Delft (Dutch pronunciation: [dɛl(ə)ft] (listen)) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. It is located between Rotterdam, to the southeast, and The Hague, to the northwest. Together with them, it is part of both Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area and the Randstad.
|City Hall||Delft City Hall|
|• Body||Municipal council|
|• Mayor||Marja van Bijsterveldt (CDA)|
|• Total||24.06 km2 (9.29 sq mi)|
|• Land||22.65 km2 (8.75 sq mi)|
|• Water||1.41 km2 (0.54 sq mi)|
|Elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|• Density||4,555/km2 (11,800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
Delft is a popular tourist destination in the Netherlands, famous for its historical connections with the reigning House of Orange-Nassau, for its blue pottery, for being home to the painter Jan Vermeer, and for hosting Delft University of Technology (TU Delft). Historically, Delft played a highly influential role in the Dutch Golden Age. In terms of science and technology, thanks to the pioneering contributions of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek and Martinus Beijerinck, Delft can be considered to be the birthplace of microbiology.
The city of Delft came into being beside a canal, the 'Delf', which comes from the word delven, meaning to delve or dig, and this led to the name Delft. At the elevated place where this 'Delf' crossed the creek wall of the silted up river Gantel, a Count established his manor, probably around 1075. Partly because of this, Delft became an important market town, the evidence for which can be seen in the size of its central market square.
Having been a rural village in the early Middle Ages, Delft developed into a city, and on 15 April 1246, Count Willem II granted Delft its city charter. Trade and industry flourished. In 1389 the Delfshavensche Schie canal was dug through to the river Maas, where the port of Delfshaven was built, connecting Delft to the sea.
Until the 17th century, Delft was one of the major cities of the then county (and later province) of Holland. In 1400, for example, the city had 6,500 inhabitants, making it the third largest city after Dordrecht (8,000) and Haarlem (7,000). In 1560, Amsterdam, with 28,000 inhabitants, had become the largest city, followed by Delft, Leiden and Haarlem, which each had around 14,000 inhabitants.
In 1536, a large part of the city was destroyed by the great fire of Delft.
The town's association with the House of Orange started when William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), nicknamed William the Silent (Willem de Zwijger), took up residence in 1572 in the former Saint-Agatha convent (subsequently called the Prinsenhof). At the time he was the leader of growing national Dutch resistance against Spanish occupation, known as the Eighty Years' War. By then Delft was one of the leading cities of Holland and it was equipped with the necessary city walls to serve as a headquarters. In October 1573, an attack by Spanish forces was repelled in the Battle of Delft.
When William was shot dead on 10 July 1584 by Balthazar Gerards in the hall of the Prinsenhof (now the Prinsenhof Museum), the family's traditional burial place in Breda was still in the hands of the Spanish. Therefore, he was buried in the Delft Nieuwe Kerk (New Church), starting a tradition for the House of Orange that has continued to the present day.
Around this time, Delft also occupied a prominent position in the field of printing.
A number of Italian glazed earthenware makers settled in the city and introduced a new style. The tapestry industry also flourished when famous manufacturer François Spierincx moved to the city. In the 17th century, Delft experienced a new heyday, thanks to the presence of an office of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) (opened in 1602) and the manufacture of Delft Blue china.
A number of notable artists based themselves in the city, including Leonard Bramer, Carel Fabritius, Pieter de Hoogh, Gerard Houckgeest, Emanuel de Witte, Jan Steen, and Johannes Vermeer. Reinier de Graaf and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek received international attention for their scientific research.
The Delft Explosion, also known in history as the Delft Thunderclap, occurred on 12 October 1654 when a gunpowder store exploded, destroying much of the city. Over a hundred people were killed and thousands were injured.
About 30 tonnes (29.5 long tons; 33.1 short tons) of gunpowder were stored in barrels in a magazine in a former Clarist convent in the Doelenkwartier district, where the Paardenmarkt is now located. Cornelis Soetens, the keeper of the magazine, opened the store to check a sample of the powder and a huge explosion followed. Luckily, many citizens were away, visiting a market in Schiedam or a fair in The Hague.
