List of wars involving Russia

This is a list of wars and armed conflicts involving Russia and its predecessors in chronological order, from the 9th to the 21st century.

The Russian military and troops of its predecessor states in Russia took part in a large number of wars and armed clashes in various parts of the world: starting from the princely squads, opposing the raids of nomads, and fighting for the expansion of the territory of Kievan Rus'. Following the disintegration of Kievan Rus', the emergence of the Principality of Moscow and then the centralized Russian state saw a period of significant territorial growth of the state centred in Moscow and then St. Petersburg during the 15th to 20th centuries, marked by wars of conquest in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Volga region, Siberia, Central Asia and the Far East, the world wars of the early 20th century, the proxy wars of the Cold War, and today.

The list includes:

  • external wars
  • foreign intervention in domestic conflicts
  • anti-colonial uprisings of the peoples conquered during the Russian expansion
  • princely feuds
  • peasant uprisings
  • revolutions

Legends of results:

  Victory
  Defeat
  Another result; for example, a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, indecisive, civil or internal conflict, or result unknown
  Ongoing conflict

Kievan Rus'

Date Conflict Location Rus and its allies Opponent(s) Result
830s Paphlagonian expedition of the Rusʹ Rus' Khaganate   Byzantine Empire Victory ; The credibility of the conflict is questioned
860 Siege of Constantinople (860) Rus' Khaganate   Byzantine Empire Victory ; The credibility of the conflict is questioned
907 Rus'–Byzantine War (907) Kievan Rus'   Byzantine Empire Victory[1]
920–1036 Rus'-Pechenegs' campaigns Kievan Rus' Pechenegs Various results; eventually victory
941 Rus'–Byzantine War (941) Kievan Rus'   Byzantine Empire Defeat
944/945 Rus'-Byzantine War (944/945) Kievan Rus'   Byzantine Empire Victory[2]
964–965 Sviatoslav's campaign against Khazars Kievan Rus' Khazar Khaganate Victory
  • Destruction of the Khazar Khaganate
967/968–971 Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria Kievan Rus'   Byzantine Empire Defeat
981 Vladimir the Great's campaign on Cherven Cities Kievan Rus'   Duchy of Poland Victory
985 Vladimir the Great's campaign against Volga Bulgaria Kievan Rus' Volga Bulgaria Military victory, then agreement
987 Rus'-Byzantine War (987) Kievan Rus'   Byzantine Empire Military victory and agreement
  • Baptism of Vladimir and further Christianization of Kievan Rus'
1022 Yaroslav the Wise's attack on Brest Kievan Rus'   Duchy of Poland Defeat
1024 Rus'–Byzantine War (1024) Kievan Rus'   Byzantine Empire Defeat
1030 Yaroslav the Wise's campaign against Chud Kievan Rus' Chud Victory
  • Estonian tribes start to pay tribute to Rus
1030–1031 Yaroslav the Wise's campaign on Cherven Cities Kievan Rus'   Duchy of Poland Victory
1042–1228 Finnish–Novgorodian wars Kievan Rus' (until 1136) Baltic Finnic peoples of Fennoscandia (Yem people) Various results, mostly victories
1043 Rus'–Byzantine War (1043) Kievan Rus'   Byzantine Empire Defeat
1055–1223 Rus'-Cumans' campaigns Kievan Rus' Cumans Various results, mostly victories
1061 Sosols raid against Pskov Kievan Rus' Sosols Defeat
  • Yaroslav the Wise's conquests in Estonia are lost
1132–1445 Swedish–Novgorodian Wars Kievan Rus' (until 1136)   Kingdom of Sweden

  Kingdom of Norway (from 1319)

Stalemate after Black Death
1147 Bolesław IV the Curly's raid on Old Prussians   Bolesław IV the Curly
Kievan Rus'
Old Prussians Victory
1203–1234 Campaigns of Rus princes against the Order of the Sword (see also Livonian Crusade) Kievan Rus'

  Novgorod Republic   Grand Duchy of Lithuania Baltic peoples Baltic Finnic peoples

  Livonian Brothers of the Sword Defeat
  • The crusaders captured Baltic lands up to the borders of Kievan Rus' and Lithuania
1223–1240 Mongol invasion of Rus'(see also List of Tatar and Mongol raids against Rus') Vladimir-Suzdal

 Principality of Kiev
 Galicia-Volhynia
  Novgorod Republic
Smolensk
Turov and Pinsk
Rostov
Chernigov
Ryazan
Pereyaslavl

  Mongol Empire Decisive defeat
  • The principalities of the Kievan Rus' became vassals of the Mongol Empire
1240–1242 Livonian campaign against Rus' (see also Northern Crusades) Kievan Rus'

