The Hoover Institution, officially the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, is a conservative American public policy institution and research institution that promotes personal and economic liberty, free enterprise, and limited government. Located in Stanford, California, it began as a library founded in 1919 by Stanford alumnus Herbert Hoover, before he became President of the United States. The library, known as the Hoover Institution Library and Archives, houses multiple archives related to Hoover, World War I, World War II, and other world-historical events.
|Type||Public policy think tank|
|Expenses (2018)||$70.5 million|
The institution has been a place of scholarship for individuals who previously held high-profile positions in government, such as George Shultz, Condoleezza Rice, Michael Boskin, Edward Lazear, John B. Taylor, Edwin Meese, and Amy Zegart—all Hoover Institution fellows. In 2007, retired U.S. Army General John P. Abizaid, former commander of the U.S. Central Command, was named the Institution's first annual Annenberg Distinguished Visiting Fellow. Former Secretary of Defense General James Mattis served as a research fellow at Hoover before being appointed by the Trump administration.
Hoover was ranked as the tenth most influential think tank in the world in 2020 by Academic Influence, and the 22nd of the "Top Think Tanks in the United States" by the Global Go To Think Tank Index Report in 2019 (Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, University of Pennsylvania).
The Institution was set up by Hoover, a wealthy engineer who was one of Stanford's first graduates. In 1928, he was elected President of the United States. He had been in charge of major relief efforts in Europe in 1914–1917 in Belgium and again after the world war in central and eastern Europe, especially Russia. Hoover's plan was to collect and permanently preserve the documents of major events for open research. Hoover's search team obtained rare printed and unpublished material. They included the papers of activists on the far left and far right, including the files of the Okhrana (the Tsarist secret police). In 1960, W. Glenn Campbell became director. He specialized in fund raising, setting up research operations and building collections regarding China and the Soviet Union. Relations improved with the host university.
In 1919, Hoover donated $50,000 to Stanford University to support the collection of primary materials related to World War I, a project that became known as the Hoover War Collection. Supported primarily by gifts from private donors, the Hoover War Collection flourished in its early years. In 1922, the Collection became known as the Hoover War Library. The Hoover War Library was housed in the Stanford Library, separate from the general stacks. By 1926, the Hoover War Library was known as the largest library in the world devoted to the Great War. By 1929, it contained 1.4 million items and was becoming too large to house in the Stanford Library. In 1938, the War Library revealed building plans for Hoover Tower, which was to be its permanent home independent of the Stanford Library system. The 285-foot tall tower was completed in 1941, Stanford University's fiftieth anniversary. Since then, the tower has been a key landmark for campus. On its 14th floor, the tower has an observation deck which holds a carillon of 48 bells that were donated to former president Hoover in 1940.
By 1946, the agenda of the Hoover War Library had expanded to include research activities; thus the organization was renamed the Hoover Institution and Library on War, Revolution and Peace. At this time, Herbert Hoover was living in New York City but remained integrally involved in the Hoover Institution and Library as a benefactor, fundraiser, and consultant.
In 1956 former President Hoover, under the auspices of the Institution and Library, launched a major fundraising campaign that allowed the Institution to realize its current form as a think tank and archive. In 1957, the Hoover Institution and Library was renamed the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace—the name it holds today.
In 1960, W. Glenn Campbell was appointed director and substantial budget increases soon led to corresponding increases in acquisitions and related research projects. In particular, the Chinese and Russian collections grew considerably. Despite student unrest in the 1960s, the institution continued to thrive and develop closer relations with Stanford.
In 1975 Ronald Reagan, who was Governor of California at that time, was designated as Hoovers first honorary fellow. He donated his gubernatorial papers to the Hoover library. During that time the Hoover Institution held a general budget of $3.5 million a year. In 1976, one third of Stanford University's book holdings were housed at the Hoover library. At that time, it was the largest private archive collection in the United States.
Until 1979, Hoover's annual budget was about $5.7 million, of which about forty percent was used to fund research (more than four times as much as twenty years ago). For his presidential campaign in 1980, Reagan engaged at least thirteen Hoover scholars to support the campaign in multiple capacities. After Reagan won the election campaign, more than thirty current or former Hoover Institution fellows worked for the Reagan administration in 1981.
