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DisplayPort (DP) is a digital display interface developed by a consortium of PC and chip manufacturers (particularly Maxell, Lattice, Philips and Sony)[1] and standardized by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). The interface is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer monitor, and it can also carry audio, USB, and other forms of data.[2]

DisplayPort
DisplayPort.svg
Type Digital audio/video connector
Designer VESA, Maxell, Lattice, Philips, Sony[1]
Designed May 2006
Manufacturer Various
Produced 2008–present
Superseded DVI, VGA, SCART, RGB Component
Superseded by None
Length Various
Hot pluggable Yes
External Yes
Audio signal Optional; 1–8 channels, 16 or 24-bit linear PCM; 32–192 kHz sampling rate; maximum bitrate 36,864 kbit/s (4,608 kB/s)
Video signal Optional, maximum resolution limited by available bandwidth
Pins 20 pins for external connectors on desktops, notebooks, graphics cards, monitors, etc. and 30/20 pins for internal connections between graphics engines and built-in flat panels.
Signal +3.3 V
Max. voltage 16.0 V
Max. current 0.5 A
Data signal Yes
Bitrate 1.62, 2.7, 5.4, or 8.1 Gbit/s data rate per lane; 1, 2, or 4 lanes; (effective total 5.184, 8.64, 17.28, or 25.92  Gbit/s for 4-lane link); 1 Mbit/s or 720 Mbit/s for the auxiliary channel.
Protocol Mini-packet
DisplayPort Connector.svg
External connector (source-side) on PCB
Pin 1 ML_Lane 0 (p)[a] Lane 0 (positive)
Pin 2 GND Ground
Pin 3 ML_Lane 0 (n)[a] Lane 0 (negative)
Pin 4 ML_Lane 1 (p)[a] Lane 1 (positive)
Pin 5 GND Ground
Pin 6 ML_Lane 1 (n)[a] Lane 1 (negative)
Pin 7 ML_Lane 2 (p)[a] Lane 2 (positive)
Pin 8 GND Ground
Pin 9 ML_Lane 2 (n)[a] Lane 2 (negative)
Pin 10 ML_Lane 3 (p)[a] Lane 3 (positive)
Pin 11 GND Ground
Pin 12 ML_Lane 3 (n)[a] Lane 3 (negative)
Pin 13 CONFIG1 Connected to ground[b]
Pin 14 CONFIG2 Connected to ground[b]
Pin 15 AUX CH (p) Auxiliary channel (positive)
Pin 16 GND Ground
Pin 17 AUX CH (n) Auxiliary channel (negative)
Pin 18 Hot plug Hot plug detect
Pin 19 Return Return for power
Pin 20 DP_PWR Power for connector (3.3 V 500 mA)
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h This is the pinout for source-side connector, the sink-side connector pinout will have lanes 0–3 reversed in order; i.e., lane 3 will be on pin 1(n) and 3(p) while lane 0 will be on pin 10(n) and 12(p).
  2. ^ a b Pins 13 and 14 may either be directly connected to ground or connected to ground through a pulldown device.
DisplayPort connector
A Mini DisplayPort receptacle (center)

DisplayPort was designed to replace VGA, DVI, and FPD-Link. The interface is backward compatible with other interfaces, such as HDMI and DVI, through the use of either active or passive adapters.

OverviewEdit

DisplayPort is the first display interface to rely on packetized data transmission, a form of digital communication found in technologies such as Ethernet, USB, and PCI Express. It permits the use of internal and external display connections, and unlike legacy standards that transmit a clock signal with each output, the DisplayPort protocol is based on small data packets known as micro packets, which can embed the clock signal within the data stream. This allows for higher resolution using fewer pins.[3] The use of data packets also makes DisplayPort extensible, meaning additional features can be added over time without significant changes to the physical interface.[4]

DisplayPort can be used to transmit audio and video simultaneously, although each is optional and can be transmitted without the other. The video signal path can range from six to sixteen bits per color channel, and the audio path can have up to eight channels of 24-bit, 192 kHz PCM audio that is uncompressed.[2] A bi-directional, half-duplex auxiliary channel carries device management and device control data for the Main Link, such as VESA EDID, MCCS, and DPMS standards. In addition, the interface is capable of carrying bi-directional USB signals.[5]

The DisplayPort uses an LVDS signal protocol that is not compatible with DVI or HDMI. However, dual-mode DisplayPorts are designed to transmit a single-link DVI or HDMI protocol (TMDS) across the interface through the use of an external passive adapter. This adapter enables compatibility mode and converts the signal from 3.3 volts to 5 volts. For analog VGA/YPbPr and dual-link DVI, a powered active adapter is required for compatibility and does not rely on dual mode. Active VGA adapters are powered by the DisplayPort connector directly, while active dual-link DVI adapters typically rely on an external power source such as USB.[6]

VersionsEdit

1.0 to 1.1Edit

The first version, 1.0, was approved by VESA on 3 May 2006.[7] Version 1.1 was ratified on 2 April 2007,[8] and version 1.1a was ratified on 11 January 2008.[9]

DisplayPort 1.0–1.1a allow a maximum bandwidth of 10.8 Gbit/s (8.64 Gbit/s data rate) over a standard 4-lane main link. DisplayPort cables up to 2 meters in length are required to support the full 10.8 Gbit/s bandwidth.[9] DisplayPort 1.1 allows devices to implement alternative link layers such as fiber optic, allowing a much longer reach between source and display without signal degradation,[10] although alternative implementations are not standardized. It also includes HDCP in addition to DisplayPort Content Protection (DPCP). The DisplayPort 1.1a standard can be downloaded for free from the VESA website.[11]

1.2Edit

DisplayPort version 1.2 was introduced on 7 January 2010.[12] The most significant improvement of the new version is the doubling of the effective bandwidth to 17.28 Gbit/s in High Bit Rate 2 (HBR2) mode, which allows increased resolutions, higher refresh rates, and greater color depth. Other improvements include multiple independent video streams (daisy-chain connection with multiple monitors) called Multi-Stream Transport, facilities for stereoscopic 3D, increased AUX channel bandwidth (from 1 Mbit/s to 720 Mbit/s), more color spaces including xvYCC, scRGB and Adobe RGB 1998, and Global Time Code (GTC) for sub 1 µs audio/video synchronisation. Also Apple Inc.'s Mini DisplayPort connector, which is much smaller and designed for laptop computers and other small devices, is compatible with the new standard.[2][13][14][15]

1.2aEdit

DisplayPort version 1.2a was released in January 2013[16] and may optionally include VESA's Adaptive Sync.[17] AMD's FreeSync uses the DisplayPort Adaptive-Sync feature for operation. FreeSync was first demonstrated at CES 2014 on a Toshiba Satellite laptop by making use of the Panel-Self-Refresh (PSR) feature from the Embedded DisplayPort standard,[18] and after a proposal from AMD, VESA later adapted the Panel-Self-Refresh feature for use in standalone displays and added it as an optional feature of the main DisplayPort standard under the name "Adaptive-Sync" in version 1.2a.[19] As it is an optional feature, support for Adaptive-Sync is not required for a display to be DisplayPort 1.2a-compliant.

1.3Edit

DisplayPort version 1.3 was approved on 15 September 2014.[20] This standard increases overall transmission bandwidth to 32.4 Gbit/s with the new HBR3 mode featuring 8.1 Gbit/s per lane (up from 5.4 Gbit/s with HBR2 in version 1.2), for a total data throughput of 25.92 Gbit/s after factoring in 8b/10b encoding overhead. This bandwidth is enough for a 4K UHD display (3840 × 2160) at 120 Hz with 24 bit/px RGB color, a 5K display (5120 × 2880) at 60 Hz with 30 bit/px RGB color, or an 8K UHD display (7680 × 4320) at 30 Hz with 24 bit/px RGB color. Using Multi-Stream Transport (MST), a DisplayPort port can drive two 4K UHD (3840 × 2160) displays at 60 Hz, or up to four WQXGA (2560 × 1600) displays at 60 Hz with 24 bit/px RGB color. The new standard includes mandatory Dual-mode for DVI and HDMI adapters, implementing the HDMI 2.0 standard and HDCP 2.2 content protection.[21] The Thunderbolt 3 connection standard was originally to include DisplayPort 1.3 capability, but the final release ended up with only version 1.2. The VESA's Adaptive Sync feature in DisplayPort version 1.3 remains an optional part of the specification.[22]

1.4Edit

DisplayPort version 1.4 was published 1 March 2016.[23] No new transmission modes are defined, so HBR3 (32.4 Gbit/s) as introduced in version 1.3 still remains as the highest available mode. DisplayPort 1.4 adds support for Display Stream Compression 1.2 (DSC), Forward Error Correction, HDR10 metadata defined in CTA-861.3, including static and dynamic metadata and the Rec. 2020 color space, for HDMI interoperability,[24] and extends the maximum number of inline audio channels to 32.[25]

DSC is a "visually lossless" encoding technique with up to a 3:1 compression ratio.[23] Using DSC with HBR3 transmission rates, DisplayPort 1.4 can support 8K UHD (7680 × 4320) at 60 Hz or 4K UHD (3840 × 2160) at 120 Hz with 30 bit/px RGB color and HDR. 4K at 60 Hz 30 bit/px RGB/HDR can be achieved without the need for DSC. On displays which do not support DSC, the maximum limits are unchanged from DisplayPort 1.3 (4K 120 Hz, 5K 60 Hz, 8K 30 Hz).[26]

1.4aEdit

DisplayPort version 1.4a was published in April 2018.[27] VESA made no official press release for this version. It updated DisplayPort's DSC implementation from DSC 1.2 to 1.2a.[28]

2.0Edit

According to a roadmap published by VESA in September 2016, a new version of DisplayPort was intended to be launched in "early 2017". It would have improved the link rate from 8.1 to 10.0 Gbit/s, a 24% increase.[29][30] This would have increased the total bandwidth from 32.4 Gbit/s to 40.0 Gbit/s.

