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This is a chronological list of military conflicts in which Polish armed forces won or took place on Polish territory from the reign of Mieszko I (960–992) to the ongoing military operations.

This list does not include peacekeeping operations (such as UNPROFOR, UNTAES or UNMOP), humanitarian missions or training missions supported by the Polish Armed Forces.

The list gives the name, the date, the Polish allies and enemies, and the result of these conflicts following this legend:

  Polish victory
  Polish defeat
  Another result (e.g., a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result unknown or indecisive)
  Ongoing conflict

Piast PolandEdit

During the Middle Ages, Poland sought to incorporate other fellow West Slavic peoples under the rule of the Polan dukes, such as Mieszko I, Boleslaw I Chrobry and their descendants, and then defend the lands acquired in the west from the Holy Roman Empire. In the east and south it struggled with Ruthenia, Bohemia and Tatar raiders. In the north-east, it encountered intermittent Lithuanian and Prussian raids.

Date Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
963 Otto I's raid on Poland   Duchy of Poland   Holy Roman Empire Polish defeat
964–972
  • 967
  • 972
Fights of Mieszko I in Western Pomerania   Duchy of Poland Veleti
Wolinians
  Sorbian March
Polish victory
979 Otto II's raid on Poland   Duchy of Poland   Holy Roman Empire Polish victory
981 Polish raid on Pomerelia   Duchy of Poland Pomerelia Polish victory
981 Rus raid on Cherven Cities   Duchy of Poland Kievan Rus' Polish defeat
985 Polish-Saxon invasion of Veleti   Duchy of Poland
  Holy Roman Empire
Veleti Polish and Saxon victory
988–990 Polish-Bohemian War   Duchy of Poland
  Holy Roman Empire
  Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
992 Polish-German invasion of Veleti   Duchy of Poland
  Holy Roman Empire
Veleti Polish and German victory
995 Polish-German invasion of Obotrites   Duchy of Poland
  Holy Roman Empire
Obotrites Polish and German victory
1002–1018
  • 1002–1005
    • 1005
  • 1007–1015
    • 1012
  • 1015–1018
    • 1015
    • 1015
    • 1015
    • 1015/17
    • 1015
    • 1015
    • 1017
Wars against Holy Roman Empire   Duchy of Poland
Moravians
  Holy Roman Empire
  Duchy of Bohemia
Kievan Rus'
Veleti
Peace of Bautzen
1015–1019
  • 1018
Boleslaw I's intervention in the Kievan succession crisis   Duchy of Poland
  Holy Roman Empire
  Kingdom of Hungary
Kievan Rus' Polish victory
1022 Yaroslav the Wise's attack on Brest   Duchy of Poland Kievan Rus' Polish victory
1028–1031
  • 1029
Polish-German War   Mieszko II Lambert
  Kingdom of Hungary
  Holy Roman Empire
  Bezprym
  Duchy of Bohemia
Kievan Rus'
Victory for Bezprym
1031–1032 Pagan reaction in Poland   Bezprym Pagans and magnates Defeat of Bezprym
1038–1047
  • 1047
Pagan reaction and popular uprising   Casimir I the Restorer
  Holy Roman Empire
Kievan Rus'
Miecław
Pagans and magnats
Casimir I the Restorer's victory
1038–1039 Bretislaus I's raid on Poland   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1042 Casimir I the Restorer's raid on Lesser Poland   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1047 Casimir I the Restorer's raid on Silesia   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1050 Casimir I the Restorer's raid on Silesia   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1051 Polish-German invasion of Hungary   Kingdom of Poland
  Holy Roman Empire
  Kingdom of Hungary Polish-German victory
1060 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Bohemia   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Bohemia Polish defeat
1060 Fights for the Hungarian throne   Béla I
  Kingdom of Poland
  Andrew I Béla I's victory
1063 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Pomerelia   Kingdom of Poland Pomerelia Polish victory
1064 Pomeranians raid on Poland   Kingdom of Poland Pomeranians Polish victory
1069 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Rus'   Kingdom of Poland Kievan Rus' Polish victory
1072 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Bohemia   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1074 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Rus'   Kingdom of Poland Kievan Rus' Polish victory
1074 Civil war between Solomon king and his cousins Géza and Ladislaus Géza's army
  Kingdom of Poland
  Solomon's army
  Holy Roman Empire
Duchy of Bohemia
Victory
1076 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Bohemia   Kingdom of Poland
Kievan Rus'
  Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1077 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Hungary   Kingdom of Poland   Kingdom of Hungary Polish victory
1077 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Rus'   Kingdom of Poland Kievan Rus' Polish victory
1077–1079 Internal conflicts   Bolesław II the Generous Rebels and magnats Bolesław II the Generous's defeat
1090–1092
  • 1090
  • 1091
  • 1091
Four raids on Western Pomerania   Kingdom of Poland
  Duchy of Bohemia
Western Pomerania Polish defeat
1092 Ruthenian and Cuman raid on Poland   Kingdom of Poland Kievan Rus' Polish defeat
1093–1100
  • 1096
Władysław Herman and Sieciech's fight against Zbigniew and Bolesław   Władysław I Herman
  Sieciech
  Duchy of Bohemia
  Zbigniew of Poland
  Bolesław III Wrymouth
Władysław and Sieciech's defeat
1099 Władysław I Herman'a raid on Halych   Kingdom of Poland   Principality of Halych Indecisive
1100 Pomeranians raid on Poland   Kingdom of Poland Western Pomerania Polish victory
1101 Cuman raid on Poland   Kingdom of Poland Kievan Rus' Polish defeat
1103–1123
  • 1121
Fourteen Bolesław Wrymouth's raids on Pomerania   Kingdom of Poland
  Kingdom of Denmark
Pomeranians Polish victory
1103–1108 Internal conflicts   Bolesław III Wrymouth
  Kingdom of Hungary
Kievan Rus'
  Zbigniew of Poland
  Duchy of Bohemia
Bolesław III Wrymouth's victory
1108 Bolesław III Wrymouth's raid on Old Prussians   Kingdom of Poland Old Prussians Polish victory
1108–1109 Three Pomeranians raids on Poland   Kingdom of Poland Western Pomerania Polish victory
1108 Moravians raid on Silesia   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1108 Bolesław III Wrymouth's raid on Bohemia   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1109 Polish-German War   Kingdom of Poland   Holy Roman Empire
  Duchy of Bohemia
Polish victory
1109–1114
  • 1110
Three Bolesław III Wrymouth's raids on Bohemia   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1110 Zbigniew's and Bohemians raid on Silesia   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Bohemia Polish defeat
1110–1111 Bolesław III Wrymouth's raid on Old Prussians   Kingdom of Poland Old Prussians Polish victory
1117 Skarbimir's rebellion   Kingdom of Poland   Skarbimir Polish victory
1121–1124
  • 1124
Fights in Rus'   Kingdom of Poland
Kievan Rus'
  Duchy of Bohemia
  Kingdom of Hungary
  Principality of Halych Polish victory
1120 Ruthenian and Cuman raid on Poland   Kingdom of Poland Kievan Rus' Polish defeat
1120 Polish raid into Pomerania   Kingdom of Poland Western Pomerania Control over Pomerania is reasserted
1126 Hungarian raid on Poland   Kingdom of Poland   Kingdom of Hungary Polish defeat
1127 Polish raid on Hungary   Kingdom of Poland   Kingdom of Hungary Polish victory
1131–1134 Six Bohemian raids on Silesia   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Bohemia Polish defeat
1132 Bolesław III Wrymouth' raid on Hungary   Kingdom of Poland   Kingdom of Hungary Polish defeat
1135 Fights in Rus'   Kingdom of Poland   Principality of Halych Polish victory
1144–1320
  • 1144
  • 1146
  • 1195
  • 1228
  • 1228
  • 1228
  • 1243
  • 1243
  • 1246
  • 1259
  • 1273
  • 1277
  • 1285
  • 1288
  • 1289
  • 1292
  • 1313
Battles during feudal fragmentation   Local dukes   Local dukes The weakening and internal breakdown of the country
1139–1142 Fights between Duchy of Masovia and Rus'   Bolesław IV the Curly Kievan Rus' Bolesław IV the Curly's defeat
1144–1146 Two Polish-Ruthenian raids on Halych   Władysław II the Exile
Kievan Rus'
  Principality of Halych Ruthenian and Polish victory
1146 Polish-German War   Mieszko III the Old   Holy Roman Empire
  Duchy of Bohemia
Mieszko III the Old's victory
1147 Albert the Bear and Mieszko III the Old's crusade for Polabian Slavs   Mieszko III the Old
Northern March
Polabian Slavs
Veleti
The victory crusade
1147 Bolesław IV the Curly's raid on Old Prussians   Bolesław IV the Curly
Kievan Rus'
Old Prussians Bolesław IV the Curly's victory
1154–1155 Henry of Sandomir's crusade to Palestine   Polish knights   Saracen Henry of Sandomir's victory
1157 Polish-German War   Bolesław IV the Curly   Holy Roman Empire Peace of Krzyszkowo
1166 Bolesław IV the Curly's raid on Old Prussians   Bolesław IV the Curly Old Prussians Bolesław IV the Curly's defeat
1180 Duke Wasylek's fight for Brześć Principality of Drohiczyn
  Casimir II the Just
Kievan Rus' Casimir II the Just's victory
1182–1183
  • 1182
Casimir II the Just's fight for Brześć   Casimir II the Just Kievan Rus' Casimir II the Just's victory
1184 Frederick I Barbarossa's raid on Poland   Casimir II the Just   Holy Roman Empire Indecisive
1187 Ruthenian raid on Lesser Poland   Casimir II the Just   Principality of Halych Casimir II the Just's defeat
1189 Casimir II the Just's raid on Halych   Casimir II the Just   Kingdom of Hungary
  Principality of Halych
Casimir II the Just's victory
1194 Casimir II the Just's raid on Yotvingians   Casimir II the Just Yotvingians Casimir II the Just's victory
1199 Leszek I the White's raid on Halych   Leszek I the White   Principality of Halych Leszek I the White's victory
1205 Roman the Great's raid on Poland   Leszek I the White   Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Leszek I the White's victory
1207 Leszek I the White's raid on Rus'   Leszek I the White
  Konrad I of Masovia
  Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Leszek I the White's victory
1209–1211
  • 1209
First War For Lebus   Henry I the Bearded
  Władysław III Spindleshanks
  Sorbian March Henry I the Bearded and Władysław III Spindleshanks's victory
1212 Polish raid into Pomerania   Kingdom of Poland   Denmark Polish victory
  • Danish retreat from Pomerania, allowing Poland its coastline back.
1214 Leszek I the White's raid on Volodymyr-Volynskyi   Leszek I the White
  Kingdom of Hungary
  Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Leszek I the White's victory
1215 Hungarian raid on Poland   Casimir II the Just   Kingdom of Hungary Casimir II the Just's defeat
1218–1221 Polish-Hungarian-Ruthenian War   Leszek I the White
  Kingdom of Hungary
  Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Leszek I the White's defeat
1219–1222
  • 1220
Three Old Prussians raids on Lesser Poland   Konrad I of Masovia Old Prussians Konrad I of Masovia's defeat
1222–1223 Two Polish raids on Old Prussians   Local dukes Old Prussians Polish Victory
1225 Prussian raid on Lesser Poland   Konrad I of Masovia Old Prussians Konrad I of Masovia's defeat
1225–1230 Second War For Lebus   Henry I the Bearded   Landgraviate of Thuringia Henry I the Bearded's victory
1234 Polish-Teutonic crusade on Old Prussians   Local dukes
  Teutonic Knights
Old Prussians Polish-Teutonic victory
1236–1237
  • 1236
Wars between Konrad I of Masovia and Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia   Konrad I of Masovia   Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Konrad I of Masovia's defeat
1238–1240
  • 1239
Third War For Lebus   Henry I the Bearded   Margraviate of Brandenburg Henry I the Bearded's victory
1241 First Mongol invasion of Poland   Local dukes
  Military orders
Mongol Empire Polish defeat
1247–1252 Przemysł I's fight against Brandenburg   Przemysł I   Margraviate of Brandenburg Przemysł I's victory
1248–1455 Three raids on Yotvingians   Bolesław V the Chaste
  Siemowit I of Masovia
  Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Yotvingians Bolesław V the Chaste's victory
1259 Second Mongol invasion of Poland   Bolesław V the Chaste Mongol Empire Polish defeat
1260 Bohemian-Hungarian War   Kingdom of Bohemia
  Duchy of Silesia
  Duchy of Austria
  Kingdom of Hungary
  Kingdom of Poland
Bohemian victory
1262 Lithuanian raid on Lesser Poland   Siemowit I of Masovia   Grand Duchy of Lithuania Siemowit I of Masovia's defeat
1264 Fights against Yotvingians   Bolesław V the Chaste Yotvingians Bolesław V the Chaste's victory
1265–1278
  • 1278
Fights against Brandenburg   Bolesław V the Chaste
  Przemysł II
  Margraviate of Brandenburg Bolesław V the Chaste's victory
1278 Fights for Bohemian throne   Ottokar II of Bohemia
  Bolesław V the Chaste
  Przemysł II
  Henryk IV Probus
  Rudolph I of Germany Przemysł II's defeat
1280 War between Leszek II the Black and Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia   Leszek II the Black   Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Leszek II the Black's victory
1282–1283
  • 1282
  • 1282
Three Lithuanian-Yotvingian raids on Poland   Leszek II the Black Yotvingians
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Leszek II the Black's victory
1287–1288
  • 1287
  • 1287
  • 1288
Third Mongol invasion of Poland   Leszek II the Black Mongol Empire Polish victory
  • Mongol invasion repulsed[1]
1291–1306
  • 1294
Six Vytenis's raids on Lesser Poland   Local dukes   Grand Duchy of Lithuania Polish defeat
1296 Brandenburgian raid on Rogoźno   Przemysł II   Margraviate of Brandenburg Przemysł II's defeat
1308 Brandenburgian raid on Gdańsk   Władysław I the Elbow-high   Margraviate of Brandenburg Władysław I the Elbow-high's defeat
1308 Capture of Gdańsk by the Teutonic Knights   Władysław I the Elbow-high   Teutonic Knights Władysław I the Elbow-high's defeat
1309 Capture of Świecie by the Teutonic Knights   Władysław I the Elbow-high   Teutonic Knights Władysław I the Elbow-high's defeat
1311–1312 Rebellion of mayor Albert   Władysław I the Elbow-high Albert
Burghers of Kraków
Władysław I the Elbow-high's victory
1316 Polish-Brandenburgian fights in Greater Poland   Władysław I the Elbow-high   Margraviate of Brandenburg Władysław I the Elbow-high's victory
1323 Polish-Hungarian raid on Ruthenia   Kingdom of Poland
  Kingdom of Hungary
  Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Polish-Hungarian victory
1323 Władysław I the Elbow-high raid on Płock   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Płock Polish victory
1326–1329 Polish-Brandenburgian fights   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Margraviate of Brandenburg Polish victory
1326–1332
  • 1327
  • 1327
  • 1331
  • 1331
  • 1331
  • 1331
  • 1332
Polish–Teutonic War   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Kingdom of Hungary
  Teutonic Knights
  Kingdom of Bohemia
  Duchy of Masovia
Indecisive
1332 Casimir III the Great's raid on Głogów   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Głogów Polish victory
1340–1392
  • 1340
  • 1340
  • 1341
  • 1350
  • 1368
  • 1376
Galicia–Volhynia Wars   Kingdom of Poland
  Duchy of Masovia
  Kingdom of Hungary
  Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Crimean Khanate
Polish victory
1343 Fights for Wschowa   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Głogów Polish victory
1345–1348
  • 1345
  • 1345
  • 1345
Polish-Czech War   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Kingdom of Hungary
  Kingdom of Bohemia Treaty of Namslau
1352–1358 Maćko Borkowic's confederation   Kingdom of Poland   Maćko Borkowic
Nobles of Greater Poland
  Margraviate of Brandenburg
Polish victory
1355 Teutonic raid on Masovia   Kingdom of Poland
  Duchy of Masovia
  Teutonic Knights Polish defeat
1359 Casimir III the Great's raid on Moldavia   Kingdom of Poland   Principality of Moldavia Polish defeat
1368 Casimir III the Great's raid on Moldavia   Kingdom of Poland   Principality of Moldavia Polish defeat
1370 Branderburgian raid on Santok and Drezdenko   Kingdom of Poland   Margraviate of Brandenburg Polish defeat
1370 Fights for Płock   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Masovia Polish defeat
1375–1376
  • 1375
  • 1376
Fights against Władysław the White   Kingdom of Poland   Władysław the White Polish victory
1382–1385 Greater Poland Civil War   Grzymała   Nałęcz Victory of the Nałęcz clan
1381–1385 Siemowit IV's fight for Polish throne   Kingdom of Poland
  Kingdom of Hungary
  Duchy of Masovia Polish victory

Jagiellon PolandEdit

For much of its early history as a Christian state, Poland had to contend with Pomeranians, Prussians, Lithuanians and other Baltic peoples in continuous border wars without clear results or end in sight. After the Teutonic Order conquered and assimilated the Prussians, it began incursions into both Polish and Lithuanian territories. This represented a far greater threat to both Poland and Lithuania, and the two countries united in a defensive alliance by the crowning of the Lithuanian Duke Jogaila as King of Poland (as Władysław II) which led to a major confrontation at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410 and subsequent wars until 1525, when the Order became a vassal to the Polish Crown.

Date Conflict Allies Enemies Result
1387 Jadwiga of Poland's raid on Red Ruthenia   Kingdom of Poland   Kingdom of Hungary Polish victory
1387 Polish conquest of Moldavia   Kingdom of Poland   Principality of Moldavia Polish victory
  • Poland receives a Black Sea coastline.
1390–1392 Lithuanian Civil War   Jogaila
  Kingdom of Poland
  Vytautas
  Teutonic Knights
Jogaila's victory
1391 Fights against Konrad II the Gray for Wschowa   Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Oels Polish victory
1391–1401 War against Władysław Opolczyk   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Opole Polish victory
1399 Fights against Golden Horde   Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Kingdom of Poland
  Teutonic Knights
  Principality of Moldavia
  Golden Horde Polish and Lithuanian defeat
1409–1411
  • 1410
  • 1410
Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War[2]   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Teutonic Knights First Peace of Thorn
1414 Hunger War   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Teutonic Knights Council of Constance
1415–1419 Hungarian–Osman War   Kingdom of Hungary
  Kingdom of Poland
  Ottoman Empire Hungarian/Polish victory
1422 Gollub War   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Principality of Moldavia
  Teutonic Knights Treaty of Melno
1431 Moldavian raid on Podolia   Kingdom of Poland   Principality of Moldavia Polish victory
1431–1435 Lithuanian Civil War (1431–35)   Grand Duchy of Lithuania (pro-Roman Catholic)

  Kingdom of Poland
Hussites

  Grand Duchy of Lithuania (pro-Eastern Orthodox)

  Teutonic Knights
  Livonian Order
  Golden Horde
  Principality of Moldavia

Polish victory
1431–1435/39
  • 1431
  • 1432
  • 1435
Polish–Teutonic War   Hussites
  Kingdom of Poland
  Sigismund Kęstutaitis
  Teutonic Knights
  Švitrigaila
Peace of Brześć Kujawski
1435 Odrowąż intervention in Moldavia   Kingdom of Poland
  Iliaș
  Stephen II Iliaș victory
1438 Polish-Bohemian fights for Silesia   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Kingdom of Bohemia
  Kingdom of Hungary
Polish and Lithuanian defeat
1438 Tatar raid on Podolia   Kingdom of Poland   Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1439 Spytek of Melsztyn's confederation   Kingdom of Poland   Spytek of Melsztyn Crushing of the confederation
1440–1444 Lithuanian-Masovian War for Podlasie   Duchy of Masovia   Grand Duchy of Lithuania Indecisive
1440–1442 Civil War in Hungary   Władysław III of Poland
  Kingdom of Poland
  Elizabeth of Luxembourg Władysław III's victory
1443 Battle of Nish (1443)   Kingdom of Poland
  Kingdom of Hungary
  Serbian Despotate
  Ottoman Empire Victory for the Christian contingent
1443–1444
  • 1443–1444
  • 1444
Crusade of Varna   Kingdom of Poland
  Kingdom of Hungary
others
  Ottoman Empire Polish-Hungarian defeat
1444 Battle of Kunovica   Kingdom of Poland
  Kingdom of Hungary
  Serbian Despotate
  Ottoman Empire Victory
1449–1450 Fights for Moldavian throne   Kingdom of Poland
  Aleksander II of Moldavia
  Bogdan II of Moldavia Aleksander II's defeat
1450–1454 Fights of Land of Oświęcim   Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Toszek Polish victory
1453 Tatar raid on Podolia   Kingdom of Poland   Crimean Khanate Polish victory
1454–1466
  • 1454
Thirteen Years' War[3] Prussian Confederation
  Kingdom of Poland
  Teutonic Knights
  Livonian Brothers of the Sword
  Kingdom of Denmark
Second Peace of Thorn
1457–1458 Rebellion of unpaid mercenaries   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Oświęcim
Mercenaries
Payment of salaries
1469 Tatar raid on Podolia   Kingdom of Poland   Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1471 Tatar raid on Podolia   Kingdom of Poland   Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1471–1474 Polish-Hungarian War   Kingdom of Poland   Kingdom of Hungary Indecisive
1474 Polish-Bohemian raid on Silesia   Kingdom of Poland
  Kingdom of Bohemia
  Kingdom of Hungary Polish and Bohemian defeat
1475 Battle of Vaslui   Moldavia
  Kingdom of Poland
  Kingdom of Hungary
  Ottoman Empire Victory
1476 Polish raid on Prussia   Kingdom of Poland   Teutonic Knights Polish victory
1476–1482 War of Succession of Głogów   Kingdom of Poland   Margraviate of Brandenburg Polish victory
1478–1479 War of the Priests   Kingdom of Poland   Nicolaus von Tüngen
  Teutonic Knights
Polish victory
1485–1503
  • 1487
  • 1491
  • 1497
Polish-Ottoman War   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Ottoman Empire
  Principality of Moldavia
  Crimean Khanate
Polish defeat
1490–1492
  • 1490–1491
  • 1492
Fights for Hungarian throne   John I Albert   Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary Vladislaus II's victory
1495 Polish raid on Płock   Kingdom of Poland   Duchy of Masovia Polish victory
1500–1503
  • 1500
Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Grand Duchy of Moscow Lithuanian defeat
1501 Polish raid on Prussia   Kingdom of Poland   Teutonic Knights Interruption of the expedition because of king's death
1502–1510
  • 1506
  • 1509
Polish-Moldavian War   Kingdom of Poland   Principality of Moldavia Polish victory
1506 Tatar raid on Poland and Lithuania[4]   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Crimean Khanate Polish-Lithuanian victory
1507–1508
  • 1508
Third Muscovite-Lithuanian War   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Grand Duchy of Moscow Lithuanian victory
1512 Tatar raid on Poland   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Crimean Khanate Polish victory
1512–1522
  • 1514
  • 1518
Fourth Muscovite-Lithuanian War   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Grand Duchy of Moscow Lithuanian defeat
1516 Tatar raid on Podolia and Ruthenia   Kingdom of Poland   Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1519 Tatar raid on Podolia and Ruthenia   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1519–1521
  • 1520
Polish–Teutonic War   Kingdom of Poland   Teutonic Knights Treaty of Kraków
1524 Ottoman-Tatar raid on Podolia   Kingdom of Poland   Ottoman Empire
  Crimean Khanate
Polish defeat
1526 Tatar raid on Poland and Lithuania   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1528 Habsburgian raid on Spisz   Kingdom of Poland   Kingdom of Hungary Polish defeat
1528 Tatar raid on Podolia   Kingdom of Poland   Crimean Khanate Polish victory
1530–1531
  • 1530
  • 1531
  • 1531
Polish-Moldavian War   Kingdom of Poland   Principality of Moldavia Polish victory
1534–1537
  • 1534
  • 1535
Fifth Muscovite-Lithuanian War   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Grand Duchy of Moscow Indecisive
1535 Moldavian raid on Podolia and Pokuttya   Kingdom of Poland   Principality of Moldavia Polish defeat
1537 Chicken War   Kingdom of Poland   Nobility End of rebellion
1538
  • 1538
  • 1538
Polish-Moldavian War   Kingdom of Poland   Principality of Moldavia Indecisive
1549 Tatar raid on Volhynia and Red Ruthenia   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1550 Moldavian raid on Bar   Kingdom of Poland   Principality of Moldavia Polish victory
1552 Sieniawski intervention in Moldavia   Kingdom of Poland
  Alexandru Lăpușneanu
  Ioan Joldea Alexandru victory
1557 Zygmunt II August's raid on Livonia   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Livonian Brothers of the Sword Polish victory
1557 Tatar raid on Podolia   Kingdom of Poland   Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1558–1583 Livonian War   Livonian Confederation
  Kingdom of Poland
  Denmark–Norway

  Swedish Empire

  Tsardom of Russia
  Kingdom of Livonia
Polish victory
1561–1570
  • 1558–1570
  • 1564
Northern Seven Years' War   Kingdom of Poland
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Denmark–Norway
  Free City of Lübeck
  Grand Duchy of Moscow
  Kingdom of Sweden
Treaty of Stettin

Polish–Lithuanian CommonwealthEdit

The 17th century saw fierce rivalry between the then major Eastern European powers – Sweden, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. At its heyday, the Commonwealth comprised the territories of present-day Poland, and large parts of Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Russia, and represented a major European power. However, by the end of the 18th century a series of internal conflicts and wars with foreign enemies led to the dissolution of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the partitioning of most of its dependent territories among other European powers.