In 1989, Campbell retired as director of Hoover. He was replaced by John Raisian. This change of personnel was seen as the end of an era.
In August 2017 the David and Joan Traitel Building was inaugurated. The ground floor is a large conference center with a 400-seat auditorium and the top floor houses the Hoover Institution's headquarters. The auditorium is now a symbolic bridge between Hoover and Stanford Campus. In the future,[when?] Traitel will be joined by the George Shultz Building.
In 2019 the Hoover Institution celebrated its centenary. Hoover has 65 Senior Fellows, 45 Research Fellows, 26 Senior Guest Fellows, 6 National Fellows and 8 National Security Fellows. They are an interdisciplinary group of humanists, political scientists studying education, economics, foreign policy, energy, history, law, national security, health and politics.
The Institution has libraries which include materials from both the First World War and Second World War, including the collection of documents of President Hoover, which he began to collect at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. Thousands of Persian books, official documents, letters, multimedia pieces and other materials on Iran's history, politics and culture can also be found at the Stanford University library and the Hoover Institution library.
During the Trump administration, the Hoover Institution had close relations with the administration. Multiple Hoover Institution affiliates filled top positions in the administration. These included Scott Atlas, a radiologist who pushed for policies contrary to the recommendations of the scientific community in relation to the coronavirus pandemic, and whose actions in this regard were condemned by the faculty senate at Stanford.
In May 2018 the website of the Hoover Institution listed 198 fellows.
Below is a list of directors and some of the more prominent fellows, former and current.
- Fouad Ajami, political scientist, former director of the Middle East Studies Program at Johns Hopkins University (deceased)
- Scott Atlas, health care policy scholar and physician, former professor and former Chief of Neuroradiology at Stanford University School of Medicine
- Richard V. Allen, former U.S. National Security Advisor
- Martin Anderson, former advisor to Richard Nixon and author of The Federal Bulldozer (deceased)
- Robert Barro, economist
- Gary S. Becker, 1992 Nobel laureate in economics (deceased)
- Joseph Berger, theoretical sociologist
- Peter Berkowitz, political scientist
- Russell Berman, professor of German Studies and Comparative Literature
- Michael Boskin, chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers under President George H. W. Bush
- David W. Brady, political scientist
- Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, political scientist, professor at New York University
- Elizabeth Cobbs, historian, novelist, and documentary filmmaker
- John H. Cochrane, economist
- William Damon, professor of education
- Larry Diamond, political scientist, professor at Stanford University
- Frank Dikötter, chair professor of humanities at the University of Hong Kong
- Sidney Drell, theoretical physicist and arms control expert (deceased)
- Darrell Duffie, Dean Witter Distinguished Professor of Finance at Stanford University's Graduate School of Business
- John B. Dunlop, expert on Soviet and Russian politics
- Richard A. Epstein, legal scholar
- Martin Feldstein, senior fellow at the George F. Baker Professor of Economics at Harvard University
- Niall Ferguson, historian, professor at Harvard University
- Chester E. Finn, Jr., professor of education
- Morris P. Fiorina, political scientist
- Milton Friedman, 1976 Nobel laureate in economics (deceased)
- Timothy Garton Ash, historian, columnist for The Guardian
- Jack Goldsmith, legal scholar
- Stephen Haber, economic historian and political scientist
- Robert Hall, economist
- Victor Davis Hanson, classicist, military historian, columnist
- Eric Hanushek, economist
- David R. Henderson, economist
- Caroline Hoxby, economist
- Bobby Ray Inman, retired admiral
- Shanto Iyengar, professor of political science, and director of the Political Communication Laboratory at Stanford University
- Ken Jowitt, historian
- Kenneth L. Judd, economist
- Daniel P. Kessler, scholar of health policy and health care finance
- Stephen D. Krasner, international relations professor
- Edward Lazear, economist
- Gary D. Libecap, Bren Professor of Corporate Environmental Policy and of Donald R. Bren School of Environmental Science
- Seymour Martin Lipset, political sociologist (deceased)
- Harvey Mansfield, political scientist
- Michael W. McConnell, legal scholar, former judge, professor at Stanford University
- Michael McFaul, political scientist, United States Ambassador to Russia
