La 2 (Spanish TV channel)
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La 2 is a Spanish free-to-air television network that was launched in 15 November 1966 as the second television service of Radiotelevisión Española (RTVE), Spain's state-owned broadcaster. Its programming is centred towards cultural TV shows and public service programmes in comparison with La 1, its sister network, which is a generalist channel. Some of the network's filming and production of programmes are done on its headquarters in San Cugat del Vallés, Barcelona.
|Broadcast area||Nationwide, Andorra also parts of France and Portugal|
|Slogan||La 2 te sienta bien (The Two suits you)|
|Headquarters||San Cugat del Vallés|
|Picture format||1080i HDTV|
(downscaled to 16:9 576i for the SDTV feed)
|Sister channels||La 1|
|Launched||15 November 1966|
|Former names||TVE-2 (1966-1990)|
|DTT||Spain: Depends on each province|
|Vodafone TV||Channel 2|
|Orange TV||Channel 2|
|RTVE.es||Live (Only in Spain)|
The channel started broadcasting in 1966 on UHF frequencies. As RTVE was doing initial test broadcasts on that band, the channel was simply referred to in Spain as "UHF". It also received other names, such as "Cadena II", "Segunda Cadena", "Segundo Programa" or "TVE-2" until it adopted the name "La 2" during the 1990s, with the launch of private television networks for the first time.
Creation of 'The second network' (UHF)Edit
In the 1960s, the Spanish minister of Information and Tourism, Manuel Fraga Iribarne, decided that Televisión Española should start broadcasting a second television network on UHF frequencies, following other European broadcasters that did the same. In 1 January 1965, TVE's second television service was launched in Madrid as a test broadcast, with programming limited to 4 hours at night that consisted on musical slots and re-airings of TV shows from Primera Cadena, mostly Telediario newscasts and Estudio 1.
Regular broadcasts were started on 15 November 1966. TVE started producing original programming for the network, mainly produced at the broadcaster's headquarters in Barcelona. UHF's first director was Salvador Pons Muñoz. In its first years, the channel could only be received on Madrid, Zaragoza and Barcelona, cities in which the UHF technology was implemented; it only aired at night and not all TV sets could tune in to. Most TVs couldn't receive UHF broadcasts, so an UHF decoder was needed.
As TVE's strategy evolved into turning the first network into a generalist channel, niche programming was moved to UHF. Under the Salvador Pons administration, the second network received artists from the country's Official Film School (Spanish: Escuela Oficial de Cine), such as Claudio Guerin, Pedro Olea or Antonio Mercero, people who would use the channel as a test zone to air alternative programming, such as documentaries or fiction shows. There was a high share of cultural programmes, like classical music blocks or theatre slots.
During the 70s the programming was restricted to the night time (from 20:00 to 00:00), with an extension in the weekends. Coverage reached the big cities of Spain, but although TVE pointed out that only "three years" would pass before UHF could be tuned in all Spain, the second network could not get it until 1982. For this reason it was not strange that successful programs in the UHF passed to the first network.
The UHF continued to develop a minority program, with a strong cultural accent, which did not compete directly with TVE-1. In addition to documentaries, theater and fiction sessions, the second channel accommodated educational spaces and sports. At that time, the second network was colloquially dubbed "el canalillo."
During the Spanish transition, the programming of the second network received a small boost. In January 1976 debuted the program of debate La Clave (1976-1985), which addressed current issues from different points of view, something very complicated during the Francoism, preceded by a film related to the subject. The interview space was also important A fondo (In depth) (1976 to 1981) in which Joaquín Soler Serrano conversed with personalities from the artistic, literary and scientific fields of the time. On the other hand, the new artistic and musical trends were reflected in Encuentros con las artes y las letras (Encounters with the arts and the lyrics) (1976-1981) and Popgrama (1979-1981).
Another important aspect was the consolidation of the territorial centres, especially in Catalonia and Canary Islands. TVE Cataluña established regional programming in opt-outs through the Circuit Català (Catalan circuit), while continuing to produce at the national level. On the occasion of the 1982 World Cup held in Spain, the territorial centre of the Canary Islands erected a new production centre that, in addition to broadcasting the signal of the second network, allowed to develop dedicated programming for the archipelago.
In 1983, the second network was renamed "TVE-2" with a new corporate image. The schedule was not consolidated until the end of the decade.
In the mandates of José María Calviño and Pilar Miró, TVE-2 continued to be a cultural channel that accommodated spaces not appropriate for the first network. In the midst of the Movida Madrileña phenomenon, it premiered La Edad de Oro (The Golden Age) (1983 - 1985), with the time turned into a space of worship. The 1980s also marked the premiere of emblematic programs such as the cultural magazine "Metropolis" (1985), the game show El tiempo es oro (Time is money) presented by Constantino Romero, and Con las manos en la masa (Hands on the bat) (1984), considered the first gastronomical programme in Spanish television history.