However, no new version was released in 2017, likely delayed to make further improvements after the HDMI Forum announced in January 2017 that their next standard (HDMI 2.1) would offer up to 48 Gbit/s of bandwidth. According to a press release on 3 January 2018, "VESA is also currently engaged with its members in the development of the next DisplayPort standard generation, with plans to increase the data rate enabled by DisplayPort by two-fold and beyond. VESA plans to publish this update within the next 18 months."[31]

At CES 2019, VESA announced that the new version would support 8K @ 60 Hz without compression and was expected to be released in the first half of 2019.[32]

On June 26, 2019, VESA formally released the DisplayPort 2.0 standard. VESA stated that DP 2.0 is the first major update to the DisplayPort standard since March 2016, and provides up to a ≈3× improvement in data rate (from 25.92 to 77.37 Gbit/s) compared to the previous version of DisplayPort (1.4a), as well as new capabilities to address the future performance requirements of traditional displays. These include beyond 8K resolutions, higher refresh rates and high dynamic range (HDR) support at higher resolutions, improved support for multiple display configurations, as well as improved user experience with augmented/virtual reality (AR/VR) displays, including support for 4K-and-beyond VR resolutions.[33]

DP 2.0 Configuration ExamplesEdit

With the increased bandwidth enabled by DP 2.0, VESA offers a high degree of versatility and configurations for higher display resolutions and refresh rates. In addition to the above-mentioned 8K resolution at 60 Hz with HDR support, DP 2.0 across the native DP connector or through USB-C as DisplayPort Alt Mode enables a variety of high-performance configurations:

  • Single display resolutions
    • One 16K (15360 × 8640) display @ 60 Hz with 10 bpc (30 bit/px, HDR) RGB/Y′CBCR 4:4:4 color (with DSC)
    • One 10K (10240 × 4320) display @ 60 Hz and 8 bpc (24 bit/px, SDR) RGB/Y′CBCR 4:4:4 color (uncompressed)
  • Dual display resolutions
    • Two 8K (7680 × 4320) displays @ 120 Hz and 10 bpc (30 bit/px, HDR) RGB/Y′CBCR 4:4:4 color (with DSC)
    • Two 4K (3840 × 2160) displays @ 144 Hz and 8 bpc (24 bit/px, SDR) RGB/Y′CBCR 4:4:4 color (uncompressed)
  • Triple display resolutions
    • Three 10K (10240 × 4320) displays @ 60 Hz and 10 bpc (30 bit/px, HDR) RGB/Y′CBCR 4:4:4 color (with DSC)
    • Three 4K (3840 × 2160) displays @ 90 Hz and 10 bpc (30 bit/px, HDR) RGB/Y′CBCR 4:4:4 color (uncompressed)

When using only two lanes on the USB-C connector via DP Alt Mode to allow for simultaneous SuperSpeed USB data and video, DP 2.0 can enable such configurations as:[33]

  • Three 4K (3840 × 2160) displays @ 144 Hz and 10 bpc (30 bit/px, HDR) RGB/Y′CBCR 4:4:4 color (with DSC)
  • Two 4K × 4K (4096 × 4096) displays (for AR/VR headsets) @ 120 Hz and 10 bpc (30 bit/px, HDR) RGB/Y′CBCR 4:4:4 color (with DSC)
  • Three QHD (2560 × 1440) @ 120 Hz and 8 bpc (24 bit/px, SDR) RGB/Y′CBCR 4:4:4 color (uncompressed)
  • One 8K (7680 × 4320) display @ 30 Hz and 10 bpc (30 bit/px, HDR) RGB/Y′CBCR 4:4:4 color (uncompressed)

SpecificationsEdit

Main specificationsEdit

  DisplayPort version
1.0–1.1a 1.2–1.2a 1.3 1.4–1.4a 2.0
Release date May 2006 (1.0)[34]
Mar 2007 (1.1)[35]
Jan 2008 (1.1a)[9]
Jan 2010 (1.2)[12]
May 2012 (1.2a)[35]
Sep 2014[20] March 2016 (1.4)[23]
April 2018 (1.4a)[27]
June 2019[33]
Main link
Transmission modes:
RBR (1.62 Gbit/s per lane) Yes[36](§1.6.1) Yes Yes Yes Yes
HBR (2.70 Gbit/s per lane) Yes[36](§1.6.1) Yes Yes Yes Yes
HBR2 (5.40 Gbit/s per lane) No Yes[37](§2.1.1) Yes Yes Yes
HBR3 (8.10 Gbit/s per lane) No No Yes[20] Yes Yes
UHBR 10 (10.0 Gbit/s per lane) No No No No Yes
UHBR 13.5 (13.5 Gbit/s per lane) No No No No Yes
UHBR 20 (20.0 Gbit/s per lane) No No No No Yes
Number of lanes (§1.7.1)[9] 4 4 4 4 4
Maximum total bandwidth[a] 10.80 Gbit/s 21.60 Gbit/s 32.40 Gbit/s 32.40 Gbit/s 80.00 Gbit/s
Maximum total data rate[b] 8.64 Gbit/s
17.28 Gbit/s 25.92 Gbit/s 25.92 Gbit/s 77.37 Gbit/s
Encoding scheme[c] (§1.7.1)[9] 8b/10b 8b/10b 8b/10b 8b/10b 128b/132b
Compression (optional) - - - DSC 1.2 (DP 1.4)
DSC 1.2a (DP 1.4a)
DSC 1.2a
Auxiliary channel
Maximum bandwidth (Fig. 3-3)[9] 2 Mbit/s (§3.4)[37] 720 Mbit/s 720 Mbit/s 720 Mbit/s ?
Maximum data rate (§3.4)[9] 1 Mbit/s (§3.4)[37] 576 Mbit/s 576 Mbit/s 576 Mbit/s ?
Encoding scheme (§1.7.2)[9] Manchester II (§3.4)[37] 8b/10b 8b/10b 8b/10b ?
Color-format support
RGB Yes[36](§1.6.1) Yes Yes Yes Yes
Y′CBCR 4:4:4 Yes[36](§1.6.1) Yes Yes Yes Yes
Y′CBCR 4:2:2 Yes[36](§1.6.1) Yes Yes Yes Yes
Y′CBCR 4:2:0 No No Yes Yes Yes
Y-only (monochrome) No Yes[37](§2.2.4.3) Yes Yes Yes
Color-depth support
06 bpc (18 bit/px) Yes[36](§1.6.1) Yes Yes Yes Yes
08 bpc (24 bit/px) Yes[36](§1.6.1) Yes Yes Yes Yes
10 bpc (30 bit/px) Yes[36](§1.6.1) Yes Yes Yes Yes
12 bpc (36 bit/px) Yes[36](§1.6.1) Yes Yes Yes Yes
16 bpc (48 bit/px) Yes[36](§1.6.1) Yes Yes Yes Yes
Color-space support
ITU-R BT.601 Yes[9](§2.2.4) Yes Yes Yes Yes
ITU-R BT.709 Yes[9](§2.2.4) Yes Yes Yes Yes
sRGB No[d] Yes[37](§2.2.4.3) Yes Yes Yes
scRGB No Yes[37](§2.2.4.3) Yes Yes Yes
xvYCC No Yes[37](§2.2.4.3) Yes Yes Yes
Adobe RGB (1998) No Yes[37](§2.2.4.3) Yes Yes Yes
DCI-P3 No Yes[37](§2.2.4.3) Yes Yes Yes
Simplified color profile No Yes[37](§2.2.4.3) Yes Yes Yes
ITU-R BT.2020 No No Yes[38](p4) Yes Yes
Audio specifications
Max. sample rate (§1.2.5)[9] 192 kHz (§2.2.5.3)[37] 768 kHz 768 kHz [23] 1536 kHz ?
Max. sample size (§1.2.5)[9] 24 bits 24 bits 24 bits 24 bits ?
Maximum audio channels (§1.2.5)[9] 8 8 8 32 ?
  1.0–1.1a 1.2–1.2a 1.3 1.4–1.4a 2.0
DisplayPort version
  1. ^ Total bandwidth (the number of binary digits transmitted per second) is equal to the bandwidth per lane of the highest supported transmission mode multiplied by the number of lanes.
  2. ^ While the total bandwidth represents the number of physical bits transmitted across the interface, not all of the bits represent video data. Some of the transmitted bits are used for encoding purposes, so the rate at which video data can be transmitted across the DisplayPort interface is only a portion of the total bandwidth.
  3. ^ The 8b/10b encoding scheme uses 10 bits of bandwidth to send 8 bits of data, so only 80% of the bandwidth is available for data throughput. The extra 2 bits are used for DC balancing (ensuring a roughly equal number of 1s and 0s). They consume bandwidth, but do not represent any data.
  4. ^ In DisplayPort 1.0–1.1a, RGB images are simply sent without any specific colorimetry information

Main linkEdit

The DisplayPort main link is used for transmission of video and audio. The main link consists of a number of unidirectional serial data channels which operate concurrently, called lanes. A standard DisplayPort connection has 4 lanes, though some applications of DisplayPort implement more, such as the Thunderbolt 3 interface which implements up to 8 lanes of DisplayPort.[39](p4)

In a standard DisplayPort connection, each lane has a dedicated set of twisted-pair wires, and transmits data across it using differential signaling. This is a self-clocking system, so no dedicated clock signal channel is necessary.[9](§1.7.1) Unlike DVI and HDMI, which vary their transmission speed to the exact rate required for the specific video format, DisplayPort only operates at a few specific speeds; any excess bits in the transmission are filled with "stuffing symbols".[9](§2.2.1.4)

In DisplayPort versions 1.0–1.4a, the data is encoded using ANSI 8b/10b encoding prior to transmission. With this scheme, only 8 out of every 10 transmitted bits represent data; the extra bits are used for DC balancing (ensuring a roughly equal number of 1s and 0s). As a result, the rate at which data can be transmitted is only 80% of the physical bitrate. The transmission speeds are also sometimes expressed in terms of the "Link Symbol Rate", which is the rate at which these 8b/10b-encoded symbols are transmitted (i.e. the rate at which groups of 10 bits are transmitted, 8 of which represent data). The following transmission modes are defined in version 1.0–1.4a:

  • RBR (Reduced Bit Rate): 1.62 Gbit/s bandwidth per lane (162 MHz link symbol rate)
  • HBR (High Bit Rate): 2.70 Gbit/s bandwidth per lane (270 MHz link symbol rate)
  • HBR2 (High Bit Rate 2): 5.40 Gbit/s bandwidth per lane (540 MHz link symbol rate), introduced in DP 1.2
  • HBR3 (High Bit Rate 3): 8.10 Gbit/s bandwidth per lane (810 MHz link symbol rate), introduced in DP 1.3