- H.R. McMaster, former National Security Advisor
- Thomas Metzger, sinologist
- James C. Miller III, economist
- Terry M. Moe, professor of political science at Stanford University
- Kevin M. Murphy, economist
- Norman Naimark, historian
- Douglass North, 1993 Nobel laureate in economics (deceased)
- William J. Perry, former U.S. Secretary of Defense
- Paul E. Peterson, scholar on education reform
- Alvin Rabushka, political scientist
- Raghuram Rajan, Katherine Dusak Miller Distinguished Service Professor of Finance at the University of Chicago's Booth School
- Condoleezza Rice, former U.S. Secretary of State
- Henry Rowen, economist (deceased)
- Thomas J. Sargent, 2011 Nobel laureate in economics, professor at New York University
- Robert Service, historian
- John Shoven, economist
- Abraham David Sofaer, scholar, former legal advisor to the U.S. Secretary of State
- Thomas Sowell, economist, author, columnist
- Michael Spence, 2001 Nobel laureate in economics
- Richard F. Staar, political scientist, historian
- Shelby Steele, author, columnist
- John B. Taylor, former U.S. Undersecretary of the Treasury for international affairs
- Barry R. Weingast, political scientist
- Bertram Wolfe, author, scholar, former communist, (deceased; 1896–1977)
- Amy Zegart, political scientist
- Ayaan Hirsi Ali, author, scholar and former politician
- Clint Bolick, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Arizona
- Lanhee Chen, political scientist, health policy expert, former policy director for Mitt Romney
- Robert Conquest, historian (deceased)
- David Davenport, former president of Pepperdine University
- Williamson Evers, education researcher
- Paul R. Gregory, Cullen Professor Emeritus in the Department of Economics at the University of Houston
- Alice Hill, former federal prosecutor, judge, special assistant to the president, and senior director for the National Security Council
- Charles Hill, lecturer in International Studies
- Tim Kane, economist
- Herbert S. Klein, historian
- Tod Lindberg, foreign policy expert
- Alice L. Miller, political scientist
- Shavit Matias, former deputy attorney general of Israel
- Abbas Milani, political scientist
- Henry I. Miller, physician
- Elena Pastorino, economist
- Russell Roberts, economist, author
- Kori Schake, foreign policy expert, author
- Kiron Skinner, associate professor of international relations and political science, author
- Peter Schweizer, author (former fellow)
- Antony C. Sutton, author of Western Technology and Soviet Economic Development (3 vol), fellow from 1968 to 1973
- Bruce Thornton, American classicist
- Tunku Varadarajan, writer and journalist
Distinguished Visiting FellowsEdit
- John Abizaid, former commander of the U.S. Central Command (former fellow)
- Spencer Abraham, former U.S. Senator and Secretary of Energy (former fellow)
- Pedro Aspe, Mexican economist, former secretary of finance
- Michael R. Auslin, American writer, policy analyst, historian, and Asia expert
- Michael D. Bordo, Canadian economist, Professor of Economics and Professor of Economics at Rutgers University
- Charles Calomiris, financial policy expert, author, and professor at Columbia Business School
- Arye Carmon, Founding President and Senior Fellow at the Israel Democracy Institute (IDI)
- Elizabeth Economy, C. V. Starr senior fellow and director for Asia studies at the Council on Foreign Relations
- James O. Ellis, former commander, United States Strategic Command
- James Goodby, author and former American diplomat
- Jim Hoagland, American journalist and two-time recipient of the Pulitzer Prize
- Toomas Hendrik Ilves, former President of Estonia
- Raymond Jeanloz, professor of earth and planetary science and of astronomy
- Josef Joffe, publisher-editor of the German newspaper Die Zeit
- Henry Kissinger, former United States Secretary of State in the administrations of presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford
- James Mattis, former commander, U.S. Central Command and former Secretary of Defense
- Allan H. Meltzer, American economist
- Edwin Meese, former U.S. Attorney General
- David C. Mulford, former United States Ambassador to India, former Vice-Chairman International of Credit Suisse
- Joseph Nye, American political scientist, co-founder of the international relations theory of neoliberalism
- Sam Nunn, former United States Senator from Georgia
- George Osborne, British Conservative Party politician, former Chancellor of the Exchequer and former Member of Parliament (MP) for Tatton
- Andrew Roberts, British historian and journalist, Visiting Professor at the Department of War Studies, King's College London
- Peter M. Robinson, American author, research fellow television host, former speechwriter for then-Vice President George H.W. Bush and President Ronald Reagan
