Kansai International Airport (Japanese: 関西国際空港, romanized: Kansai Kokusai Kūkō) commonly known as 関空 (Kankū) (IATA: KIX, ICAO: RJBB) is the primary international airport in the Greater Osaka Area of Japan and the closest international airport to the cities of Osaka, Kyoto, and Kobe. It is located on an artificial island (Kankūjima (関空島)) in the middle of Osaka Bay off the Honshu shore, 38 km (24 mi) southwest of Ōsaka Station, located within three municipalities, including Izumisano (north), Sennan (south), and Tajiri (central), in Osaka Prefecture.
Kansai International Airport
Kansai Kokusai Kūkō
|Owner||New Kansai International Airport Company (NKIAC)|
(Orix and Vinci Airports)
|Location||Izumisano, Sennan, & Tajiri|
|Opened||4 September 1994|
|Elevation AMSL||5 m / 17 ft|
|Coordinates||34°25′50″N 135°13′49″E / 34.43056°N 135.23028°ECoordinates: 34°25′50″N 135°13′49″E / 34.43056°N 135.23028°E|
Kansai opened on 4 September 1994 to relieve overcrowding at the original Osaka International Airport, referred to as Itami Airport, which is closer to the city of Osaka. It consists of two terminals: Terminal 1 and Terminal 2. Terminal 1, designed by Italian architect Renzo Piano, is the longest airport terminal in the world with a length of 1.7 km (1+1⁄16 mi). The airport serves as an international hub for All Nippon Airways, Japan Airlines, and Nippon Cargo Airlines, and also serves as a hub for Peach, the first international low-cost carrier in Japan.
In 2016, 25.2 million passengers used the airport, making it the 30th busiest airport in Asia and third busiest in Japan. The freight volume was 802,162 tonnes total: 757,414 t international (18th in the world) and 44,748 t domestic. The 4,000 m × 60 m (13,120 ft × 200 ft) second runway was opened on 2 August 2007. As of June 2014[update], Kansai Airport has become an Asian hub, with 780 weekly flights to Asia and Australasia (including freight 119), 59 weekly flights to Europe and the Middle East (freight 5), and 80 weekly flights to North America (freight 42).
In 2020, Kansai received Skytrax's awards for Best Airport Staff in Asia, World's Best Airport Staff, and World's Best Airport for Baggage Delivery.
In the 1960s, when the Kansai region was rapidly losing trade to Tokyo, planners proposed a new airport near Kobe and Osaka. The city's original international airport, Itami Airport, located in the densely populated suburbs of Itami and Toyonaka, was surrounded by buildings; it could not be expanded, and many of its neighbours had filed complaints because of noise pollution problems.
After the protests surrounding New Tokyo International Airport (now Narita International Airport), which was built with expropriated land in a rural part of Chiba Prefecture, planners decided to build the airport offshore. The new airport was part of a number of new developments to revitalize Osaka, which had been losing economic and cultural ground to Tokyo for most of the century.
Initially, the airport was planned to be built near Kobe, but the city of Kobe refused the plan, so the airport was moved to a more southerly location on Osaka Bay. There it could be open 24 hours per day, unlike its predecessor in the city.
An artificial island, 4 km (2+1⁄2 mi) long and 2.5 km (1+1⁄2 mi) wide, was proposed. Engineers needed to overcome the extremely high risks of earthquakes and typhoons (with storm surges of up to 3 m or 10 ft). The water depth is 18 metres (59 ft) on top of 20 metres (66 ft) of soft Holocene clay which holds 70% water. A million sand drains were built into the clay to remove water and solidify the clay.
Construction started in 1987. The sea wall was finished in 1989 (made of rock and 48,000 tetrapods). Three mountains were excavated for 21 million cubic metres (27 million cubic yards), and 180 million cubic metres (240 million cubic yards) was used to construct island 1. Over three years, 10,000 workers using 80 ships took 10 million man-hours to complete the 30-or-40-metre (100 or 130 ft) layer of earth over the sea floor and inside the sea wall. In 1990, a three-kilometre (1.9 mi) bridge was completed to connect the island to the mainland at Rinku Town, at a cost of $1 billion. Completion of the artificial island increased the area of Osaka Prefecture just enough so that it is no longer the smallest prefecture in Japan (Kagawa Prefecture is now the smallest).