  Novgorod Republic

 Teutonic Order

  Kingdom of Sweden
  Kingdom of Denmark

Victory
  • Defeat of the Germans
  • Peace with Prince Alexander Nevsky
  • The waiving of claims on northern Rus
1268 Battle of Wesenberg   Novgorod Republic

  Vladimir-Suzdal Pskov Republic

  Kingdom of Denmark

 Teutonic Order

Both sides claimed victory

Principality of Moscow (1263–1547)

This is a list of wars involving the Principality of Moscow (1263–1547), also known as Muscovy.[a]

Date Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
1281–1293/4[4] Vladimir-Suzdal war of succession (1281–1293) [ru]   Nogai forces[6]
Dmitry of Pereslavl[6]
  Mikhail of Tver[6]
Daniel of Moscow[6]
  Tode Mongke (1281–1287)[7]
  Tokhta forces[6]
Andrey of Gorodets[6]
  Theodore the Black[6]
Rostov princes[6]
Tokhta victory[6]
1296/8–1302[4] Struggle for Pereslavl-Zalessky[4] Daniel of Moscow[4]
  Mikhail of Tver[4]

  Tokhta[4]

  Andrey of Gorodets[4]
  Theodore the Black[4]
Konstantin of Ryazan[4]
Muscovite–Tverian victory[4]
1305–1485 Muscovite–Tverian wars [uk; ru]
(series of short wars, mixed with other conflicts)
Principality of Moscow   Principality of Tver Victory
  • Tver annexed by Moscow (1485)
1327 Tver Uprising of 1327
(part of the Muscovite–Tverian wars [uk; ru])
  Golden Horde
  Ivan I Kalita of Moscow
Alexander of Suzdal [uk; ru]
  Principality of Tver
  Grand Principality of Vladimir[b]
Golden Horde victory
1368–1372 Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1368–72)
(part of the Great Troubles and the Muscovite–Tverian wars [uk; ru])
  Principality of Moscow   Grand Duchy of Lithuania

Principality of Tver

Inconclusive
1376 Muscovite–Volga Bulgars war
(part of the Great Troubles)
  Principality of Moscow Volga Bulgaria Victory
1377 Battle on Pyana River
(part of the Great Troubles)
  Principality of Moscow   Golden Horde Defeat
1378 Battle of the Vozha River
(part of the Great Troubles)
  Principality of Moscow   Golden Horde Victory
1380 Battle of Kulikovo
(part of the Great Troubles[9])
  Rus' principalities:[10]   Western part of the Golden Horde Victory for the Rus' principalities coalition[11]
  • Moscow replaced Tver as the most prominent of the northeastern Rus' principalities[11]
1382 Siege of Moscow
(part of the aftermath of the Great Troubles)
  Principality of Moscow   Golden Horde Defeat[12]
1406–1408 Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1406–1408) [uk]
(part of the Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars)
  Principality of Moscow   Grand Duchy of Lithuania Hungarian Treaty [uk] (1 September 1408)
1425–1453[14] Muscovite War of Succession[15] Younger Donskoy line
  Vasily II Vasilyevich
  Dmitry II Shemyaka (1434–9)
  Boris of Tver (c. 1438)
  Mäxmüd of Kazan (1445–8)
Qasim Khan (1452–3)
Older Donskoy line
  Yury Dmitrievich (1425–34)
  Vasily Kosoy (1434–6)
  Ulugh of Kazan (1437–45)
  Dmitry II Shemyaka (1439; 1445–53)
Ivan of Mozhaysk [ru; uk] (1447–53)
Vasily II victory[14]
  • Younger lineage of Dmitry Donskoy gained the Muscovite throne[14][16]
1437–1445 Ulugh Muhammad's campaign (first Russo-Kazan war)
(from Battle of Belyov to Battle of Suzdal)
(connected with the Muscovite War of Succession)
Younger Donskoy line
  Vasily II Vasilyevich
  Dmitry II Shemyaka (1437–9)
Older Donskoy line
  Ulugh of Kazan
  Dmitry II Shemyaka (1439)
Ulugh victory
1467–1469 Qasim War   Grand Principality of Moscow   Khanate of Kazan Victory
  • Kazan released all ethnic Christian Russians enslaved in the preceding four decades[citation needed]
1471 Battle of Shelon   Grand Principality of Moscow   Novgorod Republic Victory
  • Novgorod Republic annexed by the Grand Principality of Moscow in 1478
1478 Siege of Kazan   Grand Principality of Moscow   Khanate of Kazan Victory
1480 Great Stand on the Ugra River   Grand Principality of Moscow   Golden Horde Debated[17][18]
  • Traditional Russian historiography: Muscovite victory, and the end of the Mongol-Tatar yoke in Russia[17][18]
  • Modern Western scholarly historiography: Insignificant non-battle, embellished in later accounts; Moscow retained formal relations with Tatar khanates and continued paying tribute to the Crimean Khanate for decades[17][18]
1485 Capture of Tver (1485) [ru]
(part of the Muscovite–Tverian wars [uk; ru])
  Grand Principality of Moscow   Principality of Tver Victory
  • Principality of Tver annexed by the Grand Principality of Moscow
1487–1494 First Muscovite-Lithuanian War   Grand Principality of Moscow   Grand Duchy of Lithuania Victory
1495–1497 Russo-Swedish War   Grand Principality of Moscow   Sweden Inconclusive
1500–1503 Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War   Grand Principality of Moscow   Grand Duchy of Lithuania