DisplayPort 2.0 uses 128b/132b encoding; each group of 132 transmitted bits represents 128 bits of data. This scheme has an efficiency of 96.96%. In addition, forward error correction (FEC) consumes a small amount of the link bandwidth, resulting in an overall efficiency of ≈96.7%.[40] The following transmission modes are added in DP 2.0:

  • UHBR 10 (Ultra High Bit Rate 10): 10.0 Gbit/s bandwidth per lane
  • UHBR 13.5 (Ultra High Bit Rate 13.5): 13.5 Gbit/s bandwidth per lane
  • UHBR 20 (Ultra High Bit Rate 20): 20.0 Gbit/s bandwidth per lane

The total bandwidth of the main link in a standard 4-lane connection is the aggregate of all lanes:

  • RBR: 04 × 1.62 Gbit/s = 06.48 Gbit/s bandwidth (data rate of 5.184 Gbit/s or 648 MB/s with 8b/10b encoding)
  • HBR: 04 × 2.70 Gbit/s = 10.80 Gbit/s bandwidth (data rate of 8.64 Gbit/s or 1.08 GB/s)
  • HBR2: 4 × 5.40 Gbit/s = 21.60 Gbit/s bandwidth (data rate of 17.28 Gbit/s or 2.16 GB/s)
  • HBR3: 4 × 8.10 Gbit/s = 32.40 Gbit/s bandwidth (data rate of 25.92 Gbit/s or 3.24 GB/s)
  • UHBR 10: 4 × 10.0 Gbit/s = 40.00 Gbit/s bandwidth (data rate of 38.69 Gbit/s or 4.84 GB/s with 128b/132b encoding and FEC)
  • UHBR 13.5: 4 × 13.5 Gbit/s = 54.00 Gbit/s bandwidth (data rate of 52.22 Gbit/s or 6.52 GB/s)
  • UHBR 20: 4 × 20.0 Gbit/s = 80.00 Gbit/s bandwidth (data rate of 77.37 Gbit/s or 9.69 GB/s)

The transmission mode used by the DisplayPort main link is negotiated by the source and sink device when a connection is made, through a process called Link Training. This process determines the maximum possible speed of the connection. If the quality of the DisplayPort cable is insufficient to reliably handle HBR2 speeds for example, the DisplayPort devices will detect this and switch down to a lower mode to maintain a stable connection.[9](§2.1.1) The link can be re-negotiated at any time if a loss of synchronization is detected.[9](§1.7.3)

Audio data is transmitted across the main link during the video blanking intervals (short pauses between each line and frame of video data).[9](§2.2.5.3)

Auxiliary channelEdit

The DisplayPort AUX channel is a half-duplex bidirectional data channel used for miscellaneous additional data beyond video and audio (such as I2C or CEC commands)[9](§2.4) at the device manufacturer's discretion. AUX signals are transmitted across a dedicated set of twisted-pair wires. DisplayPort 1.0 specified Manchester encoding with a 2 Mbaud signal rate (1 Mbit/s data rate).[9](§3.4) DisplayPort 1.2 introduced a second transmission mode called FAUX (Fast AUX), which operates at 720 Mbaud with 8b/10b encoding (576 Mbit/s data rate).[37](§3.4) This can be used to implement additional transport protocols such as USB 2.0 (480 Mbit/s) without the need for an additional cable, but has seen little practical use as of 2018.

Cables and connectorsEdit

CablesEdit

Compatibility and feature supportEdit

All DisplayPort cables are compatible with all DisplayPort devices, regardless of the version of each device or the cable certification level.[41]

All features of DisplayPort will function across any DisplayPort cable. DisplayPort does not have multiple cable designs; all DP cables have the same basic layout and wiring, and will support any feature including audio, daisy-chaining, G-Sync/FreeSync, HDR, and DSC.

DisplayPort cables differ in their transmission speed support. DisplayPort specifies four different transmission modes (RBR, HBR, HBR2, and HBR3) which support progressively higher bandwidths. Not all DisplayPort cables are capable of all four transmission modes. VESA offers certifications for each level of bandwidth. These certifications are optional, and not all DisplayPort cables are certified by VESA.

Cables with limited transmission speed are still compatible with all DisplayPort devices, but may place limits on the maximum resolution or refresh rate available.

DisplayPort cables are not classified by "version". Although cables are commonly labeled with version numbers, with HBR2 cables advertised as "DisplayPort 1.2 cables" for example, this notation is not permitted by VESA.[41] The use of version numbers with cables can seem to imply that a DisplayPort 1.4 display requires a "DisplayPort 1.4 cable", or that features introduced in DP 1.4 such as HDR or DSC will not function with older "DP 1.2 cables", when in reality neither of these are true. DisplayPort cables are classified only by their bandwidth certification level (RBR, HBR, HBR2, HBR3), if they have been certified at all.

Cable bandwidth and certificationsEdit

Not all DisplayPort cables are capable of functioning at the highest levels of bandwidth. Cables may be submitted to VESA for an optional certification at various bandwidth levels. VESA offers three levels of cable certification: RBR, Standard, and DP8K. These certify DisplayPort cables for proper operation at the following speeds:

DisplayPort Cable Certifications
Transmission Mode Transmission
Bit Rate
DP Version
Introduced In
Minimum Cable
Certification Required
RBR (Reduced Bit Rate) 6.48 Gbit/s
1.0
RBR DisplayPort Cable
HBR (High Bit Rate) 10.80 Gbit/s Standard DisplayPort Cable
HBR2 (High Bit Rate 2) 21.60 Gbit/s
1.2
HBR3 (High Bit Rate 3) 32.40 Gbit/s
1.3
DP8K DisplayPort Cable
UHBR 10 (Ultra High Bit Rate 10) 40.00 Gbit/s
2.0

In April 2013, VESA published an article stating that the DisplayPort cable certification did not have distinct tiers for HBR and HBR2 bandwidth, and that any certified standard DisplayPort cable—including those certified under DisplayPort 1.1—would be able to handle the 21.6 Gbit/s bandwidth of HBR2 that was introduced with the DisplayPort 1.2 standard.[41] The DisplayPort 1.2 standard defines only a single specification for High Bit Rate cable assemblies, which is used for both HBR and HBR2 speeds, although the DP cable certification process is governed by the DisplayPort PHY Compliance Test Standard (CTS) and not the DisplayPort standard itself.[37](§5.7.1, §4.1)

The DP8K certification was announced by VESA in January 2018, and certifies cables for proper operation at HBR3 speeds (8.1 Gbit/s per lane, 32.4 Gbit/s total).[42]

In June 2019, with the release of version 2.0 of the DisplayPort Standard, VESA announced that the DP8K certification was also sufficient for the new UHBR 10 transmission mode. No new certifications were announced for the UHBR 13.5 and UHBR 20 modes. VESA is encouraging displays to use tethered cables for these speeds, rather than releasing standalone cables onto the market.[40]

It should also be noted that the use of Display Stream Compression (DSC), introduced in DisplayPort 1.4, greatly reduces the bandwidth requirements for the cable. Formats which would normally be beyond the limits of DisplayPort 1.4, such as 4K (3840 × 2160) at 144 Hz 8 bpc RGB/4:4:4 (31.4 Gbit/s data rate when uncompressed), can only be implemented by using DSC. This would reduce the physical bandwidth requirements by 2–3x, placing it well within the capabilities of an HBR2-rated cable.

This exemplifies why DisplayPort cables are not classified by "version"; although DSC was introduced in version 1.4, this does not mean it needs a so-called "DP 1.4 cable" (an HBR3-rated cable) to function. HBR3 cables are only required for applications which exceed HBR2-level bandwidth, not simply any application involving DisplayPort 1.4. If DSC is used to reduce the bandwidth requirements to HBR2 levels, then an HBR2-rated cable will be sufficient.

Cable lengthEdit

The DisplayPort standard does not specify any maximum length for cables, though the DisplayPort 1.2 standard does set a minimum requirement that all cables up to 2 meters in length must support HBR2 speeds (21.6 Gbit/s), and all cables of any length must support RBR speeds (6.48 Gbit/s).[37](§5.7.1, §4.1) Cables greater than 2 meters may or may not support HBR/HBR2 speeds, and cables of any length may or may not support HBR3 speeds.

Connectors and pin configurationEdit

DisplayPort cables and ports may have either a "full-size" connector or a "mini" connector. These connectors differ only in physical shape—the capabilities of DisplayPort are the same regardless of which connector is used. Using a Mini DisplayPort connector does not affect performance or feature support of the connection.

Full-size DisplayPort connectorEdit

The standard DisplayPort connector (now referred to as a "full-size" connector to distinguish it from the mini connector)[37](§4.1.1) was the sole connector type introduced in DisplayPort 1.0. It is a 20-pin single-orientation connector with a friction lock and an optional mechanical latch. The standard DisplayPort receptacle has dimensions of 16.10 mm (width) × 4.76 mm (height) × 8.88 mm (depth).[9](§4.2.1.7, p201)

The standard DisplayPort connector pin allocation is as follows:[9](§4.2.1)

  • 12 pins for the main link — the main link consists of four shielded twisted pairs. Each pair requires 3 pins; one for each of the two wires, and a third for the shield.[9](§4.1.2, p183) (pins 1–12)
  • 3 pins for the auxiliary channel — the auxiliary channel uses another 3-pin shielded twisted pair (pins 15–17)
  • 1 pin for HPD — hot-plug detection pin (pin 18)
  • 2 pins for power — 3.3 V power and return line (pins 19 and 20)
  • 2 additional ground pins — (pins 13 and 14)

Mini DisplayPort connectorEdit

 
Mini DisplayPort plug

The Mini DisplayPort connector was developed by Apple for use in their computer products. It was first announced in October 2008 for use in the new MacBook Pro, MacBook Air, and Cinema Display. In 2009, VESA adopted it as an official standard, and in 2010 the specification was merged into the main DisplayPort standard with the release of DisplayPort 1.2. Apple freely licenses the specification to VESA.

