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The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the highest-ranking officer and professional head of the United States Navy. The position is a statutory office (10 U.S.C. § 5033) held by a four-star admiral who is a military adviser and deputy to the Secretary of the Navy. In a separate capacity as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (10 U.S.C. § 151) the CNO is a military adviser to the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, and the President. The current Chief of Naval Operations is Admiral John M. Richardson.

Chief of Naval Operations
CNO
ChiefOfNavalOperationsSeal.png
Seal of the Chief of Naval Operations
Flag of the United States Chief of Naval Operations.svg
Flag of the Chief of Naval Operations
ADM John M. Richardson, USN.jpg
Incumbent
Admiral John M. Richardson

since 18 September 2015
Department of the Navy
Member of Joint Chiefs of Staff
Reports to Secretary of Defense
Secretary of the Navy
Appointer The President
with Senate advice and consent
Term length 4 years
Renewable
Constituting instrument 10 U.S.C. § 5033
Formation 11 May 1915
First holder ADM William S. Benson
Deputy Vice Chief of Naval Operations
Website Official website

Despite the title, the CNO does not have operational command authority over Naval forces. The CNO is an administrative position based in the Pentagon, and exercises supervision of Navy organizations as the designee of the Secretary of the Navy. Operational command of naval forces falls within the purview of the Combatant Commanders who report to the Secretary of Defense.

Contents

ResponsibilitiesEdit

The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is typically the highest-ranking officer on active duty in the U.S. Navy unless the Chairman and/or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are naval officers.[1]

As per 10 U.S.C. § 5035, whenever there is a vacancy for the Chief of Naval Operations or during the absence or disability of the Chief of Naval Operations, and unless the President directs otherwise, the Vice Chief of Naval Operations performs the duties of the Chief of Naval Operations until a successor is appointed or the absence or disability ceases.[2]

Department of the NavyEdit

The CNO also performs all other functions prescribed under 10 U.S.C. § 5033, such as presiding over the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV), exercising supervision of Navy organizations, and other duties assigned by the Secretary or higher lawful authority, or the CNO delegates those duties and responsibilities to other officers in OPNAV or in organizations below.[1][3]

Acting for the Secretary of the Navy, the CNO also designates naval personnel and naval forces available to the commanders of Unified Combatant Commands, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Defense.[3][4]

Joint Chiefs of StaffEdit

The CNO is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff as prescribed by 10 U.S.C. § 151 and 10 U.S.C. § 5033. Like the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the CNO is an administrative position, with no operational command authority over the United States Navy forces.

Members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, individually or collectively, in their capacity as military advisers, shall provide advice to the President, the National Security Council (NSC), or the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) on a particular matter when the President, the NSC, or SECDEF requests such advice. Members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (other than the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff) may submit to the Chairman advice or an opinion in disagreement with, or advice or an opinion in addition to, the advice presented by the Chairman to the President, NSC, or SECDEF.

When performing his JCS duties, the CNO is responsible directly to the SECDEF, but keeps SECNAV fully informed of significant military operations affecting the duties and responsibilities of the SECNAV, unless SECDEF orders otherwise.[5]

AppointmentEdit

The Chief of Naval Operations is nominated by the President for appointment and must be confirmed by the Senate.[6] A requirement for being Chief of Naval Operations is having significant experience in joint duty assignments, which includes at least one full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment as a flag officer.[6] However, the president may waive those requirements if he determines that appointing the officer is necessary for the national interest.[6] By statute, the CNO is appointed as a four-star admiral.[6]

Official ResidenceEdit

Number One Observatory Circle, located on the northeast grounds of the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, DC, was built in 1893 for its superintendent. The Chief of Naval Operations liked the house so much that in 1923 he took over the house as his own official residence. It remained the residence of the CNO until 1974, when Congress authorized its transformation to an official residence for the Vice President.[7] The Chief of Naval Operations currently resides in Quarters A in the Washington Naval Yard.

Office of the Chief of Naval OperationsEdit

 
Organizational chart of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV).

The Chief of Naval Operations presides over the Navy Staff, formally known as the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV).[8][9] The Office of the Chief of Naval Operations is a statutory organization within the executive part of the Department of the Navy, and its purpose is to furnish professional assistance to the Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV) and the CNO in carrying out their responsibilities.[10][11]

The OPNAV organization consists of:

Policy documents emanating from the CNO are issued in the form of OPNAV Instructions.

OPNAV is one of the three headquarters staffs in Department of the Navy mainly based at The Pentagon, with the others being the Office of the Secretary of the Navy and Headquarters, Marine Corps.

