Bautista.[8]

On 12 February 1964, the Canary Islands production center in Las Palmas was opened to serve the archipelago.[9] On 18 July 1964, Prado del Rey in Pozuelo de Alarcón was inaugurated to replace the facilities at Paseo de la Habana. It was opened with three studios already in operation and another six studios under construction.[10] Studio 1 had an area of 1,200 square metres (13,000 sq ft), which made it the largest television studio in Europe at the time.[11] Shows and fiction production was soon transferred there, but the news services were not transferred until 1967.[5] In August 1966, the first permanent foreign correspondent was stationed in London, followed in 1968 by the ones in New York, Vienna and Brussels.[12] On 15 November 1966 its second channel was launched on UHF frequencies.

TVE participated in the production of Our World television special with thirteen other national broadcasters from around the world coordinated by the EBU. This was the first live multinational multi-satellite television production ever and it was transmitted to twenty-four countries, including Spain, on 25 June 1967. TVE contributed with a segment, live on board some fishing vessels sailing in the Gulf of Cádiz, showing the work of the fishermen and praising the country's fishing industry.[13][14]

Televisión Española became also the first regular television service in Equatorial Guinea on 20 July 1968 when it inaugurated its production center at Santa Isabel de Fernando Po, in the then-Spanish autonomous region of Equatorial Guinea, and began broadcasts.[15] Since there was no television link with peninsular Spain, the programming consisted of programs made locally and programs received from Prado del Rey on tape. From its antenna located 3,011 metres (9,879 ft) above sea level atop Pico de Santa Isabel, the broadcasts reached the mainland province of Río Muni and the neighboring countries Nigeria, Cameroon and Gabon. After the country declared independence on 12 October 1968, the new authorities accused it of broadcasting "racist programming" and "imperialist propaganda", and TVE ended up closing the station. Shortly after they resumed their broadcasts as Televisión Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial (TVGE) but they ceased broadcasting definitively in 1973 and the few remaining Spanish technicians left the country. The Equatoguinean government re-established TVGE in 1979.[16]

On 29 March 1969, TVE carried out the largest own-produced event until then, the 14h edition of the Eurovision Song Contest live from the Teatro Real in Madrid, following TVE's victory at the previous contest with the song "La, la, la" by Massiel. It was the second Eurovision Song Contest transmitted in full color, and since TVE did not have the required color equipment at the time, it had to rent it abroad. In Spain itself, the domestic broadcast and the copy that TVE kept in its archives was in black-and-white.[17] The event was transmitted live to the EBU member broadcasters through the Eurovision network, to the International Radio and Television Organisation (OIRT) member broadcasters through the Intervision network and to broadcasters in Chile, Puerto Rico and Brazil via satellite. TVE won this edition with "Vivo cantando" by Salomé, being the first time that a participant broadcaster wins twice in a row. This was a joint victory of four participants, because there was a tie for first place and there was no rule to break the tie, and it is the last time that Spain has won the competition to date.[18]

1970s edit

Colour TVE test card regularly broadcast since 1975 by La 1 until 1995 and by La 2 until 2001

On 25 April 1971, the production center in the Canary Islands, which until then had operated autonomously, began to broadcast to the archipelago the live signal of TVE's first channel received from Prado del Rey through the recently launched Intelsat IV F-2 satellite.[9] With this, the coverage of the first channel reached almost the entire territory of Spain while the second channel was only reaching the metropolitan areas of the main capitals.[19] On 24 May 1971, the first delegation was opened in Bilbao, followed by the ones in Santiago de Compostela on 25 July 1971 and in Seville on 29 July 1971, which would later become the first territorial centers.

After two years of test transmissions, regular PAL color transmissions started in August 1972 with the Summer Olympics in Munich, with all programming transmitted in color in 1977 and color commercials starting in 1978. A colour test card designed exclusively for TVE by Finn Hendil, under the supervision of Erik Helmer Nielsen from Philips, replaced its previous black-and-white card developed by Eduardo Gavilán.