The Mini DisplayPort (mDP) connector is a 20-pin single-orientation connector with a friction lock. Unlike the full-size connector, it does not have an option for a mechanical latch. The mDP receptacle has dimensions of 7.50 mm (width) × 4.60 mm (height) × 4.99 mm (depth).[43](§2.1.3.6, pp27–31) The mDP pin assignments are the same as the full-size DisplayPort connector.[43](§2.1.3)

DP_PWR PinEdit

Pin 20 on the DisplayPort connector, called DP_PWR, provides 3.3 V (±10%) DC power at up to 500 mA (minimum power delivery of 1.5 W).[9](§3.2) This power is available from all DisplayPort receptacles, on both source and display devices. DP_PWR is intended to provide power for adapters, amplified cables, and similar devices, so that a separate power cable is not necessary.

Standard DisplayPort cable connections do not use the DP_PWR pin. Connecting the DP_PWR pins of two devices directly together through a cable can create a short circuit which can potentially damage devices, since the DP_PWR pins on two devices are unlikely to have exactly the same voltage (especially with a ±10% tolerance).[44] For this reason, the DisplayPort 1.1 and later standards specify that passive DisplayPort-to-DisplayPort cables must leave pin 20 unconnected.[9](§3.2.2)

However, in 2013 VESA announced that after investigating reports of malfunctioning DisplayPort devices, it had discovered that a large number of non-certified vendors were manufacturing their DisplayPort cables with the DP_PWR pin connected:

Recently VESA has experienced quite a few complaints regarding troublesome DisplayPort operation that ended up being caused by improperly made DisplayPort cables. These "bad" DisplayPort cables are generally limited to non-DisplayPort certified cables, or off-brand cables. To further investigate this trend in the DisplayPort cable market, VESA purchased a number of non-certified, off-brand cables and found that an alarmingly high number of these were configured improperly and would likely not support all system configurations. None of these cables would have passed the DisplayPort certification test, moreover some of these cables could potentially damage a PC, laptop, or monitor.

The stipulation that the DP_PWR wire be omitted from standard DisplayPort cables was not present in the DisplayPort 1.0 standard. However, DisplayPort products (and cables) did not begin to appear on the market until 2008, long after version 1.0 had been replaced by version 1.1. The DisplayPort 1.0 standard was never implemented in commercial products.[45]

Resolution and refresh frequency limitsEdit

The tables below describe the refresh frequencies that can be achieved with each transmission mode. In general, maximum refresh frequency is determined by the transmission mode (RBR, HBR, HBR2, HBR3, UHBR 10, UHBR 13.5, or UHBR 20). These transmission modes were introduced to the DisplayPort standard as follows:

  • RBR and HBR were defined in the initial release of the DisplayPort standard, version 1.0
  • HBR2 was introduced in version 1.2
  • HBR3 was introduced in version 1.3
  • UHBR 10, UHBR 13.5, and UHBR 20 were introduced in version 2.0

However, transmission mode support is not necessarily dictated by a device's claimed "DisplayPort version number". For example, older versions of the DisplayPort Marketing Guidelines allowed a device to be labeled as "DisplayPort 1.2" if it supported the MST feature, even if it didn't support the HBR2 transmission mode.[46](p9) Newer versions of the guidelines have removed this clause, and currently (as of the June 2018 revision) there are no guidelines on the usage of DisplayPort version numbers in products.[47] DisplayPort "version numbers" are therefore not a reliable indication of what transmission speeds a device can support.

In addition, individual devices may have their own arbitrary limitations beyond transmission speed. For example, NVIDIA Kepler GK104 GPUs (such as the GeForce GTX 680 and 770) support "DisplayPort 1.2" with the HBR2 transmission mode, but are limited to 540 Mpx/s, only ​34 of the maximum possible with HBR2.[48] Consequently, certain devices may have limitations that differ from those listed in the following tables.

To support a particular format, the source and display devices must both support the required transmission mode, and the DisplayPort cable must also be capable of handling the required bandwidth of that transmission mode. (See: Cables and connectors)

Refresh frequency limits for standard videoEdit

Color depth of 8 bpc (24 bit/px or 16.7 million colors) is assumed for all formats in these tables. This is the standard color depth used on most computer displays. Note that some operating systems refer to this as "32-bit" color depth—this is the same as 24-bit color depth. The 8 extra bits are for alpha channel information, which is only present in software. At the transmission stage, this information has already been incorporated into the primary color channels, so the actual video data transmitted across the cable only contains 24 bits per pixel.

Limits for uncompressed RGB / Y′CBCR 4:4:4 video only
Video Format Transmission Mode / Maximum Data Rate[a]
Shorthand Resolution Refresh
Rate (Hz)
Data Rate
Required[b]
RBR HBR HBR2 HBR3 UHBR 10 UHBR 13.5 UHBR 20
5.184 Gbit/s 8.64 Gbit/s 17.28 Gbit/s 25.92 Gbit/s 38.69 Gbit/s 52.22 Gbit/s 77.37 Gbit/s
1080p 1920 × 1080 60 3.20 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
85 4.59 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
120 6.59 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
144 8.00 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
240 14.00 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
1440p 2560 × 1440 30 2.78 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 5.63 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
85 8.07 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
120 11.59 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
144 14.08 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
165 16.30 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
240 24.62 Gbit/s No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
4K 3840 × 2160 24 4.93 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
30 6.18 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 12.54 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
75 15.79 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
120 25.82 Gbit/s No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
144 31.35 Gbit/s No No No No Yes Yes Yes
240 54.84 Gbit/s No No No No No Yes[c] Yes
5K 5120 × 2880 24 8.73 Gbit/s No Yes[c] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
30 10.94 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 22.18 Gbit/s No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
120 45.66 Gbit/s No No No No No Yes Yes
144 55.44 Gbit/s No No No No No No Yes
180 70.54 Gbit/s No No No No No No Yes
240 96.98 Gbit/s No No No No No No No
8K 7680 × 4320 24 19.53 Gbit/s No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
30 24.48 Gbit/s No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 49.65 Gbit/s No No No No No Yes Yes
85 71.17 Gbit/s No No No No No No Yes
120 102.20 Gbit/s No No No No No No No
RBR HBR HBR2 HBR3 UHBR 10 UHBR 13.5 UHBR 20
Transmission Mode
  1. ^ Only a portion of DisplayPort's bandwidth is used for carrying video data. DisplayPort versions 1.0–1.4a use 8b/10b encoding, which means that 80% of the bits transmitted across the link represent data, and the other 20% are used for encoding purposes. The maximum bandwidth of RBR, HBR, HBR2, and HBR3 (6.48, 10.8, 21.6, and 32.4 Gbit/s) therefore transport video data at rates of 5.184, 8.64, 17.28, and 25.92 Gbit/s. DisplayPort version 2.0 uses 128b/132b encoding, and therefore the maximum bandwidths of UHBR 10, 13.5, and 20 (40, 54, and 80 Gbit/s) transport data at rates of 39.69, 52.22, and 77.37 Gbit/s.
  2. ^ These data rates are for uncompressed 8 bpc (24 bit/px) color depth with RGB or YCBCR 4:4:4 color format and CVT-R2 timing. Uncompressed data rate for RGB video in bits per second is calculated as bits per pixel × pixels per frame × frames per second. Pixels per frame includes blanking intervals as defined by CVT-R2.
  3. ^ a b Although this format slightly exceeds the maximum data rate of this transmission mode with CVT-R2 timing, it is close enough to be achieved with non-standard timings
Limits including compression and chroma subsampling
Video Format Transmission Mode / Maximum Data Rate[a]
Shorthand Resolution Refresh
Rate (Hz)
Data Rate
Required[b]
RBR HBR HBR2 HBR3 UHBR 10 UHBR 13.5 UHBR 20
5.184 Gbit/s 8.64 Gbit/s 17.28 Gbit/s 25.92 Gbit/s 38.69 Gbit/s 52.22 Gbit/s 77.37 Gbit/s
1080p 1920 × 1080 60 3.20 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
85 4.59 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
120 6.59 Gbit/s DSC[c] or 4:2:2[d] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
144 8.00 Gbit/s DSC or 4:2:0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
240 14.00 Gbit/s DSC DSC or 4:2:0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
1440p 2560 × 1440 30 2.78 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 5.63 Gbit/s DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
85 8.07 Gbit/s DSC or 4:2:0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
120 11.59 Gbit/s DSC DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
144 14.08 Gbit/s DSC DSC or 4:2:0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
165 16.30 Gbit/s DSC + 4:2:2[e] DSC or 4:2:0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
240 24.62 Gbit/s DSC + 4:2:0 DSC DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes Yes
4K 3840 × 2160 24 4.93 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
30 6.18 Gbit/s DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 12.54 Gbit/s DSC DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
75 15.79 Gbit/s DSC DSC or 4:2:0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
120 25.82 Gbit/s DSC + 4:2:0 DSC DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes Yes
144 31.35 Gbit/s DSC + 4:2:0 DSC + 4:2:2 DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes
240 54.84 Gbit/s No No DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:2 Yes[f] Yes
5K 5120 × 2880 24 8.73 Gbit/s DSC or 4:2:0 Yes[f] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
30 10.94 Gbit/s DSC DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 22.18 Gbit/s DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes Yes
120 45.66 Gbit/s No DSC + 4:2:0 DSC DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes
144 55.44 Gbit/s No No DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:2 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes
180 70.54 Gbit/s No No DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes
240 96.98 Gbit/s No No DSC + 4:2:0 DSC + 4:2:2 DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2
8K 7680 × 4320 24 19.53 Gbit/s DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes Yes
30 24.48 Gbit/s DSC + 4:2:0 DSC DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 49.65 Gbit/s No DSC + 4:2:0 DSC DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes
85 71.17 Gbit/s No No DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes
120 102.20 Gbit/s No No DSC + 4:2:0 DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2
144 124.09 Gbit/s No No No DSC + 4:2:0 DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:0
240 217.10 Gbit/s No No No No DSC + 4:2:0 DSC + 4:2:2 DSC
RBR HBR HBR2 HBR3 UHBR 10 UHBR 13.5 UHBR 20
Transmission Mode
  1. ^ Only a portion of DisplayPort's bandwidth is used for carrying video data. DisplayPort versions 1.0–1.4a use 8b/10b encoding, which means that 80% of the bits transmitted across the link represent data, and the other 20% are used for encoding purposes. The maximum bandwidth of RBR, HBR, HBR2, and HBR3 (6.48, 10.8, 21.6, and 32.4 Gbit/s) therefore transport video data at rates of 5.184, 8.64, 17.28, and 25.92 Gbit/s. DisplayPort version 2.0 uses 128b/132b encoding, and therefore the maximum bandwidths of UHBR 10, 13.5, and 20 (40, 54, and 80 Gbit/s) transport data at rates of 39.69, 52.22, and 77.37 Gbit/s.
  2. ^ These data rates are for uncompressed 8 bpc (24 bit/px) color depth with RGB or YCBCR 4:4:4 color format and CVT-R2 timing. Uncompressed data rate for RGB video in bits per second is calculated as bits per pixel × pixels per frame × frames per second. Pixels per frame includes blanking intervals as defined by CVT-R2.
  3. ^ This format can only be achieved with full RGB color if DSC (display stream compression) is used.
  4. ^ This format can only be achieved uncompressed if the YCBCR format with either 4:2:2 or 4:2:0 chroma subsampling (as noted) is used
  5. ^ This format can only be achieved if DSC is used together with either YCbCr 4:2:2 or 4:2:0 chroma subsampling (as noted)
  6. ^ a b Although this format slightly exceeds the maximum data rate of this transmission mode with CVT-R2 timing, it is close enough to be achieved with non-standard timings