The bidding and construction of the airport was a source of international trade friction during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone responded to American concerns, particularly from Senator Frank Murkowski, that bids would be rigged in Japanese companies' favour by providing special offices for prospective international contractors, which ultimately did little to ease the participation of foreign contractors in the bidding process. Later, foreign airlines complained that two-thirds of the departure hall counter space had been allocated to Japanese carriers, disproportionately to the actual carriage of passengers through the airport.
The island had been predicted to sink 5.7 m (18 ft 8 in) by the most optimistic estimate as the weight of the material used for construction compressed the seabed silts. However, by 1999, the island had sunk 8.2 m (26 ft 11 in) – almost 50% more than predicted. The project became the most expensive civil works project in modern history after twenty years of planning, three years of construction and US$15bn of investment. Much of what was learned went into the successful artificial islands in silt deposits for New Kitakyushu Airport, Kobe Airport, and Chūbu Centrair International Airport. The lessons of Kansai Airport were also applied in the construction of Hong Kong International Airport.
In 1991, the terminal construction commenced. To compensate for the sinking of the island, adjustable columns were designed to support the terminal building. These are extended by inserting thick metal plates at their bases. Government officials proposed reducing the length of the terminal to cut costs, but architect Renzo Piano insisted on keeping the terminal at its full planned length. The airport was opened on 4 September 1994.
On 17 January 1995, Japan was struck by the Great Hanshin earthquake, the epicenter of which was about 20 km (12 mi) away from KIX and killed 6,434 people on Japan's main island of Honshū. Due to its earthquake engineering, the airport emerged unscathed, mostly due to the use of sliding joints. Even the glass in the windows remained intact. On 22 September 1998, the airport survived a typhoon with wind speeds over 60 m/s (130 mph).
On 19 April 2001, the airport was one of ten structures given the "Civil Engineering Monument of the Millennium" award by the American Society of Civil Engineers.
As of 2008[update], the total cost of Kansai Airport was $20 billion including land reclamation, two runways, terminals, and facilities. Most additional costs were initially due to the island sinking, expected due to the soft soils of Osaka Bay. After construction the rate of sinking was considered so severe that the airport was widely criticized as a geotechnical engineering disaster. The sink rate fell from 50 cm (20 in) per year during 1994 to 7 cm (3 in) per year in 2008.
Opened on 4 September 1994, the airport serves as a hub for several airlines such as All Nippon Airways, Japan Airlines, and Nippon Cargo Airlines. It is the international gateway for Japan's Kansai region, which contains the major cities of Kyoto, Kobe, and Osaka. Other Kansai domestic flights fly from the older but more conveniently located Osaka International Airport in Itami, or from the newer Kobe Airport.
The airport had been deeply in debt, losing $560 million in interest every year. Airlines had been kept away by high landing fees (about $7,500 for a Boeing 747), the second most expensive in the world after Narita's. In the early years of the airport's operation, excessive terminal rent and utility bills for on-site concessions also drove up operating costs: some estimates before opening held that a cup of coffee would have to cost US$10. Osaka business owners pressed the government to take a greater burden of the construction cost to keep the airport attractive to passengers and airlines.
On 17 February 2005, Chubu Centrair International Airport opened in Nagoya, just east of Osaka. The opening of the airport was expected to increase competition between Japan's international airports. Despite this, passenger totals were up 11% in 2005 over 2004, and international passengers increased to 3.06 million in 2006, up 10% over 2005. Adding to the competition were the opening of Kobe Airport, less than 25 km (16 mi) away, in 2006 and the lengthening of the runway at Tokushima Airport in Shikoku in 2007. The main rationale behind the expansions was to compete with Incheon International Airport and Hong Kong International Airport as a gateway to Asia, as Tokyo area airports were severely congested. Kansai saw a 5% year-on-year increase in international traffic in summer 2013, largely supported by low-cost carrier traffic to Taiwan and Southeast Asia overcoming a decrease in traffic to China and South Korea.
The airport authority was allotted four billion yen in government support for fiscal year 2013, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport and the Ministry of Finance agreed to reduce this amount in stages through fiscal year 2015, although local governments in the Kansai region have pressed for continued subsidies.