  Livonian Order

Victory
1505–1507 Russo-Kazan War   Grand Principality of Moscow   Khanate of Kazan Inconclusive
1507–1508 Third Muscovite–Lithuanian War   Grand Principality of Moscow   Grand Duchy of Lithuania

  Crimean Khanate

Inconclusive
1512–1522 Fourth Muscovite–Lithuanian War   Grand Principality of Moscow

  Livonian Order

  Grand Duchy of Lithuania

  Crimean Khanate

Victory
1534–1537 Fifth Muscovite–Lithuanian War   Grand Principality of Moscow   Grand Duchy of Lithuania

  Crimean Khanate

Inconclusive

Tsardom of Russia (1547–1721)

Date Conflict Location Russia and its allies Opponent(s) Result
1552 Siege of Kazan
 
Ivan IV enters the defeated Kazan
Tatarstan   Russia   Khanate of Kazan Victory
  • The annexation of Kazan into Russia
1552–1556 Tatar Rebellion Tatarstan   Russia Tatar rebels Victory
  • The rebellion is crushed
1554–1557 Ivan the Terrible's Swedish War Karelia   Russia   Sweden Inconclusive
1556 Russian conquest of Astrakhan Astrakhan   Russia Astrakhan Khanate Victory
1558–1583 Livonian War
 
Russia troops besiege Narva in 1558
Northern Europe   Russia

  Livonia

Livonian Confederation

  Denmark–Norway
  Sweden
  Poland-Lithuania
(before 1569 the Polish–Lithuanian union)

Defeat
1568–1570 Astrakhan Expedition Astrakhan and Azov   Russia   Turkey

  Crimean Khanate

Victory
  • Treaty of Constantinople (1570)
1570–1572 Ivan the Terrible's Crimean War European Russia   Russia   Crimean Khanate Victory
  • The Crimean Tatars burn Moscow in 1571
  • The Russians defeat the Crimean Tatars at the Battle of Molodi in 1572
  • The independence of Russia and its conquests in the Volga region preserved
1580–1762 Russian conquest of Siberia
 
Yermak's Conquest of Siberia
Siberia   Russia Khanate of Sibir (until 1598)

Native Siberians

Victory
  • The start of Russian annexation of Siberia
1590–1595 Boris Godunov's Swedish War Northern Europe   Russia   Sweden Inconclusive
1605–1618 Polish invasions of Russia
 
The Poles surrender the Moscow Kremlin to Prince Pozharsky in 1612
Russia   Russia

  Sweden (1609–1610)

  Poland-Lithuania Inconclusive
  • Russia's independence preserved
  • Russia lost Smolensk
  • Vladislav Zhigimondovich remains a contender for the Russian throne
  • Truce of Deulino
1606–1607 Bolotnikov Rebellion
 
Bolotnikov's battle with the Tsar's army at Nizhniye Kotly near Moscow
Russia   Russia Rebels under Ivan Bolotnikov Victory
  • The rebellion is crushed
1610–1617 Ingrian War
 
Depiction of Russian troops in 1611
Russia   Russia   Sweden Defeat
1632–1634 Smolensk War
 
Russian troops storm Smolensk
Smolensk   Russia   Poland-Lithuania Defeat
1651–1653 Alexis I's Persian War North Caucasus   Russia   Persia Defeat
1652–1689 Sino–Russian border conflicts
 
Russian fort under attack by Chinese troops
Heilongjiang and Amur   Russia

Cossacks

  China

  Korea

Defeat
1654–1667 First Northern War Eastern Europe   Russia

  Cossack Hetmanate

  Poland-Lithuania

  Crimean Khanate

Victory
1656–1658 Second Northern War
 
Russian troops besiege Riga in 1656
Northern Europe   Russia   Sweden Inconclusive
1662–1664 First Bashkir Rebellion Bashkortostan   Russia Bashkir rebels Inconclusive; political defeat
  • The Russian government was forced to accept Bashkir demands
1670–1671 Razin's Rebellion
 
Razin's rebels in Astrakhan
Russia   Russia Cossacks under Stepan Razin Victory
  • The rebellion is crushed
1676–1681 Feodor III's Turkish War Ukraine   Russia   Turkey

  Crimean Khanate

Indecisive[19]
1683–1700 Great Turkish War
 
Russian troops capture Azov
Eastern Europe   Russia (from 1686)

  Austria
  Poland-Lithuania
  Cossack Hetmanate

  Turkey

  Crimean Khanate

Victory
1700–1721 Great Northern War
 
Russian troops assault the island fortress of Nöteborg
 
Russian troops capture Narva
Europe  Russia

  Denmark–Norway (1700, 1709–)
  Saxony (1700–6, 1709–)
  Poland-Lithuania (1700–4, 1709–)
  Cossack Hetmanate (1700–8)
  Prussia (1715–)
  Hanover (1715–)
  Great Britain (1717–19)

  Sweden

  Holstein-Gottorp
 Poland-Lithuania (1704–09)
  Turkey (1710–14)
  Cossack Hetmanate (1708–09)
  Great Britain (1700, 1719–21)

Victory against Sweden
Defeat by Turkey
1704–1711 Third Bashkir Rebellion Bashkortostan and Tatarstan   Russia Bashkir rebels Military victory, political defeat
  • Russian government forced to accept some Bashkir demands
1707–1708 Bulavin Rebellion Southern Russia   Russia   Don Cossack rebels Victory
  • The rebellion is crushed
1717 Peter the Great's Khivan War Khanate of Khiva   Russia   Khanate of Khiva Defeat
1717–1847 Kazakh-Russian conflicts Kazakhstan   Russia

Bashkirs
Cossack rebels

  Kazakhstan

Kyrgyz tribes
  Khanate of Khiva

Victory

Russian Empire (1721–1917)

Date Conflict Location Russia and its allies Opponent(s) Result
1722–1723 Persian Expedition of Peter the Great Caucasus and northern Iran   Russia

  Cossack Hetmanate
Armenia
Georgia

  Persia Victory
1733–1738 War of the Polish Succession Rhineland
 
Depiction of the Siege of Danzig by Russian and Saxon forces in 1734
Poland   Poland under  

Augustus III of Poland
  Russia
  Austria
  Saxony
  Prussia

  Poland under   Stanisław Leszczyński

  France
  Spain
  Sardinia

Indecisive
1735–1739 Russo-Austro-Turkish War Eastern Europe   Russia

  Austria

  Turkey Victory
1735–1740 Fourth Bashkir Rebellion Bashkortostan   Russia
  •   pro-Russian Bashkirs
Bashkir rebels Victory
  • The rebellion is crushed
  • Establishment of Orenburg
1740–1748 War of the Austrian Succession Europe   Austria

  Britain
  Hanover
  Russia (1741–43, 1748)
  Dutch Republic
  Saxony (1743–45)
  Sardinia

  Prussia (1740–42, 1744–45)

  Spain (1740–1746)
  France
  Bavaria (1741–45)
  Saxony (1741–42)
  Naples and Sicily
  Genoa
  Sweden (1741–43)

Inconclusive
Victory against Sweden
1756–1763 Seven Years' War
 
Russian troops in Berlin in 1760
Europe   France

  Austria
  Spain
  Sweden
  Russia (1756–1762)
  Saxony

  Prussia

  Britain
  Hanover
  Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
  Portugal
  Hesse-Kassel
  Schaumburg-Lippe
Iroquois Confederacy

White peace
1768–1769 Koliivshchyna Rebellion
 
Camp of Haidamakas
Ukraine   Russia

  Poland-Lithuania

Haidamaky Victory
  • The rebellion is crushed
1768–1772 War of the Bar Confederation
 
Krakow capitulates to Suvorov
Poland   Russia   France

  Bar Confederation

Victory
1768–1774 Catherine the Great's First Turkish War
 
Destruction of the Turkish fleet in the Battle of Chesma
Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Mediterranean   Russia   Turkey Victory
1773–1775 Pugachev's Rebellion
 
Russian Cossack troops march during the rebellion
Russia   Russia Rebels under Yemelyan Pugachev

  Turkey

Victory
  • The rebellion is crushed
1787–1792 Catherine the Great's Second Turkish War
 
Russian troops storm the fortress of Ochakov
Eastern Europe   Russia   Turkey Victory
1788–1790 Catherine the Great's Swedish War
 
Russian fleet during the Battle of Vyborg Bay
Finland, western Sweden, and the Baltic Sea   Russia   Sweden Inconclusive
1792 Catherine the Great's Polish War Poland   Russia

