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Traffic is the main source of sound pollution in cities.
A Qantas Airways Boeing 747-400 passes close to houses shortly before landing at London Heathrow Airport.

Sound pollution, also known as environmental noise or noise pollution, is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life. The source of outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines, transport and transportation systems.[1][2] Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential areas. Some of the main sources of noise in residential area include loud music, transportation noise, lawn care maintenance, and nearby construction. Noise pollution associated with household electricity generators is an emerging environmental degradation in many developing nations. The average noise level of 97.60 dB obtained exceeded the WHO value of 50 dB allowed for residential areas.[3] Research suggests that noise pollution is the highest in low-income and racial minority neighborhoods.[4] Documented problems associated with urban environment noise go back as far as ancient Rome.[5]

High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease.[6][7] In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation, and contribute to permanent hearing loss.[8] While the elderly may have cardiac problems due to noise, according to the World Health Organization, children are especially vulnerable to noise, and the affects that noise has on children may be permanent.[9] Noise poses a serious threat to a child’s physical and psychological health, and may negatively interfere with a child's learning and behavior.[10]

Contents

HealthEdit

HumansEdit

 
Noise level from a leaf blower using the NIOSH Sound Level Meter app

Noise pollution affects both health and behavior. Unwanted sound (noise) can damage physiological health. Noise pollution can cause hypertension, high stress levels, tinnitus, hearing loss, sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects.[6][11][12][13]

 
A sound level meter, is one of the main tools for measuring sounds in the environment and the workplace

Sound becomes unwanted when it either interferes with normal activities such as sleep or conversation, or disrupts or diminishes one's quality of life.[14] Noise-induced hearing loss can be caused by prolonged exposure to noise levels above 85 A-weighted, decibels.[15] A comparison of Maaban tribesmen, who were insignificantly exposed to transportation or industrial noise, to a typical U.S. population showed that chronic exposure to moderately high levels of environmental noise contributes to hearing loss.[11]

Noise exposure in the workplace can also contribute to noise-induced hearing loss and other health issues. Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the U.S. and worldwide.[16]

Less addressed is how humans adapt to noise subjectively. Indeed, tolerance for noise is frequently independent of decibel levels. However, Murray Schafer's soundscape research was groundbreaking in this regard. In his eponymous work, he makes compelling arguments about how humans relate to noise on a subjective level, and how such subjectivity is conditioned by culture.[17] He also notes that sound is an expression of power, and as such, material culture (e.g., fast cars or Harley Davidson motorcycles with aftermarket pipes) tend to have louder engines not only for safety reasons, but for expressions of power by dominating the soundscape with a particular sound. Other key research in this area can be seen in Fong's comparative analysis of soundscape differences between Bangkok, Thailand and Los Angeles, California, US. Fong's research methodology was modeled after Schafer, and the research findings show how not only do soundscapes differ, but they also rather explicitly point to the level of urban development in the area; that is, cities in the periphery – in Immanuel Wallerstein-speak – will have different soundscapes than that of cities in the core. Fong's important findings tie not only soundscape appreciation to our subjective views of sound, but also demonstrates how different sounds of the soundscape are indicative of class differences in urban environments.[18]

WildlifeEdit

Noise can have a detrimental effect on wild animals, increasing the risk of death by changing the delicate balance in predator or prey detection and avoidance, and interfering the use of the sounds in communication, especially in relation to reproduction and in navigation. These effects then may alter more interactions within a community through indirect (“domino”) effects. [19]Acoustic overexposure can lead to temporary or permanent loss of hearing.

An impact of noise on wild animal life is the Habitat of usable habitat that noisy areas may cause, which in the case of endangered species may be part of the path to extinction. Noise pollution may havejht caused the death of certain species of whales that beached themselves after being exposed to the loud sound of military sonar.[20] (see also Marine mammals and sonar)

Noise also makes species communicate more loudly, which is called Lombard vocal response.[21] Scientists and researchers have conducted experiments that show whales' song length is longer when submarine-detectors are on.[22] If creatures do not "speak" loudly enough, their voice will be masked by anthropogenic sounds. These unheard voices might be warnings, finding of prey, or preparations of net-bubbling. When one species begins speaking more loudly, it will mask other species' voice, causing the whole ecosystem eventually to speak more loudly.