Today, the explosion is primarily remembered for killing Rembrandt's most promising pupil, Carel Fabritius, and destroying almost all of his works.
Delft artist Egbert van der Poel painted several pictures of Delft showing the devastation.
The gunpowder store was subsequently re-housed, a 'cannonball's distance away', outside the city, in a new building designed by architect Pieter Post.
The city centre retains a large number of monumental buildings, while in many streets there are canals of which the banks are connected by typical bridges, altogether making this city a notable tourist destination.
Historical buildings and other sights of interest include:
- Oude Kerk (Old Church). Buried here: Piet Hein, Johannes Vermeer, Anthony van Leeuwenhoek.
- Nieuwe Kerk (New Church), constructed between 1381 and 1496. It contains the Dutch royal family's burial vault which, between funerals, is sealed with a 5,000 kg (11,020 lb) cover stone.
- A statue of Hugo Grotius created by Franciscus Leonardus Stracké in 1886, located on the Markt near the Nieuwe Kerk.
- The Prinsenhof (Princes' Court), now a museum.
- City Hall on the Markt.
- The Oostpoort (Eastern gate), built around 1400. This is the only remaining gate of the old city walls.
- The Gemeenlandshuis Delfland, or Huyterhuis, built in 1505, which has housed the Delfland regional water authority since 1645.
- The Vermeer Centre in the re-built Guild house of St. Luke.
- The historical "Waag" building (Weigh house).
- Windmill De Roos, a tower mill built c.1760. Restored to working order in 2013. Another windmill that formerly stood in Delft, Het Fortuyn, was dismantled in 1917 and re-erected at the Netherlands Open Air Museum, Arnhem, Gelderland in 1920.
- Royal Delft also known as De Porceleyne Fles, is a great place which showcases Delft ware.
- Science Center attracts kids as well as adults.
Delft is well known for the Delft pottery ceramic products which were styled on the imported Chinese porcelain of the 17th century. The city had an early start in this area since it was a home port of the Dutch East India Company. It can still be seen at the pottery factories De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles (or Royal Delft) and De Delftse Pauw, while new ceramics and ceramic art can be found at the Gallery Terra Delft.
The painter Johannes Vermeer (1632–1675) was born in Delft. Vermeer used Delft streets and home interiors as the subject or background in his paintings. Several other famous painters lived and worked in Delft at that time, such as Pieter de Hoogh, Carel Fabritius, Nicolaes Maes, Gerard Houckgeest and Hendrick Cornelisz. van Vliet. They were all members of the Delft School. The Delft School is known for its images of domestic life and views of households, church interiors, courtyards, squares and the streets of Delft. The painters also produced pictures showing historic events, flowers, portraits for patrons and the court as well as decorative pieces of art.
Delft supports creative arts companies. From 2001 the Bacinol, a building that had been disused since 1951, began to house small companies in the creative arts sector. However, demolition of the building started in December 2009, making way for the construction of the new railway tunnel in Delft. The occupants of the building, as well as the name 'Bacinol', moved to another building in the city. The name Bacinol relates to Dutch penicillin research during WWII.
Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) is one of four universities of technology in the Netherlands. It was founded as an academy for civil engineering in 1842 by King William II. Today well over 21,000 students are enrolled.
The UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, providing postgraduate education for people from developing countries, draws on the strong tradition in water management and hydraulic engineering of the Delft university.
In the local economic field essential elements are:
- education; (amongst others Delft University of Technology) (As of 2017[update] 21.651 students and 4.939 full-time employees),
- scientific research; (amongst others "TNO" Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research), Stichting Deltares, Nederlands Normalisatie-Instituut, UNESCO-IHE Institute for water education, Technopolis Innovation Park;
- tourism; (about one million registered visitors a year),
- industry; (DSM Gist Services BV, (Delftware) earthenware production by De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles, Exact Software Nederland BV, TOPdesk, Ampelmann)
- retail; (IKEA (Inter IKEA Systems B.V., owner and worldwide franchisor of the IKEA Concept, is based in Delft), Makro, Eneco Energy NV).