Kansai has been marketed as an alternative to Narita Airport for international travelers from the Greater Tokyo Area. By flying to Kansai from Haneda Airport and connecting to international flights there, travelers can save the additional time required to get to Narita: up to one and a half hours for many residents of Kanagawa Prefecture and southern Tokyo.
The airport was at its limit during peak times, owing especially to freight flights, so a portion of Phase II expansion—the second runway—was made a priority. Thus, in 2003, believing that the sinking problem was almost over, the airport operators started to construct a 4,000 m (13,000 ft) second runway and terminal.
The second runway opened on 2 August 2007, but with the originally planned terminal portion postponed. This lowered the project cost to JPY¥910 billion (approx. US$8 billion), saving ¥650 billion from the first estimate. The additional runway development, which was opened in time for the IAAF world athletics championships in Osaka, has expanded the airport size to 10.5 square kilometres (2,600 acres). The second runway is used for landings and when there are incidents prohibiting takeoff from runway A. The new runway allowed the airport to start 24-hour operations in September 2007.
A new terminal building opened in late 2012. There are additional plans for several new aprons, a third runway (06C/24C) with a length of 3,500 m (11,483 ft), a new cargo terminal and expanding the airport size to 13 km2 (5 sq mi). However, the Japanese government has currently postponed these plans for economic reasons.
Relationship with Itami AirportEdit
Since July 2008, Osaka Prefecture governor Toru Hashimoto has been a vocal critic of Itami Airport, arguing that the Chuo Shinkansen maglev line will make much of its domestic role irrelevant, and that its domestic functions should be transferred to Kansai Airport in conjunction with upgraded high-speed access to Kansai from central Osaka. In 2009, Hashimoto also publicly proposed moving the functions of Marine Corps Air Station Futenma to Kansai Airport as a possible solution for the political crisis surrounding the base.
In May 2011, the Diet of Japan passed legislation to form a new Kansai International Airport Corporation using the state's existing equity stake in Kansai Airport and its property holdings at Itami Airport. The move was aimed at offsetting Kansai Airport's debt burden.
The merger of the Itami and Kansai airport authorities was completed in July 2012. Shortly following the merger, Kansai Airport announced a 5% reduction in landing fees effective October 2012, with additional reductions during overnight hours when the airport is underutilized, and further discounts planned for the future, including subsidies for new airlines and routes. As of October 2012[update] these moves were intended to bring Kansai's fees closer to the level of Narita International Airport, where landing fees were around 20% lower than Kansai's, and to improve competitiveness with other Asian hubs such as Incheon International Airport in South Korea.
Since its formation, the new operating company has also made efforts toward international expansion, bidding for operating concessions at Yangon International Airport and Hanthawaddy International Airport in Myanmar.
KIAC conducted a public tender to sell the operating rights for Kansai and Itami Airport in May 2015. Orix and Vinci SA were the sole bidders for the 45-year contract, at a price of around $18 billion. The new operating company, Kansai Airports, took over on 1 April 2016. It is 80% owned by Orix and Vinci, with the remaining 20% owned by Kansai-based enterprises such as Hankyu Hanshin Holdings and Panasonic.
On 4 September 2018, the airport was hit by Typhoon Jebi. The airport had to pause operations after seawater surges inundated the island; runways were hit, and the water reached up to the engines of some aircraft. The situation was further exacerbated when a large tanker crashed into the bridge that links the airport to the mainland, effectively stranding the people remaining at the airport. All flights at the airport were cancelled until 6 September, at which date Prime Minister Shinzō Abe announced the airport would partially resume domestic operations.
Train services to the airport resumed from 18 September 2018 after repair works to the Kansai Airport Line and Nankai Airport Line were completed, and the airport resumed regular operations on 1 October 2018. Repairs to the damaged section of the Sky Gate Bridge R were finally completed on 8 April 2019, restoring traffic both to and from the mainland completely.
The main KIX passenger terminal, Terminal 1, is a single four-storey building designed by Renzo Piano Building Workshop (Renzo Piano and Noriaki Okabe), and has a gross floor space of 296,043 square metres (3,186,580 sq ft). As of 2018[update], at a total length of 1.7 km (1.1 mi) from end to end, Terminal 1 is the longest airport terminal in the world. It has a sophisticated people mover system called the Wing Shuttle, which moves passengers from one end of the pier to the other.