On 25 November 1972, TVE produced the very first edition of the annual OTI Festival live from the Palacio de Exposiciones y Congresos auditorium in Madrid. The event was transmitted live to the Organización de Televisión Iberoamericana (OTI) member broadcasters via satellite. TVE also produced the sixth edition from the Centro Cultural de la Villa de Madrid on 12 November 1977, the 14h edition from Teatro Lope de Vega in Seville on 21 September 1985 and the 21st, 22nd and 23rd editions from Teatro Principal in Valencia on 5 December 1992, 9 October 1993 and 14–15 October 1994 respectively. TVE won the competition six times: in 1976 with the song "Canta, cigarra" by María Ostiz, in 1981 with "Latino" by Francisco, in 1992 with "¿A dónde voy sin ti?" by Francisco, in 1993 with "Enamorarse" by Ana Reverte, in 1995 with "Eres mi debilidad" by Marcos Llunas, and in 1996 with "Mis manos" by Anabel Russ.[20]

Between 1977 and 1983, TVE produced the weekly variety show 300 millones with the support of OTI. The show was broadcast in Spain and transmitted to the Spanish-language OTI member broadcasters via satellite. It was also broadcast on Spanish-language stations in the Philippines and the Netherlands Antilles.[21]

1980s edit

On 23 February 1981, Televisión Española was recording the roll-call vote for the investiture of the country's next Prime Minister at the Congress of Deputies plenary hall when 200 armed Civil Guard officers broke into the building in a coup d'état. The assailants immediately disabled the television cameras by force, but a TVE operator, Pedro Francisco Martín, managed to continue transmitting from one of the four cameras without their noticing. Prado del Rey was receiving the transmission through an internal closed circuit and half an hour of the incident was recorded. Fernando Castedo, General Director of RTVE, hid the tape with the footage inside his chair's cushion and sat on it when some military rebels took Prado del Rey for more than one hour. As soon as they left, he sent two camera crews to the Palace of Zarzuela to record the King's speech repudiating the coup. Each crew returned to Prado del Rey with a copy of the speech in a different car and by different route, escorted by the Royal Guard, and it was broadcast as soon as they arrived. The footage of the assault inside the Congress was not aired until all the deputies were released after the failure of the coup the following day.[22]

TVE was in charge of producing the official live television feed of the 1982 FIFA World Cup, which allowed it to carry out a major modernization with the construction of the Torrespaña broadcasting tower in Madrid and the production center at its foot, which served as International Broadcast Centre during the event, both inaugurated on 7 June 1982. On 27 June 1983, a new production center in Sant Cugat del Vallès replaced the Miramar studios in Barcelona. Also in 1983, the central news services moved to the Torrespaña production center and ever since 14 November, Telediario has been broadcast from there.[23]

TVE teletext front page, on air since 16 May 1988

On 13 January 1986, weekdays breakfast television broadcasts began. On 16 May 1988, the teletext was incorporated to the broadcast signal, which allowed closed captioning to begin in November 1990. On 12 September 1988, Estudios Buñuel were opened in Madrid with three studios, one of them being the largest television studio in Europe at the time with an area of 2,500 square metres (27,000 sq ft),[24] and were in operation until 30 July 2015.

On 19 May 1989, in response to the European Economic Community (EEC) requirement to separate the natural monopoly of infrastructure management from the competitive operations of running services, and with the imminent arrival of commercial television, TVE's broadcasting network, including the Torrespaña tower, was transferred to Retevisión.[25][26] While it was already appearing on certain live broadcasts as early as 1982, it was not until November 1989 that the logo bug appeared permanently at the bottom right corner of the screen on its both channels, except during commercials.[27]

1990s edit

For the Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics the Organizing Committee created a host broadcaster expressly, Radio Televisión Olímpica '92 (RTO'92), in order to guarantee that the international signal was produced objectively and impartially. RTO'92 managed the staff and the production and technical resources hired to RTVE, the Corporació Catalana de Ràdio i Televisió (CCRTV) and the EBU. With a workforce of 3,083 people –of which 800 were from TVE–, and over fifty mobile units –fifteen from TVE–, RTO'92 provided live coverage of all Summer Olympic sports for the first time ever –except for a few preliminary events–, some 2,800 hours of live television footage, to its international rights-holders.[28] Additionally, 500 TVE workers and eight mobile units were in charge of producing TVE's personalized coverage, with La 2 dedicating all its programming exclusively to the Games 24 hours a day.[29] For Catalonia, TVE and Televisió de Catalunya (TVC) joined forces to broadcast the Games also in Catalan, creating the Canal Olímpic, a 24 hours channel in Catalan dedicated exclusively to the Games that occupied TVC's Canal 33 frequency.[30]