During the 18th century, European powers (most frequently consisting of Russia, Sweden, Prussia and Saxony) fought several wars for the control of the territories of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. At the end of the 18th century, some Poles attempted to defend Poland from growing foreign influence in the country's internal affairs. These late attempts to preserve independence eventually failed, ultimately ending in Poland's partition and the final dissolution of the remains of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Date Conflict Allies Enemies Result
1571 Danish attack on Poland   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Kingdom of Denmark Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1572 Mikołaj Mielecki's raid on Moldavia   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Ottoman Empire
  Principality of Moldavia
Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1575 Tatar raid on Red Ruthenia and Podolia   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Ottoman Empire
  Crimean Khanate
Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1575 Russian invasion of Livonia   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Tsardom of Russia Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1576–77
  • 1577
  • 1577
Danzig rebellion   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   City of Danzig Polish–Lithuanian victory
1577 Tatar raid on Podolia, Red Ruthenia and Volhynia   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Ottoman Empire
  Crimean Khanate
Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1577–82
  • 1577–78
  • 1579–82
  • 1579
  • 1580
  • 1580
  • 1581–82
Livonian campaign of Stephen Báthory[5]   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
  Principality of Transylvania
  Tsardom of Russia Truce of Jam Zapolski
1578 Tatar raid on Podolia, Red Ruthenia and Volhynia   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1587–88
  • 1587
  • 1588
War of the Polish Succession[6]   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Archduchy of Austria Maximilian III's defeat
1589 Tatar raid on Poland   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1591–93
  • 1593
Kosiński Uprising   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Cossacks Crushing of the rebellion
1594–96
  • 1596
  • 1596
  • 1596
Nalyvaiko Uprising   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Cossacks Crushing of the rebellion
1595 Jan Zamoyski's raid on Moldavia   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Ottoman Empire
  Crimean Khanate
  Principality of Moldavia
Polish–Lithuanian victory
1598–99
  • 1598
  • 1598
  • 1599
War against Sigismund   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Swedish Empire Sigismund III Vasa's defeat
1599–1600
  • 1599
  • 1600
  • 1600
Fights against Michael the Brave   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
  Ieremia Movilă
  Principality of Wallachia
  Principality of Transylvania
Polish–Lithuanian victory
1600–11
  • 1605
Polish–Swedish War   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Swedish Empire Indecisive
1605–18
  • 1605
  • 1608–10
  • 1609–11
  • 1610
Polish–Muscovite War (Dymitriads)   Szlachta   Tsardom of Russia Truce of Deulino
1606 Tatar raid on Poland   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1606–09
  • 1607
Zebrzydowski Rebellion   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Nobility Crushing of the rebellion
1607 Stefan Potocki's raid on Moldavia   Stefan Potocki   Principality of Moldavia Stefan Potocki's victory
1612 Stefan Potocki's raid on Moldavia   Stefan Potocki   Ottoman Empire
  Crimean Khanate
  Principality of Moldavia
Stefan Potocki's defeat
1612 Four Tatar raids on Poland   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
  Zaporozhian Cossacks
  Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1615–16
  • 1615
  • 1616
  • 1616
Samuel Korecki's raid on Moldavia   Samuel Korecki   Ottoman Empire
  Crimean Khanate
  Principality of Moldavia
Polish defeat
1617–18 Polish–Swedish War   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Swedish Empire Indecisive
1618 Tatar raid on Poland   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1619 Battle of Humenné   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Principality of Transylvania Polish–Lithuanian victory
1620–21
  • 1620
  • 1621
Polish–Ottoman War   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
  Principality of Moldavia
  Ottoman Empire
  Crimean Khanate
  Principality of Wallachia
Treaty of Khotyn
1621–26
  • 1622
  • 1626
Polish–Swedish War   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Swedish Empire Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1624 Tatar raid on Poland   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1625 Żmajło uprspring   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Cossacks Indecisive
1626–29
  • 1626
  • 1627
Polish–Swedish War   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Swedish Empire Truce of Altmark
1626 Three Tatar raids on Poland   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1628 Five Tatar raids on Poland   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1629 Five Tatar raids on Poland   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1630 Fedorovych Uprising   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Cossacks Treaty of Pereyaslav
1632–34
  • 1632
Smolensk War   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Tsardom of Russia Treaty of Polyanovka
1633–34
  • 1633
  • 1633
Polish–Ottoman War   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Ottoman Empire
  Crimean Khanate
  Principality of Wallachia
  Principality of Moldavia
Polish victory
1635 Sulima Uprising   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Cossacks Crushing of the rebellion
1637 Pawluk Uprising   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Cossacks Crushing of the rebellion
1638 Ostrzanin Uprising   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Cossacks Crushing of the rebellion
1640 Tatar raid on Poland   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1643 Tatar raid on Poland   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1644 Tatar raid on Poland   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1645–1646 Polish raid on Crimean Khanate   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1648–55
  • 1648
  • 1649
  • 1651
Khmelnytsky Uprising   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
  Crimean Khanate (1654–1656)
  Zaporozhian Cossacks
  Crimean Khanate (1649–1654, 1656–1657)
Indecisive
1651 Kostka-Napierski Uprising   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Aleksander Kostka Napierski Crushing of the rebellion
1651 Peasants' Revolt on Cistercian Ląd's Land   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Peasants Crushing of the rebellion
1654–67
  • 1655
  • 1660
Russo-Polish War   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
  Crimean Khanate
  Tsardom of Russia
  Cossack Hetmanate
Truce of Andrusovo
1655–60
  • 1655–17
  • 1655
  • 1655
  • 1656
  • 1656
  • 1657
  • 1657
Second Northern War   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
  Archduchy of Austria
  Denmark–Norway
  Tsardom of Russia (1656–58)
  Dutch Republic
others
  Swedish Empire
  Brandenburg-Prussia
  Cossack Hetmanate (1657)
  Principality of Transylvania
  Tsardom of Russia
others
Treaty of Oliva
1663–1664 Austro-Turkish War (1663–64) League of the Rhine:

  Kingdom of France
  Holy Roman Empire

  Piedmont-Savoy
  Kingdom of Hungary
  Kingdom of Croatia
  Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