The terminal's roof is shaped like an airfoil. This shape is used to promote air circulation through the building: giant air conditioning ducts blow air upwards at one side of the terminal, circulate the air across the curvature of the ceiling, and collect the air through intakes at the other side. Mobiles are suspended in the ticketing hall to take advantage of the flowing air.
The ticketing hall overlooks the international departures concourse, and the two are separated by a glass partition. During Kansai's early days, visitors were known to throw objects over the partition to friends in the corridor below. The partition was eventually modified to halt this practice.
On June 23, 2017, at the terminal's promotion space, a game experience area known as "Nintendo Check In" opened. In this game experience area, guests arriving at Terminal 1 can play Nintendo Switch games free of charge. There is a statue of Mario at the experience area, along with Super Mario Cappy caps from Super Mario Odyssey for passengers to take photos with. There also Amiibo figurines on display there. In the northern and southern arrival routes of Terminal 1, there are decorations of Nintendo characters like Mario, Luigi, Princess Peach, and others welcoming arriving passengers.
Terminal 2 is a low-cost carrier (LCC) terminal designed to attract more LCCs by providing lower landing fees than Terminal 1. It is exclusively occupied by Peach, Spring Airlines, and Jeju Air. Other LCCs serving Kansai, such as Jetstar Airways, Jetstar Japan, and Cebu Pacific, use the main Terminal 1.
Peach requested that Terminal 2 have a simplified design in order to minimize operating costs. The terminal is a single-story building, thus eliminating the cost of elevators. Passageways to aircraft have no air conditioning. The terminal also has no jet bridges, having one boarding gate for domestic departures and one boarding gate for international departures. In case of rain, passengers are lent umbrellas to use as they walk to the aircraft.
Terminal 2 is not directly connected to Terminal 1 or to Kansai Airport Station. Free shuttle buses run between the two terminals, and between Terminal 2 and the railway and ferry stations. It is also possible to walk between the terminals through the KIX Sora Park, a four-hectare park located adjacent to Terminal 2.
Airlines and destinationsEdit
This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2018)
This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2016)
Kansai International Airport is connected only by the Sky Gate Bridge R and by a road and railroad bridge to Rinku Town and the mainland. The lower railroad level of the bridge is used by two railroad operators: JR West and Nankai Electric Railway.
JR West operates the Haruka limited express train services for Kansai Airport Station from Tennōji, Ōsaka, Shin-Ōsaka, and Kyoto Station. JR West also offers Kansai Airport Rapid services for Kansai Airport Station from Ōsaka, Kyōbashi and several stations on the way, with connecting train service to Wakayama available at Hineno Station. Various connections, such as buses, subways, trams, and other railroads, are available at each station.
Nankai operates the rapi:t, a limited express train service to Namba Station on the southern edge of downtown Osaka. Osaka Metro connections are available at Namba and Tengachaya Station.
Rail connections to and from Kansai Airport are expected to further improve access to and from Umeda with the opening of the Naniwasuji Line in 2031.
Kansai Airport Transportation Enterprise and other bus operators offer scheduled express bus services, called "Airport Limousines", for Kansai International Airport.
Two six storey parking structures, called P1 and P2, are located above a railroad terminal station, while the other two level parking facilities, called P3 and P4, are situated next to "Aeroplaza", a hotel complex.
The airport is only accessible from the Sky Gate Bridge R, a part of Kansai Airport Expressway. The expressway immediately connects to Hanshin Expressways Route 5, "Wangan Route", and Hanwa Expressway.
In July 2007, high-speed ferry service began. OM Kobe operates "Bay Shuttle" between Kobe Airport and KIX. The journey takes about thirty minutes.
- Kansai Airport Agency Company Building (航空会社北ビル, Kūkō Kaisha Kita Biru) – Houses the Kansai Airport Agency Co., Ltd. (株式会社 関西エアポートエージェンシー, Kabushiki Kaisha Kansai Eapōto Ējenshī)
- Kensetsu-to (建設棟, Kensetsu-tō)
- The head office of the Kansai International Airport Land Development Co., Ltd. / KALD (関西国際空港用地造成株式会社, Kansai Kokusai Kūkō Yōchi Zōsei Kabushiki Kaisha) is on the fourth floor.
- The Peach Aviation head office is on the fifth floor.