Marine invertebrates, such as crabs (Carcinus maenas), have also been shown to be negatively affected by ship noise.[23][24] Larger crabs were noted to be negatively affected more by the sounds than smaller crabs. Repeated exposure to the sounds did lead to acclimatization.[24]

European robins living in urban environments are more likely to sing at night in places with high levels of noise pollution during the day, suggesting that they sing at night because it is quieter, and their message can propagate through the environment more clearly.[25] The same study showed that daytime noise was a stronger predictor of nocturnal singing than night-time light pollution, to which the phenomenon often is attributed. Anthropogenic noise reduced the species richness of birds found in Neoptropical urban parks.[26]

Zebra finches become less faithful to their partners when exposed to traffic noise. This could alter a population's evolutionary trajectory by selecting traits, sapping resources normally devoted to other activities and thus leading to profound genetic and evolutionary consequences.[27]

Noise controlEdit

 
The sound tube in Melbourne, Australia is designed to reduce roadway noise without detracting from the area's aesthetics.
 
A man inserting an earplug in his ear to reduce his noise exposure

The Hierarchy of Controls concept is often used to reduce noise in the environment or the workplace. Engineering noise controls can be used to reduce noise propagation and protect individuals from overexposure. When noise controls are not feasible or adequate, individuals can also take steps to protect themselves from the harmful effects of noise pollution. If people must be around loud sounds, they can protect their ears with hearing protection (e.g., ear plugs or ear muffs).[28] In recent years, Buy Quiet programs and initiatives have arisen in an effort to combat occupational noise exposures. These programs promote the purchase of quieter tools and equipment and encourage manufacturers to design quieter equipment.[29]

Noise from roadways and other urban factors can be mitigated by urban planning and better design of roads. Roadway noise can be reduced by the use of noise barriers, limitation of vehicle speeds, alteration of roadway surface texture, limitation of heavy vehicles, use of traffic controls that smooth vehicle flow to reduce braking and acceleration, and tire design. An important factor in applying these strategies is a computer model for roadway noise, that is capable of addressing local topography, meteorology, traffic operations, and hypothetical mitigation. Costs of building-in mitigation can be modest, provided these solutions are sought in the planning stage of a roadway project.

Aircraft noise can be reduced by using quieter jet engines. Altering flight paths and time of day runway has benefited residents near airports.

Legal statusEdit

Up until the 1970s governments tended to view noise as a "nuisance" rather than an environmental problem.

Many conflicts over noise pollution are handled by negotiation between the emitter and the receiver. Escalation procedures vary by country, and may include action in conjunction with local authorities, in particular the police.

IndiaEdit

Noise pollution is a major problem in India.[30] The government of India has rules & regulations against firecrackers and loudspeakers, but enforcement is extremely lax.[31] Awaaz Foundation is an Indian NGO working to control noise pollution from various sources through advocacy, public interest litigation, awareness, and educational campaigns since 2003.[32] Despite increased enforcement and stringency of laws now being practised in urban areas, rural areas are still affected.The Supreme Court of India had banned playing of music on loud speakers after 10pm. In 2015, The National Green Tribunal today directed authorities in Delhi to ensure strict adherence to guidelines on noise pollution, saying noise is more than just a nuisance as it can produce serious psychological stress. However, implementation of the law continues to remain poor.[33]

United KingdomEdit

Figures compiled by rockwool, the mineral wool insulation manufacturer, based on responses from local authorities to a Freedom of Information Act (FOI) request reveal in the period April 2008 – 2009 UK councils received 315,838 complaints about noise pollution from private residences. This resulted in environmental health officers across the UK serving 8,069 noise abatement notices or citations under the terms of the Anti-Social Behaviour (Scotland) Act. In the last 12 months, 524 confiscations of equipment have been authorized involving the removal of powerful speakers, stereos and televisions. Westminster City Council has received more complaints per head of population than any other district in the UK with 9,814 grievances about noise, which equates to 42.32 complaints per thousand residents. Eight of the top 10 councils ranked by complaints per 1,000 residents are located in London.[34]