Nature and recreationEdit
East of Delft lies a relatively large nature and recreation area called the "Delftse Hout" ("Delft Wood"). Through the forest lie bike, horse-riding and footpaths. It also includes a vast lake (suitable for swimming and windsurfing), narrow beaches, a restaurant, and community gardens, plus camping ground and other recreational and sports facilities. (There is also a facility for renting bikes from the station.)
Inside the city, apart from a central park, there are several smaller town parks, including "Nieuwe Plantage", "Agnetapark", "Kalverbos". There is also the Botanical Garden of the TU and an arboretum in Delftse Hout.
Delft was the birthplace of:
The Dutch Golden AgeEdit
- Jacob Willemsz Delff the Elder, (ca. 1550– 1601 in Delft) a portrait painter
- Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt (1567–1641) a Dutch golden age painter
- Willem van der Vliet (c. 1584–1642) a Dutch Golden Age painter
- Adriaen van de Venne (1589–1662) a Dutch Golden Age painter
- Adriaen Cornelisz van Linschoten (1590–1677) a Dutch Golden Age painter
- Daniël Mijtens (ca. 1590–1647/48) a Dutch portrait painter
- Leonaert Bramer (1596–1674) a painter of genre, religious, and history paintings
- Anthonie Palamedes (1601–1673) a Dutch Golden Age portrait painter.
- Pieter Jansz van Asch (1603–ca. 1678) a Dutch Golden Age painter.
- Evert van Aelst (1602–1657) a Dutch still life painter
- Hendrick Cornelisz. van Vliet (ca. 1611–1675) a Dutch golden age painter of church interiors
- Harmen Steenwijck (ca. 1612–ca. 1656) a Dutch Golden Age painter of still lifes and fruit
- Jacob Willemsz Delff the Younger (1619–1661) a Dutch Golden Age portrait painter.
- David Beck (1621–1656) a Dutch Golden Age portrait painter
- Egbert van der Poel (1621–1664) a Dutch Golden Age genre and landscape painter
- Daniel Vosmaer (1622-1666) a Dutch golden age painter
- Willem van Aelst (1627–1683) a Dutch Golden Age artist of still-lifes
- Hendrick van der Burgh (1627–after 1664) a Dutch Golden Age genre painter
- Johannes Vermeer (1632–1675) a Dutch Baroque Period painter of domestic interior scenes
- Ary de Milde (1634–1708) a Dutch Golden Age ceramist
Public thinking & Public ServiceEdit
- Christian van Adrichem (1533—1585) a Catholic priest and theological writer
- Jan Joosten van Lodensteijn (1556–1623) one of the first Dutchmen in Japan
- Hugo Grotius (1583–1645) a Dutch humanist, diplomat, lawyer, theologian and jurist who laid the foundations for international law
- Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange (1584–1647) the sovereign prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders & Overijssel from 1625 to 1647.
- Philippus Baldaeus (1632–1671) a Dutch minister in Jaffna
- Diederik Durven (1676–1740) Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1729 to 1732.
- Abraham van der Weijden (1743-1773) a ship's captain, initiated of Freemasonry in South Africa
- Gerrit Paape (1752–1803) a Dutch painter of earthenware and stoneware, poet, journalist, novelist, judge, columnist and finally a ministerial civil servant.