Refresh frequency limits for HDR videoEdit

Color depth of 10 bpc (30 bit/px or 1.07 billion colors) is assumed for all formats in these tables. This color depth is a requirement for various common HDR standards, such as HDR10. It requires 25% more bandwidth than standard 8 bpc video.

HDR extensions were defined in version 1.4 of the DisplayPort standard. Some displays support these HDR extensions, but may only implement HBR2 transmission mode if the extra bandwidth of HBR3 is unnecessary (for example, on 4K 60 Hz HDR displays). Since there is no definition of what constitutes a "DisplayPort 1.4" device, some manufacturers may choose to label these as "DP 1.2" devices despite their support for DP 1.4 HDR extensions.[49] As a result, DisplayPort "version numbers" should not be used as an indicator of HDR support.

Limits for uncompressed RGB / Y′CBCR 4:4:4 video only
Video Format Transmission Mode / Maximum Data Rate[a]
Shorthand Resolution Refresh
Rate (Hz)
Data Rate
Required[b]
RBR HBR HBR2 HBR3 UHBR 10 UHBR 13.5 UHBR 20
5.184 Gbit/s 8.64 Gbit/s 17.28 Gbit/s 25.92 Gbit/s 38.69 Gbit/s 52.22 Gbit/s 77.37 Gbit/s
1080p 1920 × 1080 60 4.00 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
100 6.80 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
120 8.24 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
144 10.00 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
240 17.50 Gbit/s No No Yes[c] Yes Yes Yes Yes
1440p 2560 × 1440 30 3.47 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 7.04 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
75 8.86 Gbit/s No Yes[c] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
120 14.49 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
144 17.60 Gbit/s No No Yes[c] Yes Yes Yes Yes
200 25.12 Gbit/s No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
240 30.77 Gbit/s No No No No Yes Yes Yes
4K 3840 × 2160 30 7.73 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 15.68 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
98 26.07 Gbit/s No No No Yes[c] Yes Yes Yes
120 32.27 Gbit/s No No No No Yes Yes Yes
144 39.19 Gbit/s No No No No Yes Yes Yes
180 49.85 Gbit/s No No No No No Yes Yes
240 68.56 Gbit/s No No No No No No Yes
5K 5120 × 2880 30 13.67 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
50 22.99 Gbit/s No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 27.72 Gbit/s No No No No Yes Yes Yes
85 39.75 Gbit/s No No No No Yes Yes Yes
100 47.10 Gbit/s No No No No No Yes Yes
120 57.08 Gbit/s No No No No No No Yes
144 69.30 Gbit/s No No No No No No Yes
8K 7680 × 4320 24 24.41 Gbit/s No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
30 30.60 Gbit/s No No No No Yes Yes Yes
50 51.47 Gbit/s No No No No No Yes Yes
60 62.06 Gbit/s No No No No No No Yes
75 78.13 Gbit/s No No No No No No Yes[c]
RBR HBR HBR2 HBR3 UHBR 10 UHBR 13.5 UHBR 20
Transmission Mode
  1. ^ Only a portion of DisplayPort's bandwidth is used for carrying video data. DisplayPort versions 1.0–1.4a use 8b/10b encoding, which means that 80% of the bits transmitted across the link represent data, and the other 20% are used for encoding purposes. The maximum bandwidth of RBR, HBR, HBR2, and HBR3 (6.48, 10.8, 21.6, and 32.4 Gbit/s) therefore transport video data at rates of 5.184, 8.64, 17.28, and 25.92 Gbit/s. DisplayPort version 2.0 uses 128b/132b encoding, and therefore the maximum bandwidths of UHBR 10, 13.5, and 20 (40, 54, and 80 Gbit/s) transport data at rates of 39.69, 52.22, and 77.37 Gbit/s.
  2. ^ These data rates are for uncompressed 10 bpc (30 bit/px) color depth with RGB or YCBCR 4:4:4 color format and CVT-R2 timing. Uncompressed data rate for RGB video in bits per second is calculated as bits per pixel × pixels per frame × frames per second. Pixels per frame includes blanking intervals as defined by CVT-R2.
  3. ^ a b c d e Although this format slightly exceeds the maximum data rate of this transmission mode with CVT-R2 timing, it is close enough to be achieved with non-standard timings
Limits including compression and chroma subsampling
Video Format Transmission Mode / Maximum Data Rate[a]
Shorthand Resolution Refresh
Rate (Hz)
Data Rate
Required[b]
RBR HBR HBR2 HBR3 UHBR 10 UHBR 13.5 UHBR 20
5.184 Gbit/s 8.64 Gbit/s 17.28 Gbit/s 25.92 Gbit/s 38.69 Gbit/s 52.22 Gbit/s 77.37 Gbit/s
1080p 1920 × 1080 60 4.00 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
100 6.80 Gbit/s DSC[c] or 4:2:2[d] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
120 8.24 Gbit/s DSC or 4:2:0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
144 10.00 Gbit/s DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
240 17.50 Gbit/s DSC + 4:2:2[e] DSC or 4:2:0 Yes[f] Yes Yes Yes Yes
1440p 2560 × 1440 30 3.47 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 7.04 Gbit/s DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
75 8.86 Gbit/s DSC or 4:2:0 Yes[f] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
120 14.49 Gbit/s DSC DSC or 4:2:0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
144 17.60 Gbit/s DSC + 4:2:2 DSC or 4:2:0 Yes[f] Yes Yes Yes Yes
200 25.12 Gbit/s DSC + 4:2:0 DSC DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes Yes
240 30.77 Gbit/s DSC + 4:2:0 DSC + 4:2:2 DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes
4K 3840 × 2160 30 7.73 Gbit/s DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 15.68 Gbit/s DSC DSC or 4:2:0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
75 19.74 Gbit/s DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes Yes
98 26.07 Gbit/s DSC + 4:2:0 DSC DSC or 4:2:2 Yes[f] Yes Yes Yes
120 32.27 Gbit/s No DSC + 4:2:2 DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes
144 39.19 Gbit/s No DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes
180 49.85 Gbit/s No DSC + 4:2:0 DSC DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes
240 68.56 Gbit/s No No DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:0 Yes Yes
5K 5120 × 2880 30 13.67 Gbit/s DSC DSC or 4:2:0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
50 22.99 Gbit/s DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 27.72 Gbit/s DSC + 4:2:0 DSC + 4:2:2 DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes
100 47.10 Gbit/s No DSC + 4:2:0 DSC DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes
120 57.08 Gbit/s No No DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:2 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes
144 69.30 Gbit/s No No DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes
240 121.23 Gbit/s No No No DSC + 4:2:0 DSC DSC DSC or 4:2:0
8K 7680 × 4320 24 24.41 Gbit/s DSC + 4:2:0 DSC DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes Yes
30 30.60 Gbit/s DSC + 4:2:0 DSC + 4:2:2 DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes Yes
50 51.47 Gbit/s No DSC + 4:2:0 DSC DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes Yes
60 62.06 Gbit/s No No DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes
75 78.13 Gbit/s No No DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:0 DSC or 4:2:2 Yes[f]
120 127.75 Gbit/s No No No DSC + 4:2:0 DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:0
144 155.11 Gbit/s No No No DSC + 4:2:0 DSC + 4:2:2 DSC DSC or 4:2:0
240 271.37 Gbit/s No No No No No DSC + 4:2:0 DSC + 4:2:2
RBR HBR HBR2 HBR3 UHBR 10 UHBR 13.5 UHBR 20
Transmission Mode
  1. ^ Only a portion of DisplayPort's bandwidth is used for carrying video data. DisplayPort versions 1.0–1.4a use 8b/10b encoding, which means that 80% of the bits transmitted across the link represent data, and the other 20% are used for encoding purposes. The maximum bandwidth of RBR, HBR, HBR2, and HBR3 (6.48, 10.8, 21.6, and 32.4 Gbit/s) therefore transport video data at rates of 5.184, 8.64, 17.28, and 25.92 Gbit/s. DisplayPort version 2.0 uses 128b/132b encoding, and therefore the maximum bandwidths of UHBR 10, 13.5, and 20 (40, 54, and 80 Gbit/s) transport data at rates of 39.69, 52.22, and 77.37 Gbit/s.
  2. ^ These data rates are for uncompressed 10 bpc (30 bit/px) color depth with RGB or YCBCR 4:4:4 color format and CVT-R2 timing. Uncompressed data rate for RGB video in bits per second is calculated as bits per pixel × pixels per frame × frames per second. Pixels per frame includes blanking intervals as defined by CVT-R2.
  3. ^ This format can only be achieved with full RGB color if DSC (display stream compression) is used.
  4. ^ This format can only be achieved uncompressed if the YCBCR format with either 4:2:2 or 4:2:0 chroma subsampling (as noted) is used
  5. ^ This format can only be achieved if DSC is used together with either YCbCr 4:2:2 or 4:2:0 chroma subsampling (as noted)
  6. ^ a b c d e Although this format slightly exceeds the maximum data rate of this transmission mode with CVT-R2 timing, it is close enough to be achieved with non-standard timings