The 1992 Olympics were also the first in which a comprehensive coverage in high-definition television (HDTV) was attempted. The European HDTV broadcast of the Summer Olympics was managed by the joint venture "Barcelona 1250" created by RTO'92, RTVE, Retevisión and PESA, with the financial support of the EEC and a workforce of over 300 production and technical staff. TVE was in charge of the planning and lay-out of the technical facilities, all the engineering and the provision of qualified personnel. A total of 225 hours and 45 minutes was broadcast in analog HD-MAC standard in 1,250 lines and 16:9 aspect ratio, with commentary in five languages –Spanish, English, French, German and Italian– in addition to the non-commentary sound track, of eighteen different sports at seventeen venues, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Events from five venues were covered live –80% of the total broadcast time– and other events were recorded for a delayed broadcast. On-screen text and graphics were shown in HDTV for the first time ever. Nearly 700 viewing sites installed throughout Europe, including the fifty HDTV receivers installed in various pavilions at the Seville Universal Exposition, were able to receive the broadcast.[31]

On 1 December 1989 TVE international television service, on 12 February 1994 an all-sports channel and on 15 September 1997 an all-news channel were launched. In 1993, stereophonic sound and a sound multiplex for the original language in foreign productions began to be available in the broadcast signal.

2000s to present day edit

On 8 August 2008, regular test digital high-definition television transmissions started on TVE HD in 720p with the Summer Olympics in Beijing. On 1 January 2010, TVE dropped broadcasting commercial advertising on all its channels, with only self-promotions, institutional campaigns, and sponsorships allowed. With analog service discontinued on 3 April 2010, all its terrestrial free-to-air channels have only been available through the digital terrestrial television (DTT) ever since. On 31 December 2013, the first regular HDTV DTT channels were launched, simulcasting La 1 and Teledeporte, initially in 720p and later in 1080i.

TVE broadcast live the 2022 FIFA World Cup in ultra-high-definition (UHD), 4K resolution, HDR quality, and Dolby Atmos sound, free-to-air through the DTT on TVE UHD –a test channel on air since 2016–. It was the first UHD HDR broadcast of an event of that complexity and duration through the DTT ever.[32]

On 16 November 2023, TelevisaUnivision co-produced with RTVE the 24th edition of the annual Latin Grammy Awards from the Conference and Exhibition Centre of Seville. It was the first time the awards were held outside the United States and were co-produced with a foreign network. TVE provided most of the technical resources and production staff, and broadcast it live in prime-time in Spain. Univision took charge of the direction and broadcast it in the United States tape-delayed in the corresponding prime-time of its East and West Coast feeds.[33]

On 6 February 2024, the standard-definition (SD) versions of all its DTT channels were discontinued, and its first regular UHD DTT channel was launched, simulcasting La 1 in 4K.[34] Due to technical problems, the actual shutdown of the SD channels and the relocation of the HD channels to make room for the regular UHD broadcast could not be done until 11 February. With this, TVE became the first-ever broadcaster to offer its main channel in UHD on free-to-air DTT covering its entire national territory.[35]

On 14 February 2024, the EBU announced that RTVE will organize the 22nd edition of the Junior Eurovision Song Contest to be held later this year, after the previous contest's winner, France Télévisions, opted not to host, and Spain having been runner-up with "Loviu" by Sandra Valero. With TVE in charge of the television production, it will be its first time to held the contest, just twenty years after its only victory with "Antes muerta que sencilla" by María Isabel in the 2nd edition in 2004.[36]

Corporate identity edit

Current television channels edit

Logo Name Description

La 1

La Uno (The One) since 2008, and formerly known as "Primera Cadena", "Primer Programa", "TVE-1" or "La Primera" (The First). It is a generalist channel which mainly broadcasts news bulletins, news programmes, magazines, series, films and some major sports competitions. It was launched on 28 October 1956 as the first regular television service in Spain.