United StatesEdit

The Noise Control Act of 1972 established a U.S. national policy to promote an environment for all Americans free from noise that jeopardizes their health and welfare. In the past, Environmental Protection Agency coordinated all federal noise control activities through its Office of Noise Abatement and Control. The EPA phased out the office's funding in 1982 as part of a shift in federal noise control policy to transfer the primary responsibility of regulating noise to state and local governments. However, the Noise Control Act of 1972 and the Quiet Communities Act of 1978 were never rescinded by Congress and remain in effect today, although essentially unfunded.[35]

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulates aircraft noise by specifying the maximum noise level that individual civil aircraft can emit through requiring aircraft to meet certain noise certification standards. These standards designate changes in maximum noise level requirements by "stage" designation. The U.S. noise standards are defined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 14 Part 36 – Noise Standards: Aircraft Type and Airworthiness Certification (14 CFR Part 36).[36] The FAA also pursues a program of aircraft noise control in cooperation with the aviation community.[37]

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) developed noise regulations to control highway noise as required by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1970. The regulations requires promulgation of traffic noise-level criteria for various land use activities, and describe procedures for the abatement of highway traffic noise and construction noise.[38]

The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) noise standards as described in 24 CFR part 51, Subpart B provides minimum national standards applicable to HUD programs to protect citizen against excessive noise in their communities and places of residence. For instance, all sites whose environmental or community noise exposure exceeds the day night average sound level (DNL) of 65 (dB) are considered noise-impacted areas, it defines "Normally Unacceptable" noise zones where community noise levels are between 65-75 dB, for such locations, noise abatement and noise attenuation features must be implemented. Locations where the DNL is above 75 dB are considered "Unacceptable" and require approval by the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and Development.[39]

States and local governments typically have very specific statutes on building codes, urban planning, and roadway development. Noise laws and ordinances vary widely among municipalities and indeed do not even exist in some cities. An ordinance may contain a general prohibition against making noise that is a nuisance, or it may set out specific guidelines for the level of noise allowable at certain times of the day and for certain activities.[40]

