Cumhuriyet

Cumhuriyet (Turkish pronunciation: [dʒumhuːɾiˈjet]; English: "Republic") is the oldest up-market Turkish daily newspaper. It has been described as "the most important independent public interest newspaper in contemporary Turkey".[1] The newspaper was awarded the Freedom of Press Prize by Reporters Without Borders in 2015 and the Alternative Nobel Prize in 2016.[1][2]

Cumhuriyet
Cumhuriyet logo.svg
TypeUp-market daily
FormatBerliner
Owner(s)Cumhuriyet Foundation
Founder(s)Yunus Nadi Abalıoğlu
Editor-in-chiefAykut Küçükkaya
Founded7 May 1924; 96 years ago (1924-05-07)
Political alignmentCentre-left
Left-wing politics
Secularism/Laïcité
Social democracy
LanguageTurkish
HeadquartersŞişli, Istanbul, Turkey
Circulation43,791 (as of May 2018)
Websitewww.cumhuriyet.com Edit this at Wikidata

Established on 7 May 1924 by journalist Yunus Nadi Abalıoğlu, a confidant of the Turkish Republic's founder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the newspaper has subscribed to a staunchly secular, republican course. In the past closely affiliated with the Kemalist Republican People's Party (CHP), the center-left newspaper turned to a more independent course over time, advocating democracy, social liberal values and free markets. Today, "being a Cumhuriyet reader has become synonymous with embracing democratic values and a pluralistic society".[1]

The newspaper's advertisements before the 2007 Turkish presidential election and general election caused controversy for "warning" voters against the AKP government with the message "Are you aware of the danger?".[3][4] Notably, the newspaper has also broken the story on the 2014 National Intelligence Organisation scandal in Turkey, reprinted cartoons from Charlie Hebdo, and reported on the Panama Papers and Paradise Papers affairs while linking prominent Turkish figures to the documents.

Cumhuriyet has been targeted throughout its history, such as with the assassinations of Uğur Mumcu, Bahriye Üçok, Ahmet Taner Kışlalı, Muammer Aksoy, Ümit Kaftancıoğlu, Onat Kutlar, and Cavit Orhan Tütengil. More recent attacks include the 2008 molotov attack on the newspaper's headquarters in Istanbul's Şişli district and the attempted assassination of Can Dündar in 2016.[5] The newspaper has been described as "a high-profile target in the [Erdoğan] government’s crackdown on media".[6] By the end of 2016, almost half of the paper's reporters, columnists and executives had been jailed.[7]

HistoryEdit

 
Cumhuriyet's 11 November 1938 issue announcing the death of President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Following the death of Yunus Nadi on 28 March 1945 in Geneva, Switzerland, Cumhuriyet was owned by his eldest son Nadir Nadi Abalıoğlu [tr] until his death on 20 August 1991. Nadir Nadi's wife Berin then published the newspaper. Cumhuriyet has been owned by the Cumhuriyet Foundation since the death of Berin Nadi on 5 November 2001. One of its publishers was the renowned political columnist İlhan Selçuk, who was also chairman of the board of trustees and lead writer (from 1992) until his death in 2010.

Cumhuriyet contributors such as Uğur Mumcu, Bahriye Üçok, Ahmet Taner Kışlalı, Muammer Aksoy, Ümit Kaftancıoğlu, Onat Kutlar, and Cavit Orhan Tütengil were assassinated between the 1970s and 1990s.

During the Gulf War, Cumhuriyet suffered a collapse in advertising revenue, and following an unrelated dispute over editorial policy, nearly 40 journalists and commentators walked out in November 1991: "Circulation fell by half, and it was saved only by an extraordinary campaign by readers to buy extra copies and even pay money into a special account."[8] Hasan Cemal, chief editor since 1981,[9] resigned in January 1992 over the dispute: "I tried to widen the spectrum, to keep the balance. But they (old-guard intellectuals) always resisted, calling us plotters, tools of big business and the United States".[8]

Since 17 October 2005, the newspaper's headquarters have been located in Istanbul's Şişli district, after being the last newspaper to leave the traditional press district of Cağaloğlu. The newspaper also has offices in Ankara and İzmir.