On the other hand, TVE-2 retained the broadcast of special events live, some of which exceeded in audience the first network: the European football competitions (UEFA Champions League, UEFA Cup and Cup Winners' Cup), the Spanish First Division in communities without autonomic television, the qualifying matches of the Spain national football team, and the Eurovision Song Contest from 1984 to 1992.
In 1984, it premiered Estadio 2, specializing in sports broadcasts, information and a live results service during the weekends.
Creation of «La 2»Edit
The channel strategy of TVE changed with the emergence of private television in 1989. As of 1991, TVE-2 was turned into «La 2» and assumed a new alternative programming, whose spirit was included in the slogan «La 2, para una inmensa minoría» (La 2, for a huge minority). The following director of TVE, Ramón Colom, would redefine the concept towards a smaller target audience aged 30 years old.
In the 90s there was a significant increase in own programming, which would give La 2 its own personality. All documentaries, including Documentos TV, presented by Pedro Erquicia, were moved to that signal. In addition, TVE promoted an alternative newsletter to Telediario with the creation of La 2 Noticias, specialized in news of human, social and ecological interest in exchange for reducing the weight of the policy in the blocks. The new format was premiered on 7 November 1994 and thanks to it two journalists rose to fame: Lorenzo Milá (presenter) and Fran Llorente (news director).
In addition, La 2 issued US series with no place on The First: The Simpsons (until 1993), Northern Exposure, Married... with Children and Hangin' with Mr. Cooper. As for sports broadcasts, football was transferred to the first channel while the second was left with the rights of the Liga ACB of basketball, the Liga Asobal of handball and the LNFS. Although the channel's audience fell by private competition, these changes served to improve its reputation and turn it into an alternative to conventional programming. The strategy remained unchanged until 2004, with new programs that have been part of the backbone of La 2. In 1996 began the space of scientific disclosure Redes, directed by Eduard Punset, and in 1997 premiered Saber y ganar, presented by Jordi Hurtado, who became the longest-running game show in Spanish television. One year later was launched Versión española (Spanish version), Spanish film program presented by Cayetana Guillén Cuervo and that offered films without advertising breaks. Other important spaces were La noche temática (The thematic night) (documentary block of the pan-European channel Arte), the literary space Negro sobre blanco (Black on white), the informative Escuela del deporte (School of sport) and the containers of infantile programming, among them Con mucha marcha (With a lot of march), TPH Club, Hyakutake and Los Lunnis, the latter one of his greatest commercial successes.
In 2004 there are changes in the strategy of La 2: information services are remodeled because Fran Llorente, presenter of La 2 Noticias, is chosen news director of TVE, while Lorenzo Milá becomes the host of the Telediario of La 1. The new direction redirects the offer to the young public, with the advance of primetime at 9:30 p.m., the gradual disappearance of regional programming (except for a few blocks in Catalonia and Canary Islands) and the entry of series American as Six Feet Under, Two and a half men, The OC or Gilmore girls.
On 1 June 2010, the Board of Directors of RTVE made La 2 into a strictly cultural channel, positioning it as the reference for creativity and talent. From that same month La 2 stopped broadcasting its sports programming (which happened to Teledeporte) and infantile (which continued in Clan). Instead, it introduced cultural programming from the channel Cultural·es. In addition, an address was created for the channel and its management was moved from Torrespaña, to the center of TVE Cataluña in San Cugat del Vallés, Barcelona. Since 2014, primetime is covered by Spanish cinema cycles from Monday to Friday, and European films on weekends. The audience of La 2 has dropped to 2.6% audience share, similar to the children's channel Clan.
La 2 HDEdit
On 7 September 2017, during the presentation of the new season of the channel, Televisión Española announced the launch of the high definition signal of La 2, which started issuing 31 October 2017 in Madrid, 7 November 2017 in the rest of Spain (except Catalonia and Canary Islands), 14 November 2017 in Catalonia and 21 November 2017 in Canary Islands.
|November 1966 - January 1991||January 1991 - September 1991||September 1991 - April 1999||November 2003 - June 2007||June 2007 - December 2008||December 2008 – Present|
- Ministry of Education of Spain (ed.). "La Segunda cadena; una emisora para la inmensa minoría" [The Second network; a station for the immense minority] (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 September 2010.