- Gary Roughead, former Chief of Naval Operations
- Donald Rumsfeld, former Secretary of Defense (former fellow)
- Christopher Stubbs, an experimental physicist
- William Suter, former Clerk of the Supreme Court of the United States
- Kevin Warsh, former governor of the Federal Reserve System
- Pete Wilson, former Governor of California
- Alexander Benard, American businessman, lawyer, and commentator on U.S. public policy
- Charles Blahous, U.S. public trustee for the Social Security and Medicare programs
- Robert J. Hodrick , U.S. economist specialized in International Finance
- Markos Kounalakis, Greek-American journalist, author, scholar and the Second Gentleman of California
- Bjorn Lomborg, Danish author, President of his think tank, Copenhagen Consensus Center
- Ellen R. McGrattan, Professor of Economics at the University of Minnesota
- Afshin Molavi, Iranian-American author and expert on global geo-political risk and geo-economics
- Charles I. Plosser, former president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
- Raj Shah, former White House Deputy Press Secretary, former Deputy Assistant to the President
- Alex Stamos, computer scientist, former chief security officer at Facebook
- John Yoo, Korean-American attorney, law professor, former government official, author
- Tom Bethell, journalist
- Sam Dealey, journalist, former editor-in-chief of Washington Times
- Christopher Hitchens, journalist (deceased)
- Deroy Murdock, journalist
- Mike Pride, editor emeritus of the Concord Monitor and former administrator of the Pulitzer Prizes
- Christopher Ruddy, CEO of Newsmax Media
- Mark Bils, macroeconomist, National Fellow 1989–90
- Stephen Kotkin, historian, National Fellow 2010–11
Senior Research FellowsEdit
- John H. Bunzel, expert in the field of civil rights, race relations, higher education, US politics, and elections (deceased)
- Robert Hessen, historian
- James Stockdale, Navy Vice Admiral, Medal of Honor recipient, 1992 US vice presidential candidate (deceased) 
The Hoover Institution's in-house publisher, Hoover Institution Press, produces multiple publications on public policy topics, including the quarterly periodicals Hoover Digest, Education Next, China Leadership Monitor, and Defining Ideas. The Hoover Institution Press previously published the bimonthly periodical Policy Review, which it acquired from The Heritage Foundation in 2001. Policy Review ceased publication with its February–March 2013 issue.
In addition to these periodicals, the Hoover Institution Press publishes books and essays by Hoover Institution fellows and other Hoover-affiliated scholars.
The Hoover Institution receives nearly half of its funding from private gifts, primarily from individual contributions, and the other half from its endowment.
Funders of the organization include the Taube Family Foundation, the Koret Foundation, the Howard Charitable Foundation, the Sarah Scaife Foundation, the Walton Foundation, the Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation, and the William E. Simon Foundation.
Funding sources and expenditures, FY 2018:
- "Financial Review 2018" (PDF). Hoover Institution. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
- Hanson, Victor Davis (July 30, 2019). "100 Years of the Hoover Institution". National Review. Retrieved August 13, 2020.
- "Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace". Encyclopaedica Britannica. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
- McBride, Stewart (May 28, 1975). "Hoover Institution: Leaning to the right". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
- "Former U.S. Central Command Chief General John Abizaid Appointed Hoover Distinguished Visiting Fellow". Hoover Institution.
- "General Jim Mattis Biography, Hoover Institution". Hoover Administration. June 14, 2017. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- McGann, James (June 18, 2020). "2019 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report". University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
- "Top Influential Think Tanks". Retrieved October 9, 2020.
- "Stanford Legal Facts". Office of the General Counsel. Stanford University. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
- "Board of Overseers". Hoover Institution. Stanford University. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
- Duignan, Peter (2001). "The Library of the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace. Part 1: Origin and Growth". Library History. 17: 3–20. doi:10.1179/lib.2001.17.1.3. S2CID 144635878.
- Duignan, Peter (2001). "The Library of the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace. Part II. The Campbell Years". Library History. 17: 107–118.