The newspaper's advertisements before the 2007 Turkish presidential election and general election with the message "Are you aware of the danger?" were controversial.[3][4]

Cumhuriyet's office in Istanbul was the site of a molotov attack in 2008.[10]

In 2010, the newspaper was one of the first up-market newspapers in Turkey to abandon the established broadsheet format for the midi-sized Berliner format.[11]

In January 2015, the newspaper reprinted cartoons from Charlie Hebdo, a French satirical magazine which had depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad and been subject to a terror attack. As a result, Cumhuriyet received threats and was placed under police protection.[12]

In 2015, it was awarded the Freedom of Press Prize by international NGO Reporters Without Borders for making a stand against the AKP government's mounting pressure.[2]

On 22 September 2016 the newspaper was awarded the Right Livelihood Award for its "fearless investigative reporting and standing up for freedom of speech and opinion despite being subject to death threats, censorship and state prosecution".[13][1]

In 2016 the newspaper reported on the Panama Papers and in 2017 on the Paradise Papers affairs, linking a number of prominent Turkish figures to those.[14]

The editor-in-chief of the online edition, Oğuz Güven, was arrested on 12 May 2017 in connection with an article on the "accidental" death of Mustafa Alper, the first public prosecutor to file an indictment about the Gülenist Terror Organization (FETÖ). Güven was released pending trial on 14 June 2017.[15]

Today, the newspaper is struggling financially due to a low daily circulation figure that has fallen from more than 150,000 in the mid-1990s, in addition to plummeting advertising revenues as companies are not willing to advertise in media critical of the government.[15]

MİT trucks scandalEdit

 
Cumhuriyet's former editor-in-chief Can Dündar receiving the 2015 Reporters Without Borders Prize.

Following the appointment of new editor-in-chief Can Dündar, the newspaper on 29 May 2015 released detailed footage depicting trucks of the Turkish National Intelligence Organization (MİT) carrying weapons to Islamist rebels in neighboring Syria. While the government faced calls to resign, an investigation began into Cumhuriyet for releasing the footage.[16] Turkish President Erdoğan publicly targeted Dündar, stating: "I suppose the person who wrote this as an exclusive report will pay a heavy price for this."[17]

In spite of the threats, Cumhuriyet published further material on June 11, including photos and videos confirming that MİT trucks transported both weapons and militants between Turkey and various locations in neighboring Syria.[18] In November, the newspaper was awarded the 2015 Reporters Without Borders Prize for its "independent and courageous journalism."[19] Shortly thereafter, editor-in-chief Dündar and Ankara bureau chief Erdem Gül were arrested on charges of being members of a terror organization, espionage and revealing confidential documents, facing sentences up to life imprisonment.[20]

DistributionEdit

On 7 May 1998, the newspaper launched its online edition. The print circulation figure is around 40,000 copies as of May 2018.[21]

Notable contributors (past and present)Edit

Columnists

World

Economics
  • Şükran Soner (İşçi Evreninden)
  • Öztin Akgüç (Yorum)
  • Ergin Yıldızoğlu (Dünya Ekonomisine Bakış)
  • Erinç Yeldan [tr] (Ekonomi Politik)
  • Özlem Yüzak (Bilgi Toplumuna Doğru)
  • Yakup Kepenek [tr] (Ankara Pazarı)
  • Yahya Arıkan (Yaşamda Mali Çözüm)
  • Mustafa Pamukoğlu (Maliye Tarafından)
Science-Politics
Media
  • Mehmet Faraç (Med - Cezir)
Culture-Art
Sports
  • Arif Kızılyalın (Spor Yorumu)
  • Adnan Dinçer (Görüş)
  • Ahmet Kurt (Basket Yorum)
  • Halit Deringör (Görüş)