La 2

La Dos (The Two) since the 1990s, and formerly known as "UHF", "Cadena II", "Segunda Cadena", "Segundo Programa" or "TVE-2". It mainly broadcasts cultural programming including documentaries, Spanish-language and European films, debates and concerts. It was launched on 15 November 1966.


It broadcasts major local and international sporting events, as well as not so mainstream sports. It was launched on 12 February 1994.

24 Horas

Canal 24 Horas is a 24-hour news channel. It broadcasts news reports, debates, analyses, interviews as well as rolling news. It was launched on 15 September 1997 as the first 24-hour rolling television news service in Spain.


It is a children's channel with programming for children aged from four to twelve at daytime, and programming for older audiences during the evening and night. It broadcast reruns of TVE series during the early hours. It was launched on 12 December 2005, and was initially known as "Clan TVE".

TVE Internacional

Televisión Española international service. It was launched on 1 December 1989 and broadcasts TVE content throughout the world.

Star TVE HD [es]

Pay television entertainment satellite channel broadcast in multichannel television providers in the Americas. It was launched on 18 January 2016.

La 1 is a free-to-air channel currently available in Spain through digital terrestrial television (DTT) in both UHDTV and HDTV versions. It broadcast in 4K resolution and Dolby Atmos sound for the UHDTV feed and the signal is downscaled to 1080i and Dolby Digital Plus for the HDTV feed. La 2, Teledeporte, 24 Horas, and Clan are also free-to-air channels currently available in Spain through DTT only in HDTV version in 1080i and Dolby Digital Plus. TVE Internacional, 24 Horas Internacional, and Clan Internacional are available abroad via satellite. Star TVE HD is a pay television channel only available in HDTV in multichannel television providers in the Americas. Channels are also available on streaming, and its content on demand, on the RTVE Play online platform.

News services edit

Telediario is the flagship television newscast produced by TVE's news services at its Torrespaña facilities in Madrid. Three Telediario editions a day are produced: the breakfast edition at 06:30 CET/CEST, the afternoon edition at 15:00 and the evening edition at 21:00; and they are simulcast live on La 1, on 24 Horas news channel, on TVE Internacional and on RTVE Play. Additional international editions are also produced and aired on TVE Internacional every day. TVE's territorial centers in every autonomous community produce and broadcast in regional variations in each of them, a shorter midday local bulletin on La 1 and RTVE Play. TVE's news services are also in charge of the 24-hour rolling news service of 24 Horas news channel and of the non-daily news programmes, such as Informe Semanal, of all its channels.

They were also in charge of La 2 Noticias ("The 2 News"), La 2's own national news bulletin, which began as an original nightly news bulletin in the late 1980s but it was turned into a breakfast news-programme in the mid-1990s and was later revamped as a nightly news bulletin, reverting to its original timeslot at 22:00. In 2015, La 2 Noticias moved to a later timeslot, 01:05, and it was eventually discontinued in 2020.