FeaturesEdit

  DisplayPort version
1.0 1.1–1.1a 1.2–1.2a 1.3 1.4 2.0
Hot-pluggable Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Inline audio Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
DisplayPort content
protection (DPCP)
DPCP 1.0[36](§1.2.6) DPCP 1.0 DPCP 1.0 DPCP 1.0 DPCP 1.0 DPCP 1.0
High-bandwidth digital
content protection (HDCP)
No HDCP 1.3[9](§1.2.6) HDCP 1.3[37](§1.2.6) HDCP 2.2[20] HDCP 2.2 HDCP 2.2
Dual-mode (DP++) No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Maximum DP++ bandwidth
(TMDS Clock)
N/A 4.95 Gbit/s
(165 MHz)
9.00 Gbit/s
(300 MHz)
18.00 Gbit/s
(600 MHz)
18.00 Gbit/s
(600 MHz)
18.00 Gbit/s
(600 MHz)
Stereoscopic 3D video No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Multi-stream transport (MST) No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
High-dynamic-range video (HDR) No No No No Yes Yes
Display stream compression (DSC) No No No No DSC 1.2 DSC 1.2a
Panel replay No No No No No Yes[40]

DisplayPort dual-mode (DP++)Edit

 
Dual-mode DisplayPort logo
Dual-mode pin mapping
DisplayPort pins DVI/HDMI mode
Main link lane 0 TMDS channel 2
Main link lane 1 TMDS channel 1
Main link lane 2 TMDS channel 0
Main link lane 3 TMDS clock
AUX CH+ DDC clock
AUX CH− DDC data
DP_PWR DP_PWR
Hot-plug detect Hot-plug detect
Config 1 Cable adapter detect
Config 2 CEC (HDMI only)

DisplayPort Dual-Mode (DP++), also called Dual-Mode DisplayPort, is a standard which allows DisplayPort sources to use simple passive adapters to connect to HDMI or DVI displays. Dual-mode is an optional feature, so not all DisplayPort sources necessarily support DVI/HDMI passive adapters, though in practice nearly all devices do. Officially, the "DP++" logo should be used to indicate a DP port that supports dual-mode, but most modern devices do not use the logo.

Devices which implement dual-mode will detect that a DVI or HDMI adapter is attached, and send DVI/HDMI TMDS signals instead of DisplayPort signals. The original DisplayPort Dual-Mode standard (version 1.0), used in DisplayPort 1.1 devices, only supported TMDS clock speeds of up to 165 MHz (4.95 Gbit/s bandwidth). This is equivalent to HDMI 1.2, and is sufficient for up to 1920 × 1200 at 60 Hz.

In 2013, VESA released the Dual-Mode 1.1 standard, which added support for up to a 300 MHz TMDS clock (9.00 Gbit/s bandwidth), and is used in newer DisplayPort 1.2 devices. This is slightly less than the 340 MHz maximum of HDMI 1.4, and is sufficient for up to 1920 × 1080 at 120 Hz, 2560 × 1440 at 60 Hz, or 3840 × 2160 at 30 Hz. Older adapters, which were only capable of the 165 MHz speed, were retroactively termed "Type 1" adapters, with the new 300 MHz adapters being called "Type 2".[50]

With the release of the DisplayPort 1.3 standard, VESA added dual-mode support for up to a 600 MHz TMDS clock (18.00 Gbit/s bandwidth), the full bandwidth of HDMI 2.0. This is sufficient for 1920 × 1080 at 240 Hz, 2560 × 1440 at 144 Hz, or 3840 × 2160 at 60 Hz. However, no passive adapters capable of the 600 MHz dual-mode speed have been produced as of 2018.

Dual-mode limitationsEdit

 
Picture of a DisplayPort to DVI adapter after removing its enclosure. The chip on the board converts the voltage levels generated by the dual-mode DisplayPort device to be compatible with a DVI monitor.
  • Limited adapter speed – Although the pinout and digital signal values transmitted by the DP port are identical to a native DVI/HDMI source, the signals are transmitted at DisplayPort's native voltage (3.3 V) instead of the 5 V used by DVI and HDMI. As a result, dual-mode adapters must contain a level-shifter circuit which changes the voltage. The presence of this circuit places a limit on how quickly the adapter can operate, and therefore newer adapters are required for each higher speed added to the standard.
  • Unidirectional – Although the dual-mode standard specifies a method for DisplayPort sources to output DVI/HDMI signals using simple passive adapters, there is no counterpart standard to give DisplayPort displays the ability to receive DVI/HDMI input signals through passive adapters. As a result, DisplayPort displays can only receive native DisplayPort signals; any DVI or HDMI input signals must be converted to the DisplayPort format with an active conversion device. DVI and HDMI sources cannot be connected to DisplayPort displays using passive adapters.
  • Single-link DVI only – Since DisplayPort dual-mode operates by using the pins of the DisplayPort connector to send DVI/HDMI signals, the 20-pin DisplayPort connector can only produce a single-link DVI signal (which uses 19 pins). A dual-link DVI signal uses 25 pins, and is therefore impossible to transmit natively from a DisplayPort connector through a passive adapter. Dual-link DVI signals can only be produced by converting from native DisplayPort output signals with an active conversion device.
  • Unavailable on USB-C – The DisplayPort Alternate Mode specification for sending DisplayPort signals over a USB-C cable does not include support for the dual-mode protocol. As a result, DP-to-DVI and DP-to-HDMI passive adapters do not function when chained from a USB-C to DP adapter.

Multi-Stream Transport (MST) Edit

Multi-Stream Transport is a feature first introduced in the DisplayPort 1.2 standard. It allows multiple independent displays to be driven from a single DP port on the source devices by multiplexing several video streams into a single stream and sending it to a branch device, which demultiplexes the signal into the original streams. Branch devices are commonly found in the form of an MST hub, which plugs into a single DP input port and provides multiple outputs, but it can also be implemented on a display internally to provide a DP output port for daisy-chaining, effectively embedding a 2-port MST hub inside the display.[37](Fig. 2-59)[51] Theoretically, up to 63 displays can be supported,[37](p20) but the combined data rate requirements of all the displays cannot exceed the limits of a single DP port (17.28 Gbit/s for a DP 1.2 port, or 25.92 Gbit/s for a DP 1.3/1.4 port). In addition, the maximum number of links between the source and any device (i.e. the maximum length of a daisy-chain) is 7,[37](§2.5.2) and the maximum number of physical output ports on each branch device (such as a hub) is 7.[37](§2.5.1) With the release of MST, standard single-display operation has been retroactively named "SST" mode (Single-Stream Transport).

Daisy-chaining is a feature that must be specifically supported by each intermediary display; not all DisplayPort 1.2 devices support it. Daisy-chaining requires a dedicated DisplayPort output port on the display. Standard DisplayPort input ports found on most displays cannot be used as a daisy-chain output. Only the last display in the daisy-chain does not need to support the feature specifically or have a DP output port. DisplayPort 1.1 displays can also be connected to MST hubs, and can be part of a DisplayPort daisy-chain if it is the last display in the chain.[37](§2.5.1)

The host system's software also needs to support MST for hubs or daisy-chains to work. While Microsoft Windows environments have full support for it, Apple operating systems currently do not support MST hubs or DisplayPort daisy-chaining as of macOS 10.13 ("High Sierra").[52][53]

DisplayPort-to-DVI and DisplayPort-to-HDMI adapters/cables may or may not function from an MST output port; support for this depends on the specific device.[citation needed]

MST is supported by USB Type-C DisplayPort Alternate Mode, so standard DisplayPort daisy-chains and MST hubs do function from Type-C sources with a simple Type-C to DisplayPort adapter.[54]

High dynamic range (HDR)Edit

Support for HDR video was introduced in DisplayPort 1.4. It implements the CTA 861.3 standard for transport of static HDR metadata in EDID.[23]

Content protection Edit

DisplayPort 1.0 includes optional DPCP (DisplayPort Content Protection) from Philips, which uses 128-bit AES encryption. It also features full authentication and session key establishment. Each encryption session is independent, and it has an independent revocation system. This portion of the standard is licensed separately. It also adds the ability to verify the proximity of the receiver and transmitter, a technique intended to ensure users are not bypassing the content protection system to send data out to distant, unauthorized users.[9](§6)

DisplayPort 1.1 added optional implementation of industry-standard 56-bit HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection) revision 1.3, which requires separate licensing from the Digital Content Protection LLC.[9](§1.2.6)

DisplayPort 1.3 added support for HDCP 2.2, which is also used by HDMI 2.0.[20]

CostEdit

VESA, the creators of the DisplayPort standard, state that the standard is royalty-free to implement. However, in March 2015, MPEG LA issued a press release stating that a royalty rate of $0.20 per unit applies to DisplayPort products manufactured or sold in countries that are covered by one or more of the patents in the MPEG LA license pool, which includes patents from Hitachi Maxell, Philips, Lattice Semiconductor, Rambus, and Sony.[55][56] In response, VESA updated their DisplayPort FAQ page with the following statement:[57]

MPEG LA is making claims that DisplayPort implementation requires a license and a royalty payment. It is important to note that these are only CLAIMS. Whether these CLAIMS are relevant will likely be decided in a US court.

As of August 2019 VESA's official FAQ no longer contains a statement disputing the MPEG LA royalty fees. FAQ.