New York City instituted the first comprehensive noise code in 1985. The Portland Noise Code includes potential fines of up to $5000 per infraction and is the basis for other major U.S. and Canadian city noise ordinances.[41]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Senate Public Works Committee, Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1972, S. Rep. No. 1160, 92nd Cong. 2nd session
  2. ^ C. Michael Hogan and Gary L. Latshaw, "The relationship between highway planning and urban noise", The Proceedings of the ASCE, Urban Transportation, May 21–23, 1973, Chicago, Illinois. By American Society of Civil Engineers. Urban Transportation Division
  3. ^ Menkiti Nwasinachi U., Agunwamba Jonah C (2015), Assessment of noise pollution from electricity generators in a high-density residential area, African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, Pages 306 –312, Volume 7, Issue 4, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/20421338.2015.1082370
  4. ^ Casey, Joan A; James, Peter; Morello-Forsch, Rachel. "Urban noise pollution is worst in poor and minority neighborhoods and segregated cities". PBS. Published October 7, 2017. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
  5. ^ "Noise Pollution: A Modern Plague". 
  6. ^ a b Münzel, Thomas; Schmidt, Frank P.; Steven, Sebastian; Herzog, Johannes; Daiber, Andreas; Sørensen, Mette (February 2018). "Environmental Noise and the Cardiovascular System". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 71 (6): 688–697. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2017.12.015. ISSN 0735-1097. 
  7. ^ Hoffmann, Barbara; Moebus, Susanne; Stang, Andreas; Beck, Eva-Maria; Dragano, Nico; Möhlenkamp, Stephan; Schmermund, Axel; Memmesheimer, Michael; Mann, Klaus (2006-11-01). "Residence close to high traffic and prevalence of coronary heart disease". European Heart Journal. 27 (22): 2696–2702. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehl278. ISSN 0195-668X. PMID 17003049. 
  8. ^ "Results and Discussion – Effects – Noise Effect On Wildlife – Noise – Environment – FHWA". www.fhwa.dot.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-21. 
  9. ^ Children and Noise, WHO, http://www.who.int/ceh/capacity/noise.pdf
  10. ^ Noise and Its Effects on Children, EPA, https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-07/documents/ochp_noise_fs_rev1.pdf
  11. ^ a b S. Rosen and P. Olin, Hearing Loss and Coronary Heart Disease, Archives of Otolaryngology, 82:236 (1965)
  12. ^ "Noise Pollution". World Health Organisation. 
  13. ^ "Road noise link to blood pressure". BBC News. 2009-09-10. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  14. ^ Jefferson, Catrice. "Noise Pollution". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2013-09-24. 
  15. ^ National Institutes of Health, NIDCD (Feb 7, 2017). "Noise-Induced Hearing Loss". Retrieved June 29, 2018. 
  16. ^ National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (Feb 6, 2018). "NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION". Retrieved June 29, 2018. 
  17. ^ Schafer, Murray (1977). The Soundscape. Destiny Books. 
  18. ^ Fong, Jack (2014). "Making Operative Concepts from Murray Schafer's Soundscapes Typology: A Qualitative and Comparative Analysis of Noise Pollution in Bangkok, Thailand and Los Angeles, California". Urban Studies. 53 (1): 173–192. doi:10.1177/0042098014562333. 
  19. ^ "Testing the AC/DC hypothesis".  Text " https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ece3.4273" ignored (help);
  20. ^ Bahamas Marine Mammal Stranding Event of 15–16 March 2000
  21. ^ [NULL]. "DOSITS: Page Not Found". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  22. ^ "Variation in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song length in relation to". Bibcode:2003ASAJ..113.3411F. doi:10.1121/1.1573637. 
  23. ^ McClain, Craig. "Loud Noise Makes Crabs Even More Crabby". Deep Sea News. Retrieved 2013-04-04. 
  24. ^ a b Wale, M. A.; Simpson, S. D.; Radford, A. N. (2013). "Size-dependent physiological responses of shore crabs to single and repeated playback of ship noise". Biology Letters. 9 (2): 20121194–20121194. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2012.1194. ISSN 1744-9561. PMC 3639773 . PMID 23445945. 
  25. ^ Fuller RA, Warren PH, Gaston KJ (2007). "Daytime noise predicts nocturnal singing in urban robins". Biology Letters. 3 (4): 368–70. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0134. PMC 2390663 . PMID 17456449. 
  26. ^ Perillo, A.; Mazzoni, L. G.; Passos, L. F.; Goulart, V. D. L. R.; Duca, C.; Young, R. J. (2017). "Anthropogenic noise reduces bird species richness and diversity in urban parks". Ibis. 159 (3): 638–646. doi:10.1111/ibi.12481. 
  27. ^ Milius, S. (2007). High Volume, Low Fidelity: Birds are less faithful as sounds blare, Science News vol. 172, p. 116. (references)
  28. ^ NIOSH (Feb 5, 2018). "Noise Controls". Retrieved June 29, 2018. 
  29. ^ "CDC – Buy Quiet – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topics". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  30. ^ IANS (29 August 2016). "Freedom from noise pollution will be true independence (Comment: Special to IANS)" – via Business Standard. 
  31. ^ "Central Pollution Control Board: FAQs". Indian Central Pollution Control Board. Retrieved 2 July 2018. 
  32. ^ Rising festival noise undoing past efforts'
  33. ^ Strictly Adhere To Supreme Court Guidelines On Noise Pollution: Green Tribunal, NDTV, https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/strictly-adhere-to-supreme-court-guidelines-on-noise-pollution-green-tribunal-1253453
  34. ^ "London is home to the noisiest neighbours". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 2013-01-14. 
  35. ^ EPA (1982). "EPA History: Noise and the Noise Control Act". Retrieved June 29, 2018. 
  36. ^ FAA (Nov 15, 2001). "C 36-1H - Noise Levels for U.S. Certificated and Foreign Aircraft". Retrieved June 29, 2018. 
  37. ^ FAA (Jan 9, 2018). "Aircraft Noise Issues". Retrieved June 29, 2018. 
  38. ^ FWHA (June 6, 2017). "Highway Traffic Noise". Retrieved June 29, 2018. 
  39. ^ HUD (April 1, 2013). "Noise Abatement and Control". Retrieved June 29, 2018. 
  40. ^ Noise Pollution Clearinghouse. "Noise Pollution Clearinghouse Law Library". Retrieved June 29, 2018. 
  41. ^ City of Portland, Oregon. Auditor's Office. Chapter 18.02 Title Noise Control. Retrieved on April 20, 2009.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit