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United States Secretary of War

The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration. A similar position, called either "Secretary at War" or "Secretary of War," had been appointed to serve the Congress of the Confederation under the Articles of Confederation between 1781 and 1789. Benjamin Lincoln and later Henry Knox held the position. When Washington was inaugurated as the first president under the Constitution, he appointed Knox to continue serving.

Secretary of War of the United States of America
Seal of the United States Department of War.png
Flag of the United States Secretary of the Army.svg
Flag of the Secretary of War
United States Department of War
Style Mr. Secretary
Member of Cabinet
Reports to The President
Seat Washington, D.C.
Appointer The President
with Senate advice and consent
Term length No fixed term
Precursor Secretary at War
Formation 1789
First holder Henry Knox
Final holder Kenneth C. Royall
Abolished 1947
Succession Secretary of Defense
Secretary of the Army
Secretary of the Air Force

The Secretary of War was the head of the War Department. At first, he was responsible for all military affairs, including naval affairs. In 1798, the Secretary of the Navy was created by statute, and the scope of responsibility for this office was reduced to the affairs of the United States Army. From 1886 onward, the Secretary of War was third in the line of succession to the presidency, after the Vice President of the United States and the Secretary of State.

In 1947, with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, the Secretary of War was replaced by the Secretary of the Army and the Secretary of the Air Force, which, along with the Secretary of the Navy, have since 1949 been non-Cabinet subordinates under the Secretary of Defense. The Secretary of the Army's office is generally considered the direct successor to the Secretary of War's office although the Secretary of Defense took the Secretary of War's position in the Cabinet, and the line of succession to the presidency.

Contents

List of SecretariesEdit

Secretary at War (1781–1789)Edit

The office of Secretary at War was modelled upon Great Britain's Secretary at War, who was William Barrington, 2nd Viscount Barrington, at the time of the American Revolution. The office of Secretary at War was meant to replace both the Commander-in-Chief and the Board of War, and like the President of the Board, the Secretary wore no special insignia. The Inspector General, Quartermaster General, Commissary General, and Adjutant General served on the Secretary's staff. However, the Army itself under Secretary Henry Knox only consisted of 700 men.

No. Portrait Name State of residence Took office Left office Congress
1   Benjamin Lincoln Massachusetts 1781 1783 Congress of the Confederation
2   Henry Knox Massachusetts March 8, 1785 September 12, 1789

Secretary of War (1789–1947)Edit

 
Swearing in of Dwight F. Davis as Secretary of War in 1925. Former Secretaries John W. Weeks and Chief Justice William Howard Taft are standing beside him.
Parties

  No party (1)   Federalist (3)   Democratic-Republican (8)   Democratic (14)   Whig (5)   Republican (25)

No. Portrait Name State of residence Took office Left office President(s)
1   Henry Knox Massachusetts September 12, 1789 December 31, 1794 George Washington
2   Timothy Pickering Pennsylvania[1] January 2, 1795 December 10, 1795
3   James McHenry Maryland January 27, 1796 June 1, 1800[2]
John Adams
4   Samuel Dexter Massachusetts June 1, 1800 January 31, 1801
5   Henry Dearborn Massachusetts March 5, 1801 March 4, 1809 Thomas Jefferson
6   William Eustis Massachusetts March 7, 1809 January 13, 1813 James Madison
7   John Armstrong, Jr. New York January 13, 1813 September 27, 1814
8   James Monroe Virginia September 27, 1814 March 2, 1815
9   William H. Crawford Georgia August 1, 1815 October 22, 1816
10   John C. Calhoun South Carolina October 8, 1817 March 4, 1825 James Monroe
11   James Barbour Virginia March 7, 1825 May 23, 1828 John Quincy Adams
12   Peter Buell Porter New York May 23, 1828 March 9, 1829
13   John H. Eaton Tennessee March 9, 1829 June 18, 1831 Andrew Jackson
14   Lewis Cass Ohio August 1, 1831 October 5, 1836
15   Joel Roberts Poinsett South Carolina March 7, 1837 March 4, 1841 Martin Van Buren
16   John Bell Tennessee March 5, 1841 September 13, 1841 William Henry Harrison
John Tyler
17   John Canfield Spencer New York October 12, 1841 March 4, 1843
18   James Madison Porter Pennsylvania March 8, 1843 February 14, 1844
19   William Wilkins Pennsylvania February 15, 1844 March 4, 1845
20   William Learned Marcy New York March 6, 1845 March 4, 1849 James K. Polk
21   George W. Crawford Georgia March 8, 1849 July 22, 1850 Zachary Taylor
22   Charles Magill Conrad Louisiana August 15, 1850 March 4, 1853 Millard Fillmore
23   Jefferson Davis Mississippi March 7, 1853 March 4, 1857 Franklin Pierce
24   John B. Floyd Virginia March 6, 1857 December 29, 1860 James Buchanan
25   Joseph Holt Kentucky January 18, 1861 March 4, 1861
26   Simon Cameron Pennsylvania March 5, 1861 January 14, 1862 Abraham Lincoln
27   Edwin M. Stanton Pennsylvania January 20, 1862 May 28, 1868
Andrew Johnson
28   John McAllister Schofield Illinois June 1, 1868 March 13, 1869
29   John Aaron Rawlins Illinois March 13, 1869 September 6, 1869 Ulysses S. Grant
30   William W. Belknap Iowa October 25, 1869 March 2, 1876
31   Alphonso Taft Ohio March 8, 1876 May 22, 1876
32   J. Donald Cameron Pennsylvania May 22, 1876 March 4, 1877
33   George W. McCrary Iowa March 12, 1877 December 10, 1879 Rutherford B. Hayes
34   Alexander Ramsey Minnesota December 10, 1879 March 4, 1881
35   Robert Todd Lincoln Illinois March 5, 1881 March 4, 1885 James A. Garfield
Chester A. Arthur
36   William Crowninshield Endicott Massachusetts March 5, 1885 March 4, 1889 Grover Cleveland
37   Redfield Proctor Vermont March 5, 1889 November 5, 1891 Benjamin Harrison
38   Stephen Benton Elkins West Virginia December 17, 1891 March 4, 1893
39   Daniel S. Lamont New York March 5, 1893 March 4, 1897 Grover Cleveland
40   Russell A. Alger Michigan March 5, 1897 August 1, 1899 William McKinley
41   Elihu Root New York August 1, 1899 January 31, 1904
Theodore Roosevelt
42   William Howard Taft Ohio February 1, 1904 June 30, 1908
43   Luke Edward Wright Tennessee July 1, 1908 March 4, 1909
44   Jacob M. Dickinson Tennessee March 12, 1909 May 21, 1911 William Howard Taft
45   Henry L. Stimson New York May 22, 1911 March 4, 1913
46   Lindley Miller Garrison New Jersey March 5, 1913 February 10, 1916 Woodrow Wilson
47   Newton D. Baker Ohio March 9, 1916 March 4, 1921
48   John W. Weeks Massachusetts March 5, 1921 October 13, 1925 Warren G. Harding
Calvin Coolidge
49   Dwight F. Davis Missouri October 14, 1925 March 4, 1929
50   James William Good Illinois March 6, 1929 November 18, 1929 Herbert Hoover
51   Patrick J. Hurley Oklahoma December 9, 1929 March 4, 1933
52   George Dern Utah March 4, 1933 August 27, 1936 Franklin D. Roosevelt
53   Harry Hines Woodring Kansas September 25, 1936 June 20, 1940
54   Henry L. Stimson New York July 10, 1940 September 21, 1945
Harry S. Truman
55   Robert P. Patterson New York September 27, 1945 July 18, 1947
56   Kenneth C. Royall North Carolina July 19, 1947 September 18, 1947

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

FootnotesEdit

Further readingEdit