- "Make A Gift". myScience. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- "Hoover Institution Library and Archives: Historical Background". Hoover Institution.
- Bonafont, Roxy (11 May 2019). "100 Years of Hoover: A History of Stanford's Decades-Long Debate over the Hoover Institution". Stanford Political Journal. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
- Niekerken, Bill van (4 April 2017). "Stanford's secrets: Decades of surprises stashed in Hoover Tower". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
- "Hoover Institution – Hoover Institution Timeline". hoover.org.
- Duignan, Peter (2001). "The Library of the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace. Part 2: The Campbell Years". Library History. 17 (2): 107–118. doi:10.1179/lib.2001.17.2.107. S2CID 144451652.
- McBride, Stewart (27 March 1980). "Hoover Institution; Leaning to the right". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
- Fitzgerald, Patrick (1 February 2008). "At Stanford, Hoover Debate Still Rages". CBS News. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
- "The Man Behind the Institution". Stanford Magazine. April 2002. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- "Condoleezza Rice to lead Stanford's Hoover Institution". Stanford News. 28 January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- "Stanford University, Hoover Institute, David and Joan Traitel Building". Degenkolb. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- Niekerken, Bill van (4 April 2017). "Stanford's secrets: Decades of surprises stashed in Hoover Tower". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- "Spotlight On Iran". Radio Farda. 11 May 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- Kelly, Kate; Mazzetti, Mark (2020-10-14). "As Virus Spread Early On, Reports of Trump Administration Briefings Fueled Sell-Off". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-10-15.
- Chesley, Kate (November 20, 2020). "Faculty Senate condemns COVID-19 actions of Hoover's Scott Atlas". Stanford News (Stanford University). Retrieved November 26, 2020.
- "Yacht club to host celebration of Virginia Rothwell". Stanford Report. September 1, 2004. Retrieved March 25, 2008.
- Trei, Lisa (November 28, 2001). "Glenn Campbell, former Hoover director, dead at 77". Stanford Report. Retrieved March 25, 2008.
- "Margaret Thatcher". Hoover Institution. 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
- "Distinguished Fellow". Hoover Institution Stanford University. 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
- "Senior Fellows". Hoover Institution Stanford University. 2011. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
- "David Brady". Hoover Institution.
- "Research Fellows". Hoover Institution.
- "Distinguished Visiting Fellows". Hoover Institution Stanford University. 2014. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
- "William and Barbara Edwards Media Fellows". Hoover Institution Stanford University. 2010. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- "William and Barbara Edwards Media Fellows by year". hoover.org.
- "William and Barbara Edwards Media Fellows by year". Hoover Institutio.
- "VITA Mark Bils" (PDF). University of Rochester. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
- "Stephen Kotkin". Hoover Institution. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
- "John H. Bunzel". Hoover Institution. Retrieved November 25, 2019.
- "Robert Hessen". Hoover Institution. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
- "James Bond Stockdale". Hoover Institution. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
- "Charles Wolf Jr". Hoover Institution. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
- "Edward Teller". Hoover Institution. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
- "Policy Review Web Archive". Hoover Institution.
- "Hoover Institution 2010 Report". Hoover Institution. p. 39. Retrieved June 25, 2011.
- Adeniji, Ade (April 21, 2015). "How the Hoover Institution Vacuums Up Big Conservative Bucks". Inside Philanthropy.
- "Financial Review 2018" (PDF). Hoover Institution. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
- Paul, Gary Norman. "The Development of the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace Library, 1919–1944". PhD dissertation U. of California, Berkeley. Dissertation Abstracts International 1974 35(3): 1682–1683a, 274 pp.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hoover Institution.|
- Official website
- hoover.org/hila, the Hoover Institution Library and Archives official website
- hooverpress.org, the Hoover Institution Press's official website
- definingideas.org, a Hoover Institution online journal
- EDIRC listing (provided by RePEc)
- Hoover Institution at Curlie
- advancingafreesociety.org, the Hoover Institution's blog of research and opinion on current policy matters
- Video of Hoover Institution events and Uncommon Knowledge at YouTube
- Video of Hoover Institution events at FORA.tv
- Hoover Institution FBI files hosted at the Internet Archive
- Education Next, the Fordham Institute, and Common Core