  Ottoman Empire

  Crimean Khanate
  Moldavia
  Wallachia

Peace of Vasvár
1665–66
  • 1665
  • 1666
Lubomirski's Rokosz   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Nobility Indecisive
1666–71
  • 1666
  • 1667
  • 1671
  • 1671
Polish–Cossack–Tatar War   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Crimean Khanate
  Cossack Hetmanate
  Ottoman Empire
Indecisive
1669–1670
  • 1670
Podhale uprising   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Peasants Crushing of the rebellion
1672–76
  • 1672
  • 1673
Polish–Ottoman War   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
  Principality of Wallachia (1673)
  Ottoman Empire
  Crimean Khanate
  Principality of Moldavia
Treaty of Żurawno
1683–99
  • 1683
  • 1698
Polish–Ottoman War (in the Holy League, part of Great Turkish War)   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
  Archduchy of Austria
  Ottoman Empire
  Crimean Khanate
Treaty of Karlowitz
1686–1700 Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700)   Tsardom of Russia
  Habsburg Empire
  Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
  Cossack Hetmanate
  Ottoman Empire
  Crimean Khanate
Victory
1697 François Louis's raid for Polish crown   Augustus II the Strong   François of Conti Augustus II's victory
1700 Lithuanian Civil War   Nobility   Sapieha family Defeat of Sapieha
1700–21
  • 1702
  • 1704–06
  • 1705
  • 1706
Great Northern War   Tsardom of Russia
  Denmark–Norway (1700, 1709–)
  Electorate of Saxony (1700–06, 1709–)
  Augustus II the Strong (1700–04, 1709–)
  Cossack Hetmanate (1700–08, 1709–1721)
  Kingdom of Prussia (1715–)
  Electorate of Hanover (1715-)
others
  Swedish Empire
  Stanisław Leszczyński (1704–09)
  Ottoman Empire (1710–14)
  Cossack Hetmanate (1708–09)
others
Treaty of Nystad
1702–04 Palej Uprising   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Cossack Hetmanate Crushing of the rebellion
1715–16
  • 1715
  • 1716
  • 1716
  • 1716
  • 1716
Tarnogród Confederation   Nobility   Tsardom of Russia
  Electorate of Saxony
Silent Sejm
1733–35
  • 1734
  • 1734
  • 1734
War of the Polish Succession   Stanisław Leszczyński
  Kingdom of France
  Kingdom of Spain
  Duchy of Savoy
  Augustus III of Poland
  Habsburg Monarchy
  Russian Empire
  Electorate of Saxony
  Kingdom of Prussia
Treaty of Vienna
1734 Haidamak Uprising, 1734   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Haidamakas Uprising suppressed.
1750 Haidamak Uprising, 1750   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
  Russian Empire
Haidamakas Uprising suppressed.
1764 Civil War in Poland   Hetmans' Party   Familia
  Russian Empire
Defeat of Hetmans' Party
1768–69 Koliyivshchyna   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
  Russian Empire
Haidamakas Victory
1768–72
  • 1768
  • 1768
  • 1771
Bar Confederation   Stanisław August Poniatowski
  Russian Empire
  Nobility
  Haidamaka
First Partition of Poland
1769 Šiauliai revolt   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Peasants Crushing of the rebellion
1792–1797 War of the First Coalition
Part of the French Revolutionary Wars
*   Kingdom of the French (until 1792) *   Austria French victory;
1792 Polish–Russian War of 1792   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Russian Empire Second Partition of Poland
1794 Kościuszko Uprising[13]   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth   Habsburg Monarchy
  Kingdom of Prussia
  Russian Empire
Third Partition of Poland

19th century and World War IEdit

Poles unsuccessfully struggled to win back their independence throughout the 19th century. At first, they put their hopes in Napoleon. Later, they tried to ignite national uprisings every now and then – most of them bloodily repressed.

Date Conflict Allies Enemies Result
1797 Denisko Uprising   Joachim Denisko   Austrian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
1798–1802 War of the Second Coalition
Part of the French Revolutionary Wars
  France
  Spain
  Polish Legions
  Denmark–Norway[14]
French client republics:
Second Coalition:

  Holy Roman Empire[17]

  Great Britain (until 1801)
  United Kingdom (from 1801)
  Russia (until 1799)
  Portugal
  Kingdom of Naples
  Grand Duchy of Tuscany
  Order of Saint John (1798)
  Malta (1798–1800)
  Ottoman Empire   French Royalists

French victory
1803–1806 War of the Third Coalition
Part of the Napoleonic Wars
  French Empire Third Coalition:

  Holy Roman Empire
  Russian Empire
  United Kingdom
  Kingdom of Naples
  Kingdom of Sicily
  Sweden
  French royalists

French victory
1806–1807 War of the Fourth Coalition
Part of the Napoleonic Wars
  French Empire
French satellites:
Fourth Coalition:

  Prussia
  Russia
  United Kingdom
  Saxony[18]
  Sweden
  Sicily

French victory
1809 War of the Fifth Coalition
Part of the Napoleonic Wars
  French Empire
French satellites:
Fifth Coalition:

  Austrian Empire

  United Kingdom
  Spain
  Sicily
  Sardinia
  Black Brunswickers

French victory
1812 French invasion of Russia
Part of the Napoleonic Wars
  French Empire

Allies:
  Austria
  Prussia
  Denmark–Norway

  Russian Empire Russian victory
1812–1814 War of the Sixth Coalition
Part of the Napoleonic Wars
  First French Empire