List of Chiefs of Naval Operations (1915–present)Edit

The position of CNO replaced the position of Aide for Naval Operations, which was a position established by regulation rather than statutory law.[14] († - died in office)

 
Mullen (CNO in December 2006) with some of his predecessors: Clark, Watkins, Hayward and Johnson
Chief of Naval Operations Took office Left office Time in office
1Benson, WilliamAdmiral
William S. Benson
(1855–1932)
11 May 191525 September 19194 years, 137 days
2Coontz, RobertAdmiral
Robert E. Coontz
(1864–1935)
1 November 191921 July 19233 years, 262 days
3Eberle, EdwardAdmiral
Edward W. Eberle
(1864–1929)
21 July 192314 November 19274 years, 116 days
4Hughes, CharlesAdmiral
Charles F. Hughes
(1866–1934)
14 November 192717 September 19303 years, 3 days
5Pratt, WilliamAdmiral
William V. Pratt
(1869–1957)
17 September 193030 June 19332 years, 286 days
6Standley, WilliamAdmiral
William H. Standley
(1872–1963)
1 July 19331 January 19373 years, 184 days
7Leahy, WilliamFleet Admiral
William D. Leahy
(1875–1959)
2 January 19371 August 19392 years, 211 days
8Stark, HaroldAdmiral
Harold R. Stark
(1880–1972)
1 August 19392 March 19422 years, 213 days
9King, ErnestFleet Admiral
Ernest J. King
(1878–1956)
2 March 194215 December 19453 years, 288 days
10Nimitz, ChesterFleet Admiral
Chester W. Nimitz
(1885–1966)
15 December 194515 December 19472 years, 0 days
11Denfeld, LouisAdmiral
Louis E. Denfeld
(1891–1972)
15 December 19472 November 19491 year, 322 days
12Sherman, ForrestAdmiral
Forrest P. Sherman
(1896–1951)
2 November 194922 July 1951 †1 year, 262 days
13Fechteler, WilliamAdmiral
William M. Fechteler
(1896–1967)
16 August 195117 August 19532 years, 1 day
14Carney, RobertAdmiral
Robert B. Carney
(1895–1990)
17 August 195317 August 19552 years, 0 days
15Burke, ArleighAdmiral
Arleigh A. Burke
(1901–1996)
17 August 19551 August 19615 years, 349 days
16Anderson, GeorgeAdmiral
George W. Anderson Jr.
(1906–1992)
1 August 19611 August 19632 years, 0 days
17McDonald, DavidAdmiral
David L. McDonald
(1906–1997)
1 August 19631 August 19674 years, 0 days
18Moorer, ThomasAdmiral
Thomas H. Moorer
(1912–2004)
1 August 19671 July 19702 years, 334 days
19Zumwalt, ElmoAdmiral
Elmo R. Zumwalt
(1920–2000)
1 July 197029 June 19743 years, 363 days
20Holloway, JamesAdmiral
James L. Holloway III
(born 1922)
29 June 19741 July 19784 years, 2 days
21Hayward, ThomasAdmiral
Thomas B. Hayward
(born 1924)
1 July 197830 June 19823 years, 364 days
22Watkins, JamesAdmiral
James D. Watkins
(1927–2012)
30 June 198230 June 19864 years, 0 days
23Trost, CarlisleAdmiral
Carlisle A.H. Trost
(born 1930)
1 July 198629 June 19903 years, 363 days
24Kelso, FrankAdmiral
Frank B. Kelso II
(1933–2013)
29 June 199023 April 19943 years, 298 days
25Boorda, JeremyAdmiral
Jeremy M. Boorda
(1939–1996)
23 April 199416 May 1996 †2 years, 23 days
26Johnson, JayAdmiral
Jay L. Johnson
(born 1946)
16 May 199621 July 20004 years, 66 days
27Clark, VernAdmiral
Vern Clark
(born 1944)
21 July 200022 July 20055 years, 1 day
28Mullen, MichaelAdmiral
Michael Mullen
(born 1946)
22 July 200529 September 20072 years, 130 days
29Roughead, GaryAdmiral
Gary Roughead
(born 1951)
29 September 200723 September 20113 years, 298 days
30Greenert, JonathanAdmiral
Jonathan W. Greenert
(born 1953)
23 September 201118 September 20153 years, 360 days
31Richardson, JohnAdmiral
John M. Richardson
(born 1960)
18 September 2015Incumbent3 years, 27 days

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Chief of Naval Operations". United States Navy. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  2. ^ "10 USC 5035. Vice Chief of Naval Operations". Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  3. ^ a b 10 USC 5013(f). Secretary of the Navy
  4. ^ 10 USC 165. Combatant commands: administration and support
  5. ^ "10 USC 5033. Chief of Naval Operations". Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d "10 USC 5033. Chief of Naval Operations". Retrieved 24 September 2007.
  7. ^ "The Vice President's Residence". The White House. Archived from the original on 21 October 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  8. ^ navy.mil Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Chief of Naval Operations − Responsibilities. Retrieved 3 July 2010.
  9. ^ "10 U.S. Code § 5033 - Chief of Naval Operations: general duties". Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  10. ^ "10 U.S. Code § 5031 - Office of the Chief of Naval Operations: function; composition". Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  11. ^ "10 U.S. Code § 5032 - Office of the Chief of Naval Operations: general duties". Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  12. ^ 10 U.S. Code § 5036 - Deputy Chiefs of Naval Operations
  13. ^ "National Nuclear Security Administration". National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy 2009. Department of Energy www.Energy.gov. Archived from the original on June 5, 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  14. ^ "Navy - Chief of Naval Operations". International Military Digest. 1 (1): 68. June 1915. Retrieved 21 May 2015.

External linksEdit