Targowica Confederation

  Poland-Lithuania Victory
1794 Kościuszko Uprising
 
Battle of Praga
Poland   Russia

  Prussia

  Poland-Lithuania Victory
1796 Persian Expedition of Catherine the Great North Caucasus and South Caucasus   Russia   Persia Victory
1799–1802 War of the Second Coalition
 
Suvorov victorious at the Battle of Trebbia (1799)
Europe   Austria

  Holy Roman Empire
  Britain
  Russia (until 1799)
  French Royalists
  Portugal
  Two Sicilies
  Turkey

  France

  Spain
  Denmark-Norway
  Polish Legions
French client states

Withdrawal in 1799
  • French victory in 1802
1803–1806 War of the Third Coalition
 
Capture of a French regiment's standard by the cavalry of the Russian Guards
Europe   Austria

  Russia
  United Kingdom
  Sicily
  Naples
  Portugal
  Sweden

  France

French client states

Defeat
1804–1813 Alexander I's Persian War
 
Russian troops storm the fortress of Lankaran
North Caucasus, South Caucasus and northern Iran   Russia   Persia Victory
1806–1807 War of the Fourth Coalition
 
Russia troops clash with French troops at the Battle of Eylau
Eastern and Central Europe   Prussia

  United Kingdom
  Saxony
  Sweden
  Russia
  Sicily

  France

French client states
  Spain
Confederation of the Rhine

  Italy
  Naples
Polish Legions

Defeat
1806–1812 Alexander I's Turkish War
 
Russian Fleet after the Battle of Athos
Romania, Moldova, Caucasus and Black Sea   Russia   Turkey Victory
1807–1812 Anglo-Russian War Baltic Sea and Barents Sea   Russia   United Kingdom Inconclusive
1808–1809 Finnish War
 
Russian troops cross the Gulf of Bothnia on ice
Finland and Sweden   Russia   Sweden Victory
1809 War of the Fifth Coalition Central Europe   France

Confederation of the Rhine
  Italy
  Spain
  Warsaw
  Russia

  Austria

  United Kingdom
  Sicily
  Sardinia

Victory (limited involvement)
1812 French invasion of Russia
 
General Raevsky leading a detachment of the Russian Imperial Guard at the Battle of Saltanovka
Russia   Russia   France

French client states

Victory
  • The French invasion is repelled
  • Napoleon's Grand Army is destroyed and forced to retreat
1813–1814 War of the Sixth Coalition
 
Russian troops entering Paris in 1814
Europe   Austria

  Prussia
  United Kingdom
  Sweden
  Russia
  Spain
  Portugal
  Sicily
  Sardinia

  France

French client states

Victory
1815 War of the Seventh Coalition Europe   Austria

  Prussia
  United Kingdom
  Russia
  Hanover
  Nassau
  Brunswick
  Sweden
  United Netherlands
  Spain
  Portugal
  Sardinia
  Sicily
  Tuscany
   Switzerland
  French Royalists

  France

  Naples

Victory
1817–1864 Caucasian War
 
Imam Shamil surrenders to Russian forces
Caucasus   Russia

Mingrelia
  Guria

  Caucasian Imamate

  Circassia
  Big Kabarda (until 1825)
  Abkhazian insurgents
  Kazi-Kumukh
Dagestan free people
  Avaria (1829–1859)
  Svaneti

Victory
1825 Decembrist revolt
 
Decembrists at the Senate Square
Saint Petersburg   Russia Decembrist rebels Victory
  • The revolt is crushed
1826–1828 Nicholas I's Persian War
 
Russian and Persian troops clash near Elisabethpol
South Caucasus and northern Iran   Russia   Persia Victory
1827 Battle of Navarino
 
Russian squadron bombarding the Ottoman fleet
Greece   United Kingdom

  France
  Russia

  Turkey Victory
1828–1829 Nicholas I's Turkish War
 
Russian troops besiege Kars in 1828
Balkans and Caucasus   Russia   Turkey Victory
1830–1831 November uprising
 
Russian and Polish forces clash during the Battle of Ostrołęka
Poland   Russia   Poland Victory
  • The uprising is crushed
1839–1841 Second Turko-Egyptian War Syria and Lebanon   Britain

  Austria
  Russia
  Turkey

  Egypt

  France
  Spain

Victory
  • Egypt renounced its claim to Syria
1839–1895 Russian conquest of Central Asia
 