- Radiotelevisión Española (11 October 1964). "UHF, el segundo programa de TVE" [UHF, the second TVE program] (in Spanish). La Vanguardia. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Radiotelevisión Española (21 September 1966). "Sin cambios fundamentales en la programación de TVE" [No fundamental changes in the TVE programming] (in Spanish). La Vanguardia. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- "La nueva programación de TVE para el segundo canal" [The new TVE programming for the second network] (in Spanish). La Vanguardia. 15 November 1966. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- "Salvador Pons, fundador de La 2 de Televisión Española" [Salvador Pons, founder of La 2 of Televisión Española] (in Spanish). El País. 18 August 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- RTVE (ed.). "Historia de RTVE Canarias" [History of RTVE Canarias] (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 September 2010.
- "50 años de televisión en España" [50 years of television in Spain] (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 September 2010.
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- El Mundo, ed. (7 September 2010). "Fallece Joaquín Soler Serrano, un histórico de la radio y la TV en España" [Joaquín Soler Serrano dies, a history of radio and TV in Spain] (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Palace, Manuel (2012). La televisión durante la Transición española [Television during the Spanish Transition] (in Spanish). Cátedra. ISBN 978-84-376-3068-7. Archived from the original on 5 December 2014.
- Sergi Schaaff. Pompeu Fabra University (ed.). "50 años de televisión también en Catalunya" [50 years of television also in Catalonia] (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
- Instituto Cervantes (ed.). "Capítulo 6: las emisiones televisivas" [Chapter 6: television broadcasts] (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Radiotelevisión Española, ed. (11 June 2006). "El UHF, La Segunda Cadena, La 2" [The UHF, The Second Network, La 2] (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Vaya Tele, ed. (26 October 2008). "El tiempo es oro, Nostalgia TV" [Time is money, Nostalgia TV] (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- rtve.es, ed. (15 May 2010). "Con las manos en la masa" [With hands in the mass] (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 June 2014.
- Eurovision-spain, ed. (15 January 2009). "José Ramón Pardo: "Hay demasiado progre que ataca el festival, aunque luego lo ve en su casa"" [José Ramón Pardo: "There is too much progress in attacking the festival, although it is later seen at home"] (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- El País, ed. (21 February 2004). "'Estadio 2' cumple 20 años en TVE" ['Estadio 2' turns 20 on TVE] (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- El País, ed. (5 January 1991). "Ramón Colom refuerza la segunda cadena en la nueva programación de Televisión Española" [Ramón Colom reinforces the second network in the new Spanish Television programming] (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- El País, ed. (8 September 1993). "La 2 cambia de estrategia y se convierte en una cadena para menores de 30 años" [The 2 changes strategy and becomes a channel for minors of 30 years] (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Fran Llorente (4 November 2009). RTVE (ed.). "La 2 Noticias cumple 15 años (la historia auténtica)" [La 2 Noticias turns 15 (the authentic story)] (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 30 December 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- El Mundo, ed. (21 April 2010). "'Saber y ganar' cumple 3.000 citas con la cultura sin aburrir a la audiencia" ['Saber y ganar' it fulfills 3,000 appointments with the culture without boring the hearing] (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Vertele, ed. (22 March 2001). "Cine nacional sin cortes publicitarios en "Versión española"" [National cinema without advertising breaks in "Spanish version"] (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Vaya Tele, ed. (23 May 2006). "El secreto del éxito de Los Lunnis" [The secret of the success of The Lunnis] (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Editorial (14 September 2004). El Mundo (ed.). "Los Telediarios de TVE lideran la audiencia de informativos en el primer día de su nueva etapa" [TVE newscasts lead the news audience on the first day of its new stage]. Agencia EFE (in Spanish). Madrid. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
- Vertele, ed. (7 June 2007). "La 2 retrasa su prime time a las diez de la noche con la llegada del verano" [La 2 delays its prime time at ten o'clock at night with the arrival of summer] (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Vayatele, ed. (1 June 2010). "La 2 se remodela, adiós a Cultural•es" [La 2 remodeled, bye to Cultural•es] (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- El Periódico de Cataluña, ed. (17 September 2010). "El centro de TVE en Sant Cugat asumirá la dirección de La 2" [the center of TVE in Sant Cugat take the direction of La 2] (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Mundoplus.tv, ed. (May 2010). "Clan TVE alcanza a La 2 en audiencias" [Clan TVE La 2 reaches hearings] (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Communication room rtve.es (ed.). "La 2, ahora en HD, refuerza su apuesta por la cultura con nuevos formatos de entretenimiento para todos los públicos" [La 2, now in HD, reinforces its commitment to culture with new entertainment formats for all audiences] (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 September 2017.
- Communication room rtve.es (ed.). "RTVE inicia las emisiones en Alta Definición (HD) en sus canales La 2 y Clan el próximo 31 de octubre" [RTVE starts broadcasts in High Definition (HD) on its channels La 2 and Clan next 31 October] (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 October 2017.
- Official website (in Spanish)