- Aeroplaza (エアロプラザ, Earopuraza) is located on the west side of Kansai Airport Station. It includes a hotel, restaurants, rental car counters, and other businesses
- Hotel Nikko Kansai Airport (north portion of Kansai Airport)
- Head office of Peach Aviation was previously located on the third floor (central portion of Kansai Airport)
- Central power station (KEPCO) energy center, 40 MW
- JAL Cargo import and export facilities (in southern portion)
- Japan Coast Guard Kansai airport Coast Guard air base
- Japan Coast Guard Special Security Team Base
- Osaka international post office (As of 2010[update] carrying about 19,000 tonnes per year of international postal matter)
- Oil tanker berths (three berths) and Fuel Supply center
- Airport access bridge ("The Sky Gate Bridge R"), which as of 2013 is the longest truss bridge in the world at 3,750 m (12,303 ft). The double-decker bridge consists of a lower deck devoted to rail, with the upper for road.
- ^ "New Kansai International Airport Company, Ltd". New Kansai International Airport Company, Ltd. Retrieved 16 October 2022.
- ^ "New Management Setup of Kansai Airport" (PDF). Kansai Airports. Kansai Airports. 1 April 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
- ^ "FedEx Opens North Pacific Regional Hub at Kansai International Airport". newswit.com. 3 July 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- ^ "AIS Japan". 22 July 2011. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- ^ a b Home Archived 8 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Hotel Nikko Kansai Airport. Retrieved on 23 July 2011. "Hotel Nikko Kansai Airport 1, Senshu-kuko Kita, Izumisano-shi, Osaka, 549-0001, Japan "
- ^ a b "OSAKA KANSAI (Kansai International Airport)." JAL Cargo. Retrieved on 23 July 2011. "Departure JAL Export Cargo Bldg. 1 Senshu Airport Minami, Sennan, Osaka Arrival JALKAS Import Cargo Bldg. 1 Senshu Airport Minami, Sennan, Osaka"
- ^ 航空運送事業の許可について（Peach・Aviation 株式会社）. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism. 7 July 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
- ^ Kansai International Airport Statistics Archived 29 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine – Kansai International Airport Co., Ltd.
- ^ Kansai International Airport 2014 summer Flight Schedules – Kansai International Airport Co., Ltd.
- ^ "The World's Best Airports in 2020 are announced". SKYTRAX. 11 May 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
- ^ Cripps, Karla (11 May 2020). "The world's best airports for 2020, according to Skytrax". CNN. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
- ^ Shigeto Tsuru (1999). The Political Economy of the Environment: The Case of Japan. UBC Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-7748-0763-0. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
- ^ Osaka Journal; Impatient City's Mission: Steal Tokyo's Thunder, New York Times, 9 December 1989.
- ^ Rice, Peter (4 September 1994). "Kansai International Airport terminal building". Engineering Timelines / Arup Group. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- ^ a b c Mesri, Gholamreza (February 2015). "Settlement of the Kansai International Airport Islands". Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. ASCE Library. 141 (2): 04014102. doi:10.1061/(asce)gt.1943-5606.0001224.
- ^ a b "Kansai International Airport Land Co., Ltd - Technical Information - Land Settlement - Why Sett". Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- ^ a b "Kansai International Airport Land Co., Ltd - Technical Information - Approach to Settlement - Condition of the Settlement". Kansai. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- ^ Some Minor Gains on Trade Conflicts, New York Times, 2 May 1987.
- ^ US Cancels A Plan To Begin Sanctions After Japan Acts, New York Times, 27 October 1993.
- ^ Osaka Notebook, International Herald Tribune, 24 August 1992.
- ^ Sinking Feeling at Hong Kong Airport, International Herald Tribune, 22 January 1982.
- ^ Osaka Journal; Huge Airport Has Its Wings Clipped, New York Times, 3 July 1991.
- ^ 関西空港の施設・設備 (in Japanese). Retrieved 29 October 2019.
- ^ Steven R. Talley (14 March 2000). Super Structures of the World: Kansai International Airport (documentary). Learning Channel Productions.
- ^ U.S. Engineering Society names Kansai International Airport a Civil Engineering Monument of the Millennium Archived 13 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine – Press release from American Society of Civil Engineers
- ^ "Kansai International Airport Land Co., Ltd - Technical Information - Approach to Settlement - Condition of the Settlement". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
- ^ Will Fees Sink New Osaka Airport?, International Herald Tribune, 5 August 1994.