Russian troops entering Samarkand in 1868
Central Asia   Russia   Kazakhstan

  Bukhara
  Khiva
  Kokand
Turkmen tribes
Kyrgyz tribes
  Afghanistan

Victory
  • The annexation of Central Asia into Russia
1841 Gurian rebellion Georgia   Russia Gurian rebels Victory
  • The rebellion is crushed
1842 Shoorcha rebellion Tatarstan and Ulyanovsk   Russia Tatar, Mari and Chuvash peasants Victory
  • The rebellion is crushed
1848–1849 Hungarian Revolution of 1848
 
Hungarian troops surrender to the Russians at Világos
Hungary   Austria

  Russia

  Hungary

  Polish legions
  German legion
Viennese legion
  Italian legion

Victory
  • The revolution is crushed
1853–1856 Crimean War
 
Russian troops and French zouaves engaged in hand-to-hand combat at Malakhov Kurgan
Crimea, Balkans, Caucasus, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, White Sea and Far East   Russia   France

  Turkey
  Britain
  Sardinia

Defeat
1858 Mahtra Rebellion Estonia   Russia Estonian peasants Victory
  • The rebellion is crushed
1861 Bezdna Revolt Tatarstan   Russia Peasants Victory
  • The revolt is crushed
1863–1864 January uprising
 
Russian troops in Warsaw during the uprising
Poland   Russia   Polish, Lithuanian and Ukrainian insurgents Victory
  • The uprising is crushed
1866 Polish rebellion in Siberia Siberia   Russia Polish political exiles Victory
  • The rebellion is crushed
1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War
 
Russian troops entering Adrianople
Balkans and Caucasus   Russia

  Bulgarian volunteers
  Romania
  Serbia
  Montenegro

  Turkey Victory
1897–1898 Cretan Revolt (1897–1898) Crete   Cretan revolutionaries

  Kingdom of Greece
  British Empire
  France
  Italy
  Russia
  Austria-Hungary (until April 12, 1898)
  German Empire (until March 16, 1898)

  Turkey Victory
  • Establishment of the Cretan State
  • Withdrawal of Ottoman forces from Crete
1899–1901 Boxer Rebellion
 
Russian troops in Pekin
China Eight-Nation Alliance:

  Japan
  United Kingdom
  Russia
  France
  United States
  Germany
  Austria-Hungary
  Italy

  Yìhéquán

  China

Victory
1902–1906 Rebellion in Guria Georgia   Russia Gurian Republic Victory
  • The rebellion is crushed
1904–1905 Russo-Japanese War
 
Russian cavalry in a reconnaissance mission during the Battle of Mukden
Manchuria, Korean Peninsula and Yellow Sea   Russia   Japan Defeat
1905–1907 Russian Revolution of 1905
 
A barricade erected by revolutionaries in Moscow
Russia   Russia   Revolutionaries
Supported by:
Victory
1905–1911 Persian Constitutional Revolution
 
Russian flag over Arg of Tabriz
Iran   Persia

  Russia (from 1906)

Iranian constitutionalists Victory
  • Russian occupation of Northern Iran until 1917
1914–1917 World War I
 
Russian troops going to the front
 
Attack of Russian cavalry
 
Russian trenches in the forests of Sarikamish
Europe and Asia Allied Powers:

  France
  British Empire

  Russia
  United States
  Italy
  Serbia
  Montenegro
  Belgium
  Japan
  Romania
  Portugal
  Brazil
  Hejaz
  Greece
  Armenia
  Nejd and Hasa
  China
  Siam

Central Powers:

  Germany
  Austria-Hungary
  Turkey
  Bulgaria

Defeat[20][21]

Allied Victory (without Russia)

1917 February Revolution Russia   Russia   Republicans:

  Socialists:

Defeat

Russian Republic (1917)

Date Conflict Location Russia and its allies Opponent(s) Result
1917 October Revolution Russia   Russia   Bolsheviks
  Petrograd Soviet
  Left SRs
  Red Guards
Defeat

Russian SFSR (1917–1922)

Date Conflict Location Russia and its allies Opponent(s) Result
1917–1922 Russian Civil War   Russian SFSR

  Far Eastern Republic
  Mongolian Communists
  Makhnovshchina
  Left SR
  Green armies

  White Movement

  Mountain Republic
  Makhnovshchina
  Left SR
  Green armies
  Britain
  Japan
  Czechoslovakia
  Greece
  United States
  France
  Serbia
  Romania
  Italy
  China
  Mongolia

1917–1921 Ukrainian-Soviet War (Ukrainian War of Independence)   Russian SFSR

  Ukrainian SSR
  Makhnovshchina

  Ukrainian People's Republic

  West Ukrainian People's Republic
  German Empire (1918)
  Poland (1920–1921)
  Hetmanate of Ukraine
  White Movement
  German Empire (1917–1918)
  Romania (1918)
  Poland (1918–1919)
  France (1919)
  Greece (1919)