- Aegidius van Braam (1758–1822) a Dutch naval vice-admiral
- Agneta Matthes (1847–1909) a Dutch entrepreneur, manufactured yeast using the cooperative movement and housed the workers at Agnetapark
- Henk Zeevalking (1922–2005) a Dutch politician and jurist
- Piet Bukman (born 1934) a retired Dutch politician and diplomat
- Klaas de Vries (born 1943) a retired Dutch politician and jurist
- Atzo Nicolaï (born 1960) a retired Dutch politician
- Marja van Bijsterveldt (born 1961) a Dutch politician, the Mayor of Delft since 2016
- Alexander Pechtold (born 1965) a retired Dutch politician and art historian
Science & BusinessEdit
- Adolphus Vorstius (1597–1663) a Dutch physician and botanist
- Martin van den Hove (1605–1639) astronomer and mathematician
- Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723) father of microbiology and developer of the microscope
- Nicolaas Kruik (1678–1754) a land surveyor, cartographer, astronomer, weatherman and eponym of the Museum De Cruquius
- Martin van Marum (1750–1837) a Dutch physician, inventor, scientist and teacher
- Jacob Gijsbertus Samuël van Breda (1788–1867) a Dutch biologist and geologist
- Philippe-Charles Schmerling (1791–1836) a prehistorian, geologist and pioneer in paleontology
- Martinus Beijerinck (1851–1931) microbiologist, discovered viruses, lived and worked in Delft
- Guillaume Daniel Delprat CBE (1856–1937) a Dutch-Australian metallurgist, mining engineer and businessman
- Frederik H. Kreuger (1928–2015) a Dutch high voltage scientist, academic and inventor
- Marjo van der Knaap (born 1958) a professor of pediatric neurology, researches white matter
- Peter Schrijver (born 1963) Dutch historical linguist
- Ionica Smeets (born 1979) a mathematician, science journalist, TV presenter and academic
- Boyan Slat (born 1994) a Dutch inventor and entrepreneur, the CEO of The Ocean Cleanup
- Suzanne Manet (1829–1906) a pianist, the wife of, and model for, the painter Édouard Manet
- Betsy Perk (1833-1906) author of novels and plays; pioneer of the Dutch women's movement
- Ton Lutz (1919–2009) & Pieter Lutz (1927–2009) brothers, Dutch actors
- Bram Bogart (1921–2012) a Belgian expressionist painter of the COBRA group
- Cor Dam (born 1935) is a Dutch artist, sculptor, painter, illustrator and ceramist
- Kader Abdolah (born 1954) a Persian–Dutch writer, poet and columnist
- Michèle Van de Roer (born 1956) a French artist, designer, photographer and engraver
- Mariska Hulscher (born 1964) a Dutch TV presenter
- Wessel van Diepen (born 1966) a radio host, music producer and former TV presenter
- Rob Das (born 1969) a Dutch film and TV actor, director and writer
- Jan-Willem van Ewijk (born 1970) a Dutch film director, actor and screenwriter
- Ricky Koole (born 1972) a Dutch singer and film actress
- Vincent de Moor (born 1973) is a Dutch trance music artist and remixer
- Roel van Velzen (born 1978), singer
- Marly van der Velden (born 1988) a Dutch actress and fashion designer
- Jan Thomée (1886–1954) a footballer, team bronze medallist at the 1908 Summer Olympics
- Henri van Schaik (1899–1991) a horse rider, team silver medallist in the 1936 Summer Olympics
- Tinus Osendarp (1916–2002) a sprint runner, twice bronze medallist at the 1936 Summer Olympics
- Stien Kaiser (born 1938), former speed skater, twice bronze medallist at the 1968 Winter Olympics and gold and silver medallist in the 1972 Winter Olympics
- Pieter van der Kruk (born 1941) a retired Dutch heavyweight weightlifter and shot putter, competed at the 1968 Summer Olympics
- Jan Timman (born 1951) a Dutch chess grandmaster, raised in Delft
- Ria Stalman (born 1951) former discus thrower and shot putter, gold medallist in the discus at the 1984 Summer Olympics
- Frank Leistra (born 1960) a former field hockey goalkeeper, team bronze medallist at the 1988 Summer Olympics
- Ken Monkou (born 1964) a Dutch former football player with 356 club caps
- Eeke van Nes (born 1969) a retired rower, team bronze medallist at the 1996 Summer Olympics and team silver medallist at the 2000 Summer Olympics
- Thamar Henneken (born 1979) a former freestyle swimmer, team silver medallist at the 2000 Summer Olympics
- Ard van Peppen (born 1985) a Dutch professional footballer with over 350 club caps
- Sytske de Groot (born 1986) a rower, team bronze medallist at the 2012 Summer Olympics
- Aaron Meijers (born 1987) a Dutch professional footballer with almost 400 club caps
- Michaëlla Krajicek (born 1989) a Dutch professional tennis player
- Arantxa Rus (born 1990) a Dutch professional tennis player
- Nuna is a series of manned solar-powered vehicles, built by students at the Delft University of Technology, that won the World solar challenge in Australia seven times in the last nine competitions (in 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2013, 2015 and 2017).