- ^ Pride and (Ouch!) Price: The $14 Billion Airport, New York Times, 16 December 1993.
- ^ 関空、夏季の国際線旅客５％増 台湾・東南ア顧客が増加見通し. Nikkei. 19 July 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- ^ 関空支援を国に要望 促進協、ターミナル整備など. Nikkei. 22 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- ^ The reason for construction of the second runway Archived 22 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine– Kansai International Airport Co., Ltd.
- ^ "– Daily Yomiuri Online – Opening of new KIX runway celebrated".
- ^ "Kansai opens its Second Runway", Airports – September/October 2007 (Key Publishing), P7
- ^ "24 hours operation from 1 September 2007" from Sankei Newspaper (Japanese) on 24 August 2007.
- ^ KIX Terminal2 Archived 16 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Kansai-airport.or.jp (28 October 2012). Retrieved on 16 August 2013.
- ^ Airport wars roil Kansai region, Japan Times
- ^ Will the U.S. Marines charge ashore at Kansai airport?, Japan Today
- ^ 関空・伊丹統合法が成立 １兆円超す負債解消目指す. Asahi Shimbun (in Japanese). 17 May 2011.
- ^ 関空、国際線着陸料５％下げ ＬＣＣ誘致へ10月から. Nikkei (in Japanese). 13 July 2012.
- ^ 新関空会社、ミャンマーの国際空港入札に参加 海外２カ所目. Nikkei (in Japanese). 30 June 2013.
- ^ Fujita, Junko (22 May 2015). "Orix only confirmed bidder for Kansai airport rights after more drop out". Reuters. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- ^ "New Management Set-up of Kansai Airports" (PDF). Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- ^ 伊藤, 正泰 (11 September 2015). 新関空会社とオリックス陣営、空港運営権の売却で大筋合意. Nikkei (in Japanese). Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- ^ "Typhoon damage shuts key Japan airport". 5 September 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
- ^ The Mainichi (4 September 2018). "Ship smashes into Kansai airport bridge as typhoon hits Japan". Archived from the original on 4 September 2018. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
- ^ NHK World News (6 September 2018). "Abe: Kansai airport to partially reopen on Friday". Archived from the original on 6 September 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
- ^ https://nytimes.com 7 September 2018: Many Major Airports Are Near Sea Level. A Disaster in Japan Shows What Can Go Wrong. (incl. photo of the partially flooded airport)
- ^ "Osaka Kansai International Airport". Skyscanner. 31 May 2018. Archived from the original on 11 October 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
- ^ ""Nintendo Check In" will open! Get hands-on experience of Nintendo games at KIX" (PDF).
- ^ Commercial offer to the fore as Kansai opens budget terminal. TheMoodieReport.com. Retrieved on 16 August 2013.
- ^ Kansai Airport opens new terminal for low-cost carriers – AJW by The Asahi Shimbun Archived 1 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Ajw.asahi.com. Retrieved on 16 August 2013.
- ^ 関空、格安航空専用の第2ターミナル28日開業. Nikkei (in Japanese). 27 October 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- ^ 関空に格安航空専用ターミナル 第1便が出発. Nikkei (in Japanese). 28 October 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- ^ Large "Ecopark" Outside Kansai Terminal 2 with Fields, "Ecofarm" and More – Airport News Japan Archived 8 November 2019 at the Wayback Machine. En.airportnews.jp (25 October 2012). Retrieved on 16 August 2013.
- ^ "Aeroflot revises planned long-haul additions in 2020/21". Routesonline.
- ^ "AirAsia X Moves Hawaii Service Resumption to 3Q23". AeroRoutes. 9 December 2022. Retrieved 9 December 2022.
- ^ "AirAsia X Dec 2022 – Mar 2023 Service Adjustment – 04DEC22". Aeroroutes. 6 December 2022. Retrieved 6 December 2022.
- ^ "Air Busan adds new routes in April 2020".
- ^ "Air Canada NS23 Intercontinental Network Adjustment – 13OCT22". Aeroroutes. Retrieved 14 October 2022.
- ^ "Air China NW22 International / Regional Operations – 16OCT22". Aeroroutes. Retrieved 21 October 2022.