Victory
1917–1920 Kazakhstan Campaign   Russian SFSR   Alash Autonomy

  White Movement

Victory
1918 Finnish Civil War   Russian SSR

  Red Guard

  White Guard

  Germany

Defeat
  • Victory of the White Guard in Finland; expulsion of Bolshevik forces and Finnish independence
1918–1919 Sochi conflict   Russian SFSR

  Armed Forces of South Russia
  Ottoman Empire Turkey

  Georgia Indecisive
1918–1920 Latvian War of Independence   Russian SFSR

  Latvian SSR

  Latvian Army

  Estonia
  Lieven
  Poland
  Lithuania
Supported by the Allied Powers   VI Reserve Corps:

merged into the   West Russian Volunteer Army in September 1919

Defeat
  • Expulsion of Bolshevik forces from Latvia; Latvian independence
1918–1920 Estonian War of Independence   Russian SFSR

  Commune of Estonia

  Estonia

  Latvia
  United Kingdom
  White Movement Finnish, Danish, and Swedish volunteers   Baltische Landeswehr

Defeat
1918–1919 Lithuanian–Soviet War   Russian SFSR

  LBSSR

  Republic of Lithuania

  Saxon Volunteers

Defeat
  • Expulsion of Bolshevik forces from Lithuania; Lithuanian independence
1918–1920 Georgian-Ossetian Conflict   Russian SFSR

  Ossetian rebels

  Transcaucasian Federation

  Georgia

Defeat
1919–1921 Polish–Soviet War   Russian SFSR

  Ukrainian SSR
  Byelorussian SSR
  Polrewkom

  Poland

  Ukrainian nationalists

Defeat
1919–1923 Turkish War of Independence   Turkey

  Russian SFSR[22]

  Greece

  United Kingdom
  Armenia

Victory
1920 Invasion of Azerbaijan   Russian SFSR

  Azerbaijan SSR

  Azerbaijan Victory
1920 Invasion of Armenia   Russian SFSR   Armenia Victory
1921 Invasion of Georgia   Russian SFSR

  Azerbaijan SSR
  Turkey

  Georgia Victory
1921 Soviet intervention in Mongolia   Russian SFSR

  Mongolian People's Party

  Mongolia Victory
  • Provisional People's Republic of Mongolia established as a protectorate
1921–1922 East Karelian Uprising   Russian SFSR   Forest Guerrillas

  Finnish volunteers

Victory
  • The uprising is crushed

Russia and the Soviet Union (1916–1934)

Date Conflict Location Russia and its allies Opponent(s) Result
1916–1934 Central Asian Revolt
 
Soviet troops on Turkestan front in 1922
Central Asia   Russian Empire (until 1917)

  Russian SFSR

  Soviet Union (from 1922)

  Basmachi

  Khiva
  Bukhara
  Afghanistan

Victory
  • The revolt is crushed

Soviet Union (1922–1991)

This is a list of wars involving the Soviet Union (30 December 192226 December 1991).

Date Conflict Location Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
1916–1934 Central Asian Revolt
 
Soviet troops on Turkestan front in 1922
Central Asia   Russian Empire (until 1917)

  Russian SFSR

  Soviet Union (from 1922)

  Basmachi

  Khiva
  Bukhara
  Afghanistan

Victory
  • The revolt is suppressed
1924 August Uprising[citation needed]   Soviet Union   Damkom Victory
  • The uprising is suppressed
  • Consolidation of Soviet rule in the Georgian SSR
1925–1926 Urtatagai conflict   Soviet Union   Emirate of Afghanistan Defeat
  • Peace Treaty
    • Urtatagui is seized back to Afghanistan
    • Afghanistan agreement to restrain Basmachi border raids
1929 Sino-Soviet conflict   Soviet Union   China Victory
  • The provisions of the 1924 agreement are upheld
1929 Red Army intervention in Afghanistan (1929)

Part of the Afghan Civil War (1928–1929)

  Soviet Union

  Kingdom of Afghanistan

Defeat
1930 Red Army intervention in Afghanistan (1930)   Soviet Union   Basmachi Victory
1932 Chechen uprising of 1932 [ru][citation needed]   Soviet Union Chechen rebels Victory
  • The uprising is suppressed
1932–1941 Soviet–Japanese border conflicts   Soviet Union

  Mongolia

  Japan

  Manchukuo

Victory
1934 Soviet invasion of Xinjiang   Soviet Union
  Xinjiang clique
  White Movement
  Torgut Mongols
  China Stalemate
(1936–39) Spanish Civil War Spain   Spain