- The so-called "Superbus" project aims to develop high-speed coaches capable of speeds of up to 250 kilometres per hour (155 mph) together with the supporting infrastructure including special highway lanes constructed separately next to the nation's highways; this project was led by Dutch astronaut professor Wubbo Ockels of the Delft University of Technology.
- Members of both Delft Student Rowing Clubs Proteus-Eretes and Laga have won many international trophies, including Olympic medals, in the past.
- The Human Power Team Delft & Amsterdam, a team consisting mainly of students from the Delft University of Technology, has won The World Human Powered Speed Challenge (WHPSC) four times. This is an international contest for recumbents in the US state of Nevada, the aim of which is to break speed records. They set the world record of 133.78 kilometres an hour (83.13 mph) in 2013.
Twin towns — Sister citiesEdit
- Delft railway station; (As of February 2015, located in a new building.)
- Delft Campus railway station
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- "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 1 January 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Huerta, Robert D.: Giants of Delft: Johannes Vermeer and the Natural Philosophers: The Parallel Search for Knowledge during the Age of Discovery. (Pennsylvania: Bucknell University Press, 2003)
- Brook, Timothy: Vermeer's Hat: The Seventeenth Century and the Dawn of the Global World. (Bloomsbury Press, 2009, ISBN 978-1596915992)
- Liedtke, Walter; Plomp, Michiel C.; Ruger, Axel; Baarsen, Reinier J.: Vermeer and the Delft School. (NYC: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013, ISBN 978-0300200294)
- Snyder, Laura J.: Eye of the Beholder: Johannes Vermeer, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, and the Reinvention of Seeing. (W. W. Norton & Company, 2015, ISBN 978-0393352887)
- Ruestow, Edward G.: The Microscope in the Dutch Republic: The Shaping of Discovery. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996)
- Fournier, Marian: The Fabric of Life: The Rise and Decline of Seventeenth-Century Microscopy. (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, ISBN 978-0801851384)
- Artenstein, Andrew W.: The discovery of viruses: advancing science and medicine by challenging dogma. (International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 16, Issue 7, July 2012, pages: e470-e473). doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2012.03.005. Andrew W. Artenstein: "By 1895 Beijerinck had returned to academia after leaving the Agricultural School for a 10-year stint in industrial microbiology in Delft, the South Holland birthplace of van Leeuwenhoek, one of the founding fathers of microbiology. During his first years at the Technical University of Delft, Beijerinck resumed the research on tobacco mosaic disease that he had started while working with Mayer. Even then, he had appreciated that the affliction was microbial in nature, although he felt that the actual agents had yet to be discovered. Beijerinck's investigations at Delft proved fruitful; he not only confirmed the infectivity of the contagium vivum fluidum—soluble living germ—despite filtration, but he importantly demonstrated that unlike bacteria, the culprit of tobacco disease of plants was incapable of independent growth, requiring the presence of living, dividing host cells in order to replicate."
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