Until January 1814

Original Coalition
  Russian Empire
  Prussia
  Austrian Empire
  United Kingdom
  Sweden
  Spain
  Portugal
  Two Sicilies
  Kingdom of Sardinia

After Battle of Leipzig

Coalition victory
1830–1831
  • 1831
  • 1831
  • 1831
  • 1831
November Uprising[19][N 2]   Kingdom of Poland   Russian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
1846 Kraków Uprising   Poles   Austrian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
1846 Greater Poland Uprising   Poles   Kingdom of Prussia Crushing of the rebellion
1848 Revolutions of 1848 in Poland   Poles   Austrian Empire
  Kingdom of Prussia
Crushing of the rebellion
1863–1864
  • 1863
  • 1863
  • 1863
January Uprising   Poles   Russian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
1866 Siberian Uprising   Poles   Russian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
1905–1907
  • 1905
Revolution in the Kingdom of Poland   Poles   Russian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
1914–1918
  • 1914
  • 1914
  • 1915
  • 1916
  • 1917
  • 1918
  • 1918
World War I   Russian Empire
  British Empire
  French Third Republic
  Polish Armed Forces
Allies
  German Empire
  Austria-Hungary
  Polish Legions
Central Powers
Treaty of Versailles

Modern historyEdit

In the turmoil of the First World War, Poles managed to regain independence and then to expand their territory in a series of local wars and uprisings; only to be occupied again during the next world war. The second half of the 20th century was more peaceful, but still tense, as Poland was involved in the Cold War on the Soviet side. Later, at the beginning of the 21st century Poland is involved in the War against terrorism on the NATO side.

Date Conflict Allies Enemies Result
1918 Finnish Civil War   White Finland
  Germany
  Sweden
  Estonia
  Poland
  Red Finland
  Russia
Victory
  • Victory of the White Senate of Finland
  • Russian military presence ceased
  • German hegemony until November 11, 1918
1918–1919
  • 1918–1919
  • 1918
  • 1919
Polish–Ukrainian War   Second Polish Republic
  Kingdom of Romania
  West Ukrainian People's Republic
  Ukrainian People's Republic
Polish victory
1918–1919 Greater Poland Uprising   Poles   Germans Polish victory
1918–1919 Polish-German skirmishes   Second Polish Republic   Weimar Republic Indecisive
1919 Polish coup attempt   Legal government   National Democracy Failure of coup
1919 Polish–Czechoslovak War   Second Polish Republic   Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia annexes Zaolzie
1919 Bender Uprising   Kingdom of Romania

Supported by:
  France
Only police troops
  Poland

Communist Insurgents
  Hungarian Soviet Republic

Supported by:
  Russian SFSR
  Ottoman Empire

Romanian victory
1919–1920/21
  • 1919
  • 1920
  • 1920
  • 1920
Polish–Soviet War   Second Polish Republic
  Ukrainian People's Republic
  France
  Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
  Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Polish victory
Peace of Riga[N 3], Ukrainian defeat[20]
1919–1921
  • 1919
  • 1919
    • 1919
  • 1920
  • 1921
    • 1921
Silesian Uprisings   Poles   Weimar Republic Polish defeat (I)
Polish victory (II)
Indecisive (III)
1919–1920[N 4]
  • 1919
  • 1920
Polish–Lithuanian War   Second Polish Republic   Lithuania Polish victory
1923 Kraków riot   Second Polish Republic   Workers Crushing of the rebellion
1926 May Coup   Government
Stanisław Wojciechowski
  Sanation
Józef Piłsudski
Józef Piłsudski's victory
1932 Lesko uprising   Sanation Peasants Crushing of the rebellion
1938 Capture of Zaolzie   Second Polish Republic   Czechoslovakia Polish victory
1939 World War IIInvasion of Poland   Second Polish Republic   Nazi Germany
  Soviet Union
  Slovakia
Polish defeat
1939–1945
  • 1939–1940
  • 1940
  • 1942–1943
  • 1943–1944
  • 1944
  • 1945
World War IIPolish resistance movement   Polish Underground State   Nazi Germany
  Soviet Union (1939–41, after 1944)
Partial liberation of Poland
1939–1945
  • 1939–1945
  • 1940
    • 1940
  • 1940
  • 1940
  • 1941–1945
    • 1941
    • 1942
  • 1943–1945
    • 1944
  • 1944–1945
    • 1944
      • 1944
    • 1944
World War IIPolish Armed Forces   Polish government-in-exile
  United Kingdom
  United States
  Canada
  Australia
  New Zealand
  South Africa
  France (1939–1940)
  Free France (1940–1944)
  France (from 1944)
  Czechoslovakia
  Belgium
  Netherlands
  Norway
  Yugoslavia
  Greece
  Luxembourg
  Kingdom of Italy (from 1943)
Allies
  Nazi Germany
  Kingdom of Italy (until 1943)
  Italian Social Republic (from 1943)
Axis

Co-belligerents:

  Vichy France (1940–1944)

Potsdam Conference
1943–1945
  • 1943
  • 1944
  • 1945
  • 1945
  • 1945
World War IIEastern Front   Soviet Union
  Poland
  Czechoslovakia
  Yugoslavia (from 1944)
  Romania (from 1944)
  Finland (from 1944)
  Bulgaria (from 1944)
  Hungary (from 1945)
Supported by:
  United States
  United Kingdom