Supported by:
  Soviet Union
  Mexico


Volunteers
  Nationalist faction


Supported by:
  Italy
  Germany
  Portugal

Defeat
1937 Islamic Rebellion in Xinjiang[citation needed]   Xinjiang

  Soviet Union
  White Movement

  China Victory
  • Rebellion is suppressed
  • Establishment of the rule of Sheng Shicai's Soviet puppet regime over the whole territory of Xinjiang province
1939 Soviet invasion of Poland (Part of World War II)   Germany

  Soviet Union
  Slovakia

  Poland Victory
1939–1940 Winter War (Part of World War II)   Soviet Union   Finland Inconclusive
1940 Occupation and annexation of the Baltic states (Part of World War II)   Soviet Union   Estonia
  Latvia
  Lithuania
Victory
1940 Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina (part of World War II)   Soviet Union   Romania Victory
1941–1945 World War II Allied Powers:

  Soviet Union
  United States
  United Kingdom
  China
  France
  Poland
  Canada
  Australia
  New Zealand
  India
  South Africa
   Yugoslavia
  Greece
  Denmark
  Norway
  Netherlands
  Belgium
  Luxembourg
  Czechoslovakia
  Brazil
  Mexico

Axis Powers:

  Germany
  Japan
  Italy
  Hungary
  Romania
  Bulgaria
  Slovakia
  Croatia
  Thailand
  Manchukuo
  Mengjiang
  Wang Jingwei regime

Victory
1944–1960s Anti-communist insurgencies in Central and Eastern Europe[citation needed]   Soviet Union
  East Germany
  Polish People's Republic
  Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
  Hungarian People's Republic
  Socialist Republic of Romania
  People's Republic of Bulgaria
  Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
  Ukrainian Insurgents
  Polish Insurgents
  Estonian Insurgents
  Latvian Insurgents
  Lithuanian Insurgents
  Bulgarian Insurgents
  Serbian Insurgents
  Croatian Insurgents
  Romanian Insurgents
  German Insurgents
  Hungarian Insurgents
Victory
  • The independence movements are suppressed
  • Soviet hegemony in Eastern Europe preserved
1945 Soviet–Japanese War (Part of World War II)   Soviet Union

  Mongolia

  Japan

  Manchukuo

Victory
  • Karafuto Prefecture annexed into the Soviet Union and incorporated into the Sakhalin Oblast of the Russian SFSR
  • The Kuril Islands annexed into the Soviet Union and incorporated into the Russian SFSR
  • The liberation of Manchuria, Inner Mongolia, and northern Korea, and the collapse of the Japanese puppet states therein
  • The partition of the Korean Peninsula; the Soviet Union occupies North Korea
  • Manchuria and Inner Mongolia returned to China
1946-1954 First Indochina War   France

  State of Vietnam

  Kingdom of Laos

  Cambodia

  Viet Minh

  Khmer Issarak

  Pathet Lao

  Japan Japanese holdout Supported by:
  Soviet Union
  China

Victory
  • Withdrawal of French forces from Indochina
  • Democratic Republic of Vietnam independence recognized
  • State of Vietnam, Kingdom of Laos and Kingdom of Cambodia achieve independence
  • Vietnam was partitioned between North (controlled by the Việt Minh) and South (controlled by the State of Vietnam)
1950–1953 Korean War   North Korea

  China
  Soviet Union

  United Nations

  South Korea
  United States
  United Kingdom
  Australia
  Belgium
  Canada
  France
  Philippines
  Colombia
  Ethiopia
  Greece
  Luxembourg
  Netherlands
  New Zealand
  South Africa
  Thailand
  Turkey

Ceasefire
  • Establishment of the Korean DMZ
  • Minor territorial changes
1955–1975 Vietnam War   North Vietnam

  Viet Cong and PRG
  Pathet Lao
  GRUNK (1970–1975)
  Khmer Rouge
  China
  Soviet Union
  North Korea

  South Vietnam

  United States
  South Korea
  Australia
  New Zealand
  Laos
  Cambodia (1967–1970)
  Khmer Republic (1970–1975)
  Thailand
  Philippines

Victory
1953 East German Uprising[citation needed]   Soviet Union
  East Germany
  East German demonstrators Victory
  • The uprising is suppressed
1956 Hungarian Revolution[citation needed]   Soviet Union

  ÁVH

  Revolutionaries Victory
  • The revolution is suppressed
1961 Vlora Incident[citation needed]   Soviet Union
  Warsaw Pact:[23][24]
  Bulgaria
  Czechoslovakia
  East Germany
  Hungary
  Poland
  Albania Soviet-Warsaw Pact defeat
1968 Invasion of Czechoslovakia[citation needed]   Soviet Union

  Bulgaria
  East Germany
  Hungary
  Poland

  Czechoslovakia Victory
1969 Sino-Soviet border conflict   Soviet Union