While VESA does not charge any per-device royalty fees, VESA requires membership for access to said standards.[58] The minimum cost is presently $5,000 (or $10,000 depending on Annual Corporate Sales Revenue) annually.[59]

Advantages over DVI, VGA and FPD-LinkEdit

In December 2010, several computer vendors and display makers including Intel, AMD, Dell, Lenovo, Samsung and LG announced they would begin phasing out FPD-Link, VGA, and DVI-I over the next few years, replacing them with DisplayPort and HDMI.[60][61] One notable exception to the list of manufacturers is Nvidia, who has yet[when?] to announce any plans regarding future implementation of legacy interfaces.[citation needed]

DisplayPort has several advantages over VGA, DVI, and FPD-Link.[62]

  • Open standard available to all VESA members[dubious ] with an extensible standard to help broad adoption[63]
  • Fewer lanes with embedded self-clock, reduced EMI with data scrambling and spread spectrum mode
  • Based on a micro-packet protocol
    • Allows easy expansion of the standard with multiple data types
    • Flexible allocation of available bandwidth between audio and video
    • Multiple video streams over single physical connection (version 1.2)
    • Long-distance transmission over alternative physical media such as optical fiber (version 1.1a)
  • High-resolution displays and multiple displays with a single connection, via a hub or daisy-chaining[64]
    • HBR2 mode with 17.28 Gbit/s of effective video bandwidth allows four simultaneous 1080p60 displays (CEA-861 timings), two 2560 × 1600 × 30 bit @ 120 Hz (CVT-R timings), or 4K UHD @ 60 Hz[note 1]
    • HBR3 mode with 25.92 Gbit/s of effective video bandwidth, using CVT-R2 timings, allows eight simultaneous 1080p displays (1920 × 1080) @ 60 Hz, stereoscopic 4K UHD (3840 × 2160) @ 120 Hz, or 5120 × 2880 @ 60 Hz each using 24 bit RGB, and up to 8K UHD (7680 × 4320) @ 60 Hz using 4:2:0 subsampling[65]
  • Designed to work for internal chip-to-chip communication
    • Aimed at replacing internal FPD-Link links to display panels with a unified link interface
    • Compatible with low-voltage signaling used with sub-micron CMOS fabrication
    • Can drive display panels directly, eliminating scaling and control circuits and allowing for cheaper and slimmer displays
  • Link training with adjustable amplitude and preemphasis adapts to differing cable lengths and signal quality
    • Reduced bandwidth transmission for 15-metre (49 ft) cable, at least 1920 × 1080p @ 60 Hz at 24 bits per pixel
    • Full bandwidth transmission for 3 metres (9.8 ft)
  • High-speed auxiliary channel for DDC, EDID, MCCS, DPMS, HDCP, adapter identification etc. traffic
    • Can be used for transmitting bi-directional USB, touch-panel data, CEC, etc.
  • Self-latching connector

Comparison with HDMIEdit

Although DisplayPort has much of the same functionality as HDMI, it is a complementary connection used in different scenarios.[66][67] A dual-mode DisplayPort port can emit an HDMI signal via a passive adapter.

  • In 2008, HDMI Licensing, LLC charged an annual fee of US$10,000 to each high-volume manufacturer and a per-unit royalty rate of US$0.04 to US$0.15.[68][needs update] HDMI Licensing, LLC countered the "royalty-free" claim by pointing out that the DisplayPort specification states that companies can charge a royalty rate for DisplayPort implementation.[69]
  • DisplayPort 1.2 has more bandwidth at 21.6 Gbit/s[70] (17.28 Gbit/s with overhead removed) as opposed to HDMI 2.0's 18 Gbit/s[71] (14.4 Gbit/s with overhead removed).
  • DisplayPort 1.3 raises that to 32.4 Gbit/s (25.92 Gbit/s with overhead removed), and HDMI 2.1 raises that up to 48 Gbit/s (42.67 Gbit/s with overhead removed), adding an additional TMDS link in place of clock lane. DisplayPort also has the ability to share this bandwidth with multiple streams of audio and video to separate devices.
  • DisplayPort in native mode lacks some HDMI features such as Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) commands. The CEC bus allows linking multiple sources with a single display and controlling any of these devices from any remote.[9][72][73] DisplayPort 1.3 added the possibility of transmitting CEC commands over the AUX channel[74] From its very first version HDMI features CEC to support connecting multiple sources to a single display as is typical for a TV screen. The other way round, Multi-Stream Transport allows connecting multiple displays to a single computer source. This reflects the facts that HDMI originated from consumer electronics companies whereas DisplayPort is owned by VESA which started as an organization for computer standards.
  • HDMI can accept much longer max cable length than Displayport (30 meters vs 3 meters).[75]
  • HDMI uses unique Vendor-Specific Block structure, which allows for features such as additional color spaces. However, these features can be defined by CEA EDID extensions.[citation needed]
  • Both HDMI and DisplayPort have published specification for transmitting their signal over the USB-C connector. For more details, see USB-C § Alternate Mode partner specifications and List of devices with video output over USB-C.

Market shareEdit

Figures from IDC show that 5.1% of commercial desktops and 2.1% of commercial notebooks released in 2009 featured DisplayPort.[60] The main factor behind this was the phase-out of VGA, and that both Intel and AMD planned to stop building products with FPD-Link by 2013. Nearly 70% of LCD monitors sold in August 2014 in the US, UK, Germany, Japan, and China were equipped with HDMI/DisplayPort technology, up 7.5% on the year, according to Digitimes Research.[76] IHS Markit, an analytics firm, forecast that DisplayPort would surpass HDMI in 2019.[77]

Companion standardsEdit

Mini DisplayPortEdit

Mini DisplayPort (mDP) is a standard announced by Apple in the fourth quarter of 2008. Shortly after announcing Mini DisplayPort, Apple announced that it would license the connector technology with no fee. The following year, in early 2009, VESA announced that Mini DisplayPort would be included in the upcoming DisplayPort 1.2 specification. On 24 February 2011, Apple and Intel announced Thunderbolt, a successor to Mini DisplayPort which adds support for PCI Express data connections while maintaining backwards compatibility with Mini DisplayPort based peripherals.[78]

Micro DisplayPortEdit

Micro DisplayPort would have targeted systems that need ultra-compact connectors, such as phones, tablets and ultra-portable notebook computers. This standard would have been physically smaller than the currently available Mini DisplayPort connectors. The standard was expected to be released by Q2 2014.[79] This project seems aborted to be replaced by DisplayPort Alt Mode for USB Type-C Standard.[80]

DDMEdit

Direct Drive Monitor (DDM) 1.0 standard was approved in December 2008. It allows for controller-less monitors where the display panel is directly driven by the DisplayPort signal, although the available resolutions and color depth are limited to two-lane operation.

Display Stream CompressionEdit

Display Stream Compression (DSC) is a VESA-developed low-latency compression algorithm to overcome the limitations posed by sending high-resolution video over physical media of limited bandwidth. It is a visually lossless low-latency algorithm based on delta PCM coding and YCoCg-R color space; it allows increased resolutions and color depths and reduced power consumption.[81][82]

DSC has been tested to meet the requirements of ISO/IEC 29170-2 Evaluation procedure for nearly lossless coding using various test patterns, noise, subpixel-rendered text (ClearType), UI captures, and photo and video images.[82]

DSC version 1.0 was released on 10 March 2014, but was soon deprecated by DSC version 1.1 released on 1 August 2014. The DSC standard supports up to 3:1 compression ratio with constant or variable bit rate, 4:4:4 chroma subsampling, optional 4:2:2 conversion and 6/8/10/12 bits per color component.

DSC version 1.2 was released on 27 January 2016 and is included with DisplayPort 1.4; version 1.2a was released on 18 January 2017. The update includes native encoding of 4:2:2 and 4:2:0 formats in pixel containers, 14/16 bits per color, and minor modifications to the encoding algorithm.

DSC compression works on a horizontal line of pixels encoded using groups of three consecutive pixels for native 4:4:4 and simple 4:2:2 formats, or six pixels (three compressed containers) for native 4:2:2 and 4:2:0 formats. If RGB encoding is used, it is first converted to reversible YCgCo. Simple conversion from 4:2:2 to 4:4:4 can add missing chroma samples by interpolating neighboring pixels. Each luma component is coded separately using three independent substreams (four substreams in native 4:2:2 mode). Prediction step is performed using one of the three modes: modified median adaptive coding (MMAP) algorithm similar to the one used by JPEG-LS, block prediction (optional for decoders due to high computational complexity, negotiated at DSC handshake), and midpoint prediction. Bit rate control algorithm tracks color flatness and buffer fullness to adjust the quantization bit depth for a pixel group in a way that minimizes compression artifacts while staying within the bitrate limits. Repeating recent pixels can be stored in 32-entry Indexed Color History (ICH) buffer, which can be referenced directly by each group in a slice; this improves compression quality of computer-generated images. Alternatively, prediction residuals are computed and encoded with entropy coding algorithm based on delta size unit-variable length coding (DSU-VLC). Encoded pixel groups are then combined into slices of various height and width; common combinations include 100% or 25% picture width, and 8-, 32-, or 108-line height.

On 4 January 2017, HDMI 2.1 was announced which supports up to 10K resolution and uses DSC 1.2 for video that is higher than 8K resolution with 4:2:0 chroma subsampling.[83][84][85]

eDPEdit

Embedded DisplayPort (eDP) is a display panel interface standard for portable and embedded devices. It defines the signaling interface between graphics cards and integrated displays. The various revisions of eDP are based on existing DisplayPort standards. However, version numbers between the two standards are not interchangeable. For instance, eDP version 1.4 is based on DisplayPort 1.2, while eDP version 1.4a is based on DisplayPort 1.3. In practice, embedded DisplayPort has displaced LVDS as the predominant panel interface in modern laptops.