Programming edit

References edit

  1. ^ "TVE Activities". RTVE. 14 December 2020.
  2. ^ "The EU approves the new financing model for RTVE without advertising". 20 minutos (in Spanish). 20 July 2010. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  3. ^ "Noticiario nº 722 A - Television". No-Do (in Spanish). 5 November 1956. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  4. ^ Morales Pérez, Sonia (29 June 2017). "TVE's first year". RTVE (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  5. ^ a b "Telediario, history of an image". lab (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  6. ^ a b Bonaut Iriarte, Joseba (4 October 2012). "Spanish football TV broadcasts: a historical perspective of an interpendent relationship (1956-1988)". Historia y Comunicación Social (in Spanish). Vol. 17. Complutense University of Madrid. pp. 249–268. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  7. ^ "50 years of tve. Decade of the 1960s. The expansion of Televisión Española". RTVE (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  8. ^ "Spain". Eurovision Song Contest. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  9. ^ a b Gonzalo, José Miguel (13 September 2020). "50 years of TVE in the Canary Islands, memories". La Provincia (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 July 2023.
  10. ^ "Noticiario nº 1125 B - Televisión Española Studios in Prado del Rey". No-Do (in Spanish). 27 July 1964. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  11. ^ Morales Pérez, Sonia (27 July 2017). "Inauguration of the Prado del Rey studios". RTVE (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  12. ^ Álvarez, Jose (3 March 2020). "Thanks to them, our borders were opened". El Español (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  13. ^ Huntington, Tom (2006). "The Whole World's Watching". Air and Space Magazine. 10 (April/May 1996). Smithsonian Institution: 26. Bibcode:2006BuAtS..62a..26R. doi:10.1080/00963402.2006.11460953. S2CID 144398586. Archived from the original on 25 February 1999. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  14. ^ Our World - BBC1 Broadcast (incomplete) on YouTube
  15. ^ "Franco inaugurated Televisión Española station in Equatorial Guinea with a message". ABC (in Spanish). Madrid: Diario ABC. July 21, 1968. Retrieved April 8, 2022.
  16. ^ "Television Adventures in Guinea". RTVE (in Spanish). Madrid. 25 November 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2022.
  17. ^ "50 years of Eurovision 1969: The 1969 Eurovision final, for the first time in full color and with Uribarri's comments". RTVE (in Spanish). 29 March 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2022.
  18. ^ "50 years ago today: Four winners at Eurovision 1969 in Madrid". Eurovision Song Contest. 29 March 2019.
  19. ^ Montes Fernández, Francisco José (2006). "Televisión Española history". Anuario Jurídico y Económico Escurialense (in Spanish). Complutense University of Madrid. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  20. ^ Rico, Vicente (6 January 2015). "La OTI Special: The Ibero-American song festival that was born and wanted to be like Eurovision". (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  21. ^ Sempere, Antonio (22 October 2018). "'300 Millones': Cuando TVE hizo las Américas". Diario de Sevilla (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  22. ^ "23-F". RTVE (in Spanish). 24 May 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  23. ^ Simón Sanjurjo, Juan Antonio (2012). The World Cup 1982: A Showcase of the Spain's New Democracy (PDF) (in Spanish). Charles III University of Madrid. pp. 8–10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 June 2022. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  24. ^ "TVE installs "the largest television set in Europe" in the old Bronston Studios". El País (in Spanish). 13 September 1988. ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  25. ^ Barroso, F. Javier (29 August 2002). "In 1989, Retevisión inherited from RTVE the monopoly of broadcasting the signal". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  26. ^ "Royal Decree 545/1989, of May 19, approving the Statute of the "Ente Público de la Red Técnica Española de Televisión" (RETEVISION)". Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). 20 May 1989. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  27. ^ Gallardo, Francisco Andrés (1 December 2019). "The bugs that stuck to the TV". Diario de Sevilla (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  28. ^ Official Report of the Games of the XXV Olympiad, Barcelona 1992. Vol. 3. International Olympic Committee. 1992. pp. 64–69. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  29. ^ "Televisión Española allocates 1,300 people to Olympic broadcasts". El País (in Spanish). 10 July 1992. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  30. ^ "TVE and TV-3 negotiate equal prominence on the Canal Olímpic". El País (in Spanish). 29 June 1992. Retrieved 13 November 2022.
  31. ^ Romero, M.; Gavilán, E. (Winter 1992). "HDTV coverage of the Barcelona Olympic Games" (PDF). EBU Technical Review. European Broadcasting Union: 16–24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2022.
  32. ^ "RTVE will broadcast the Qatar World Cup in UHD-4K free on DTT and with HDR quality". RTVE (in Spanish). 14 November 2022. Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  33. ^ Calle, Tommy (4 May 2023). "Latin Grammy confirma a Sevilla como sede para la noche más importante de la música latina". Los Angeles Times (in Spanish).
  34. ^ "RTVE will broadcast only in HD starting 6 February: affected channels, requirements and how to retune". RTVE (in Spanish). 5 February 2024.
  35. ^ "La 1 UHD has already started its DTT broadcasts, it will be necessary to retune Teledeporte". (in Spanish). 11 February 2024.
  36. ^ "Spain will host Junior Eurovision 2024". Junior Eurovision Song Contest. 14 February 2024.

External links edit