- ^ "Air China 1Q23 International / Regional Operation Update – 08JAN23". Aeroroutes. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
- ^ Liu, Jim. "Air Seoul files preliminary Osaka schedule from Sep 2017". Routesonline. Informa Markets. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- ^ "Asiana Airlines Resumes Seoul Gimpo – Osaka Service in 1Q23". Aeroroutes. 16 December 2022. Retrieved 18 December 2022.
- ^ "Batik Air Malaysia Revises Planned Japan / Taiwan Service in NW22".
- ^ "Cathay Pacific Resumes Taiwan – Japan Service in 2Q23". Aeroroutes. Retrieved 28 February 2023.
- ^ China Airlines Northeast Asia NW22 Service Changes – 27OCT22 Aeroroutes. 27 October 2022.
- ^ Liu, Jim (14 October 2019). "EGYPTAIR resumes Osaka charter flights in W19". routesonline.com.
- ^ EVA Air NW22 Japan Operations – 30SEP22 Aeroroutes. 30 September 2022.
- ^ "Finnair NS23 Japan Operations – 20DEC22". Aeroroutes. Retrieved 21 December 2022.
- ^ "GREATER BAY AIRLINES ADDS OSAKA IN LATE-APRIL 2023". Aeroroutes. 16 March 2023.
- ^ "Hebei Airlines adds Shijiazhuang – Osaka service from Jan 2020".
- ^ JAL / ANA Restores Additional Taipei Flights From Dec 2022 Aeroroutes. 11 November 2022.
- ^ a b Liu, Jim. "Jeju Air adds Osaka – Guam service from late-July 2018". Routesonline. Informa Markets. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- ^ Liu, Jim. "Jeju Air schedules international service from Muan in 2Q18". Routesonline. Informa Markets. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- ^ "Jetstar Japan to launch Tokyo Narita/Osaka Kansai-Kochi services". CAPA. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
- ^ "Jetstar Japan to launch new daily service from KIX to Kumamoto" (PDF). Kansai Airport. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- ^ Liu, Jim. "Jetstar Japan adds Osaka – Shimojishima service from July 2019". Routesonline. Informa Markets. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
- ^ "Jin Air Adds New Routes from Busan eff late-Sept 2015". Airlineroute.net. 24 August 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- ^ Liu, Jim. "Juneyao Airlines adds Changsha – Osaka from July 2019". Routesonline. Informa Markets. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- ^ a b c d "Juneyao Airlines adds new routes to Japan in W19". routesonline. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
- ^ Liu, Jim. "Juneyao Airlines Adds Nanjing – Osaka Route from Aug 2016". Routesonline. Informa Markets. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
- ^ Liu, Jim. "Juneyao Airlines adds Qingdao – Osaka service from late-March 2019". Routesonline. Informa Markets. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
- ^ Liu, Jim. "Loong Air expands Hangzhou International routes in Nov/Dec 2019". Routesonline. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- ^ Liu, Jim. "Lufthansa S19 long-haul changes as of 10OCT18". Routesonline. Informa Markets. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
- ^ "MIAT to Resume Osaka Service in 3Q23". Aeroroutes. Retrieved 18 January 2023.
- ^ "Okay Airways adds Changsha – Osaka from late-July 2019".
- ^ "Okay Airways schedules new routes to Japan in November 2019".
- ^ Liu, Jim. "Okay Airways adds Linyi – Osaka service from Dec 2019". Routesonline. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- ^ "Peach Adds Osaka – Bangkok Nonstop Flights From Dec 2022". Aeroroutes. Retrieved 7 October 2022.
- ^ "Peach Resumes Hong Kong Service From late-January 2023". Aeroroutes. 16 November 2022.
- ^ Liu, Jim. "Peach begin service to Kushiro from 2018". Routesonline. Informa Markets. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- ^ Liu, Jim. "Peach adds Osaka – Niigata service in March 2018". Routesonline. Informa Markets. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- ^ "Qatar Airways confirms major network expansion and resumption of flights to 11 cities". Aviacionline. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
- ^ Au Yong, Esther (14 June 2022). "Scoot launches ticket sales for first non-stop service to Tokyo". Yahoo! Finance Singapore. Retrieved 14 June 2022.