Deceased contributors

SupplementsEdit

Supplements of the newspaper:[citation needed]

  • Strateji (Strategy), Mondays
  • Kitap (Book), Thursdays
  • Bilim Teknoloji (Science and Technology), Fridays
  • Hafta Sonu (Weekend), Saturdays
  • Pazar (Sunday), Sundays
  • Gezi (Travel), every other Wednesday
  • Tarım (Agriculture), once a month
  • Yerel Yönetimler (Local Governments)
  • Le Monde diplomatique Türkiye (Le Monde diplomatique Turkey), the first Monday of the month (since February 3, 2020)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "Cumhuriyet". The Right Livelihood Award. Archived from the original on 2020-05-27. Retrieved 2020-05-27.
  2. ^ a b |TV5 Monde Prize ceremony, Reporters without Borders, 19 November. 2015
  3. ^ a b "Cumhuriyet, 'Tehlikenin farkında mısınız!' demişti". ABC Gazetesi (in Turkish). 2016-10-01. Archived from the original on 2018-05-08. Retrieved 2018-05-07.
  4. ^ a b "Geçmişten Bugüne Cumhuriyet Gazetesi Reklamlarının Perspektifinden Türkiye". Bigumigu (in Turkish). 2016-11-02. Archived from the original on 2018-05-07. Retrieved 2018-05-07.
  5. ^ Osborne, Samuel (2016-05-06). "Turkish journalist escapes assassination attempt before being sentenced to 5 years in prison". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2019-04-06. Retrieved 2020-05-27.
  6. ^ Sep. 27, Kristen McTighe; 2019; Pm, 6:00 (2019-09-27). "Turkish scientist gets 15-month sentence for publishing environmental study". Science | AAAS. Retrieved 2019-10-01.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ Basaran, Ezgi (2017-01-03). "Secular citizens of Turkey have never felt so alone". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 2017-01-04. Retrieved 2018-05-07.
  8. ^ a b Hugh Pope, Los Angeles Times, 12 May 1992, Media: It's News Vs. Nudes in the Turkish Press: The glitzy Sabah daily and the respected Cumhuriyet reflect clashing cultures at a continental crossroads
  9. ^ "Hasan Cemal Biyografisi". Sondakika (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
  10. ^ Mastermind behind Cumhuriyet attack under arrest Archived 2008-12-05 at the Wayback Machine, Today's Zaman, 1 April 2008
  11. ^ Mustafa Köker (22 April 2010). "Cumhuriyet'le gelen 'değişim'". Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  12. ^ Josh Levs et al (14 February 2015) Turkey bans Charlie Hebdo cover, newspaper gets death threats CNN
  13. ^ Regierungskritische türkische Zeitung - "Cumhuriyet" erhält Alternativen Nobelpreis . Spiegel Online, 2016-09-22 (German)
  14. ^ Germany, Süddeutsche de GmbH, Munich. "A Turkish Lawsuit Could Muzzle an Important Journalist". Süddeutsche.de. Retrieved 2019-10-01.
  15. ^ a b "Cumhuriyet online's editor-in-chief Oğuz Güven released pending trial". 14 June 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  16. ^ "Turkish daily faces terrorism probe after publishing alleged photos of arms on MİT trucks". 29 May 2015. Archived from the original on 29 November 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  17. ^ "Erdoğan's lawyer demands aggravated life sentence for Turkish journalist over news story". Hürriyet Daily News. 2 June 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  18. ^ "Turkey denies report of sending weapons, fighters to ISIL". 11 June 2015. Archived from the original on 29 November 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  19. ^ "Cumhuriyet newspaper wins journalism prize from Reporters Without Borders". Today's Zaman. 18 November 2015. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  20. ^ "Cumhuriyet daily's Dündar, Gül arrested over report on Syria arms transfer". Zaman. 2015-11-26. Archived from the original on 2016-03-08. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
  21. ^ "Gazete Tirajları". gazetetirajlari.com. 2018-05-06. Retrieved 2018-05-07.

External linksEdit