eDP 1.0 was adopted in December 2008.[86] It included advanced power-saving features such as seamless refresh rate switching. Version 1.1 was approved in October 2009 followed by version 1.1a in November 2009. Version 1.2 was approved in May 2010 and includes DisplayPort 1.2 HBR2 data rates, 120 Hz sequential color monitors, and a new display panel control protocol that works through the AUX channel.[13] Version 1.3 was published in February 2011; it includes a new optional Panel Self-Refresh (PSR) feature developed to save system power and further extend battery life in portable PC systems.[87] PSR mode allows the GPU to enter a power saving state in between frame updates by including framebuffer memory in the display panel controller.[13] Version 1.4 was released in February 2013; it reduces power consumption through partial-frame updates in PSR mode, regional backlight control, lower interface voltages, and additional link rates; the auxiliary channel supports multi-touch panel data to accommodate different form factors.[88] Version 1.4a was published in February 2015; the underlying DisplayPort version was updated to 1.3 in order to support HBR3 data rates, Display Stream Compression 1.1, Segmented Panel Displays, and partial updates for Panel Self-Refresh.[89] Version 1.4b was published in October 2015; its protocol refinements and clarifications are intended to enable adoption of eDP 1.4b in devices by mid-2016.[90]

iDPEdit

Internal DisplayPort (iDP) 1.0 was approved in April 2010. The iDP standard defines an internal link between a digital TV system on a chip controller and the display panel's timing controller. It aims to replace currently used internal FPD-Link lanes with DisplayPort connection.[91] iDP features unique physical interface and protocols, which are not directly compatible with DisplayPort and are not applicable to external connection, however they enable very high resolution and refresh rates while providing simplicity and extensibility.[13] iDP features non-variable 2.7 GHz clock and is nominally rated at 3.24 Gbit/s data rate per lane, with up to sixteen lanes in a bank, resulting in six-fold decrease in wiring requirements over FPD-Link for a 1080p24 signal; other data rates are also possible. iDP was built with simplicity in mind and it doesn't have AUX channel, content protection, or multiple streams; however it does have frame sequential and line interleaved stereo 3D.[13]

PDMIEdit

Portable Digital Media Interface (PDMI) is an interconnection between docking stations/display devices and portable media players, which includes 2-lane DisplayPort v1.1a connection. It has been ratified in February 2010 as ANSI/CEA-2017-A.

wDPEdit

Wireless DisplayPort (wDP) enables DisplayPort 1.2 bandwidth and feature set for cable-free applications operating in 60 GHz radio band; it was announced on November 2010 by WiGig Alliance and VESA as a cooperative effort.[92]

SlimPortEdit

 
A SlimPort-to-HDMI adapter, made by Analogix

SlimPort, a brand of Analogix products,[93] complies with Mobility DisplayPort, also known as MyDP, which is an industry standard for a mobile audio/video Interface, providing connectivity from mobile devices to external displays and HDTVs. SlimPort implements the transmission of video up to 4K-UltraHD and up to eight channels of audio over the micro-USB connector to an external converter accessory or display device. SlimPort products support seamless connectivity to DisplayPort, HDMI and VGA displays.[94] The MyDP standard was released in June 2012,[95] and the first product to use SlimPort was Google's Nexus 4 smartphone.[96] Some LG smartphones in LG G series also adopted SlimPort.

SlimPort is an alternative to Mobile High-Definition Link (MHL).[97][98]

DisplayIDEdit

DisplayID is designed to replace the E-EDID standard. DisplayID features variable-length structures which encompass all existing EDID extensions as well as new extensions for 3D displays and embedded displays.

The latest version 1.3 (announced on 23 September 2013) adds enhanced support for tiled display topologies; it allows better identification of multiple video streams, and reports bezel size and locations.[99] As of December 2013, many current 4K displays use a tiled topology, but lack a standard way to report to the video source which tile is left and which is right. These early 4K displays, for manufacturing reasons, typically use two 1920×2160 panels laminated together and are currently generally treated as multiple-monitor setups.[100] DisplayID 1.3 also allows 8K display discovery, and has applications in stereo 3D, where multiple video streams are used.

DockPortEdit

DockPort, formerly known as Lightning Bolt, is an extension to DisplayPort to include USB 3.0 data as well as power for charging portable devices from attached external displays. Originally developed by AMD and Texas Instruments, it has been announced as a VESA specification in 2014.[101]

USB-CEdit

On 22 September 2014, VESA published the DisplayPort Alternate Mode on USB Type-C Connector Standard, a specification on how to send DisplayPort signals over the newly released USB-C connector. One, two or all four of the differential pairs that USB uses for the SuperSpeed bus can be configured dynamically to be used for DisplayPort lanes. In the first two cases, the connector still can carry a full SuperSpeed signal; in the latter case, at least a non-SuperSpeed signal is available. The DisplayPort AUX channel is also supported over the two sideband signals over the same connection; furthermore, USB Power Delivery according to the newly expanded USB-PD 2.0 specification is possible at the same time. This makes the Type-C connector a strict superset of the use-cases envisioned for DockPort, SlimPort, Mini and Micro DisplayPort.[102]

VirtualLinkEdit

VirtualLink uses USB-C connectors and DisplayPort to transmit video signals.

ProductsEdit

 
A Dual-mode DisplayPort connector

Since its introduction in 2006, DisplayPort has gained popularity within the computer industry and is featured on many graphic cards, displays, and notebook computers. Dell was the first company to introduce a consumer product with a DisplayPort connector, the Dell UltraSharp 3008WFP, which was released in January 2008.[103] Soon after, AMD and Nvidia released products to support the technology. AMD included support in the Radeon HD 3000 series of graphics cards, while Nvidia first introduced support in the GeForce 9 series starting with the GeForce 9600 GT.[104][105]

 
A Mini DisplayPort connector

Later the same year, Apple introduced several products featuring a Mini DisplayPort.[106] The new connector – proprietary at the time – eventually became part of the DisplayPort standard, however Apple reserves the right to void the license should the licensee "commence an action for patent infringement against Apple".[107] In 2009, AMD followed suit with their Radeon HD 5000 Series of graphics cards, which featured the Mini DisplayPort on the Eyefinity versions in the series.[108]

Nvidia launched NVS 810 with 8 Mini DisplayPort outputs on a single card on 4 November 2015.[109]

Nvidia revealed the GeForce GTX 1080, the world's first graphics card with DisplayPort 1.4 support on 6 May 2016.[110] AMD followed with the Radeon RX 480 to support Displayport 1.3/1.4 on 29 June 2016.[111] The Radeon RX 400 Series will support DisplayPort 1.3 HBR and HDR10, dropping the DVI connector(s) in the reference board design.

In February 2017, VESA and Qualcomm announced that DisplayPort Alt Mode video transport will be integrated into the Snapdragon 835 mobile chipset, which powers smartphones, VR/AR head-mounted displays, IP cameras, tablets and mobile PCs.[112]

Support for DisplayPort Alternate Mode over USB-CEdit

Patent holdersEdit

The following organizations hold active patents that contributed towards the development of DisplayPort technology, as listed in a patent pool by MPEG LA.[1]

Organization Active patents
Maxell 24
Sun Patent Trust 13
Lattice Semiconductor 12
Philips 10
Sony Corporation 5
Rambus 1

Participating companiesEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Dual-link DVI is limited in resolution and speed by the quality and therefore the bandwidth of the DVI cable, the quality of the transmitter, and the quality of the receiver; can only drive one monitor at a time; and cannot send audio data. HDMI 1.3 and 1.4 are limited to effectively 8.16 Gbit/s or 340 MHz (though actual devices are limited to 225–300?MHz), and can only drive one monitor at a time. VGA connectors have no defined maximum resolution or speed, but their analog nature limits their bandwidth, though can provide long cabling only limited by appropriate shielding.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "DisplayPort Patent List" (PDF). MPEG LA. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  2. ^ a b c "DisplayPort Technical Overview" (PDF). VESA.org. 10 January 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
  3. ^ "AMD's Eyefinity Technology Explained". Tom’s Hardware. 28 February 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
  4. ^ "An Inside Look at DisplayPort v1.2". ExtremeTech. 4 February 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  5. ^ "The Case For DisplayPort, Continued, And Bezels". Tom's Hardware. 15 April 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  6. ^ "DisplayPort… the End of an Era, but Beginning of a New Age". Hope Industrial Systems. 27 April 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  7. ^ "New DisplayPort(TM) Interface Standard for PCs, Monitors, TV Displays and Projectors Released by the Video Electronics Standards Association". Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). 3 May 2006. Archived from the original on 14 February 2009.
  8. ^ Hodgin, Rick (30 July 2007). "DisplayPort: The new video interconnect standard". geek.com. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac "VESA DisplayPort Standard, Version 1, Revision 1a" (PDF). Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). 11 January 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2016.
  10. ^ "Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) Endorses Alternative to Copper Cables". Luxtera Inc. 17 April 2007. Archived from the original on 18 February 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  11. ^ "Free Standards". Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  12. ^ a b "VESA® Introduces DisplayPort® v1.2, the Most Comprehensive and Innovative Display Interface Available". www.vesa.org. Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). 7 January 2010. Archived from the original on 2 May 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  13. ^ a b c d e "DisplayPort Developer Conference Presentations Posted". Vesa. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  14. ^ "WinHEC 2008 GRA-583: Display Technologies". Microsoft. 6 November 2008. Archived from the original on 27 December 2008.
  15. ^ Tony Smith, "DisplayPort revision to get mini connector, stereo 3D" Archived 14 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine, The Register, 13 January 2009
  16. ^ Joseph D. Cornwall (15 January 2014). "DisplayPort in A/V Applications in the Next Five Years". connectorsupplier.com. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
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  21. ^ "VESA Releases DisplayPort 1.3 Standard: 50% More Bandwidth, New Features". www.anandtech.com. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
  22. ^ "VESA Releases DisplayPort 1.3 Standard: 50% More Bandwidth, New Features". 16 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2016. DisplayPort Active-Sync remains an optional part of the specification, so Adaptive-Sync availability will continue to be on a monitor-by-monitor basis as a premium feature.
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  24. ^ "DisplayPort 1.4 vs HDMI 2.1". Planar.
  25. ^ "VESA Updates Display Stream Compression Standard to Support New Applications and Richer Display Content". PRNewswire. 27 January 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  26. ^ "Next DisplayPort Can Drive 8K HDR Monitors". NextPowerUp. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  27. ^ a b "FAQ - DisplayPort". Archived from the original on 24 December 2018.
  28. ^ "DSC Display Stream Compression". Archived from the original on 10 July 2019.
  29. ^ "DisplayPort Roadmap (09-'16)".
  30. ^ "VESA DisplayPort Alternate Mode on USB-C - Technical Overview" (PDF). USB Implementers Forum. 28 September 2016.
  31. ^ "VESA Strengthens 8K Video Resolution Ecosystem with Market-ready DP8K Certified DisplayPort Cables". VESA - Interface Standards for The Display Industry. 3 January 2018.
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  34. ^ Kowaliski, Cyril (4 May 2006). "DisplayPort 1.0 approved by VESA". www.techreport.com. The Tech Report. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
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External linksEdit