- ^ "Air China NW22 International Operations – 30OCT22". Aeroroutes. Retrieved 31 October 2022.
- ^ "China Eastern NW22 International / Regional Operations – 16OCT22". Aeroroutes. 19 October 2022. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
- ^ "Sichuan Airlines NS23 International / Regional Service Changes". Aeroroutes. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
- ^ Liu, Jim. "Spring Airlines adds Shenyang – Osaka service from Jan 2020". Routesonline. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
- ^ Liu, Jim. "Starlux Airlines schedules network expansion in Dec 2020". Routesonline. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
- ^ Chua, Alfred. "Thai AirAsia X marks return to service with Japan, South Korea relaunch". FlightGlobal. Retrieved 26 April 2022.
- ^ "Thai VietJet Air 1Q23 Chiang Mai – Osaka Additions – 12DEC22 Update". AeroRoutes. 13 December 2022.
- ^ "tigerair Taiwan Adds Kaohsiung - Osaka; Bangkok Service Reductions from July 2015". Airlineroute.net. 16 June 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- ^ "Turkish Airlines delays Osaka service resumption to March 2021". Routesonline.
- ^ T'Way Air NW22 Japan Operations – 27OCT22 Aeroroutes. 27 October 2022.
- ^ T'Way Air NW22 Japan Operations – 27OCT22 Aeroroutes. 27 October 2022.
- ^ "Tway". Twayair.com. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- ^ T'Way Air NW22 Japan Operations – 27OCT22 Aeroroutes. 27 October 2022.
- ^ Liu, Jim (18 November 2022). "United 1Q23 Japan Service Changes – 18NOV22".
- ^ "vietjet-opens-direct-flight-from-hanoi-to-osaka--japan - news - VietJetAir.com - Enjoy Flying!". www.vietjetair.com.
- ^ Liu, Jim. "Vietjet Air adds Ho Chi Minh City – Osaka route from Dec 2018". Routesonline. Informa Markets. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- ^ "Vietnam Airlines to offer new route between KIX and Da Nang" (PDF). Kansai Airport. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
- ^ Liu, Jim (2 October 2019). "West Air adds new Osaka routes from late-Nov 2019". routesonline.com.
- ^ "Live Flight Tracker - Real-Time Flight Tracker Map". Flightradar24.
- ^ "New air cargo route links Changsha to Osaka - Payload Asia".
- ^ "SF Airlines launches Frankfurt freighter link". 9 November 2020.
- ^ "なにわ筋線「北梅田～ＪＲ難波・南海新今宮」の鉄道事業許可" [Railway business license for Naniwasuji Line "Kita Umeda-JR Namba / Nankai Shin-Imamiya"] (PDF). Japan Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport (MLIT) (in Japanese). 9 July 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 July 2021. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
- ^ "Kansai Airport limousine". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
- ^ "090406a.pdf Archived 25 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine." Kansai International Airport Land Development Co., Ltd. Retrieved on 2 November 2011. "Kansai Airport Agency Company Building (4F) 1 Senshu-Kuko Kita, Izumisano, Osaka 549-0001"
- ^ 会社情報 (in Japanese). Kansai Airport Agency. Archived from the original on 17 November 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- ^ 見学ホール (in Japanese). Kansai International Airport Land Development Co., Ltd. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
〒549–0001 大阪府泉佐野市泉州空港北一番地 建設棟4F."
- ^ "About Us." Peach. Retrieved on 1 November 2011. "Izumisano-shi, Osaka, Japan 549-8585" Address in Japanese: "大阪府泉佐野市"
- ^ "Airport Facilities Information Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine." Kansai International Airport. Retrieved on 23 July 2011. ""
- ^ "About Us." Peach. Retrieved on 21 July 2011. "Tajiri-cho, Sennangun, Osaka, Japan" Address in Japanese: "本社所在地 大阪府泉南郡田尻町"
- ^ Chen, Wai-Fah; Duan, Lian (11 October 2013). Handbook of International Bridge Engineering. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4398-1030-9.
- Hausler, E. and N. Sitar. "Performance of Soil Improvement Techniques in Earthquakes." (Archive) (Report in Progress) Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California Berkeley.
- Official website
- History of KIX at Kansai Airports
- Kansai International Airport Land Co., Ltd.
- Kansai International Airport Project by Focchi Group