Inclusion (mineral)

In mineralogy, an inclusion is any material that is trapped inside a mineral during its formation. In gemology, an inclusion is a characteristic enclosed within a gemstone, or reaching its surface from the interior.[1]

Dark inclusions of aegerine in light-green apatite
Sketch showing different shapes of inclusions

According to Hutton's law of inclusions, fragments included in a host rock are older than the host rock itself.[2][3]


Inclusions are usually other minerals or rocks, but may also be water, gas or petroleum. Liquid or vapor inclusions are known as fluid inclusions. In the case of amber it is possible to find insects and plants as inclusions.

The analysis of atmospheric gas bubbles as inclusions in ice cores is an important tool in the study of climate change.[4]

A xenolith is a pre-existing rock which has been picked up by a lava flow. Melt inclusions form when bits of melt become trapped inside crystals as they form in the melt.


An insect encased in amber, has gas bubbles protruding from its thorax and head.
The term three phase relates to the three phases of matter, solid, liquid, and gas. This is a three phase inclusion in rock crystal quartz. The solid is a black material that is of bituminous origin. The liquid encased is petroleum, and the gas bubble is methane.

Inclusions are one of the most important factors when it comes to gem valuation. In many gemstones, such as diamonds, inclusions affect the clarity of the gem, diminishing the value. In some gems, however, such as star sapphires, the inclusion actually increases the value of the gem.[5]

Many colored gemstones are expected to have inclusions, and the inclusions do not greatly affect the stone's value. Colored gemstones are categorized into three types as follows:[2]

  • Type I colored gems include gems with very little or no inclusions. They include aquamarines, topaz and zircon.
  • Type II colored gems include those that often have a few inclusions. They include sapphire, ruby, garnet and spinel.
  • Type III colored gems include those that almost always have inclusions. Gems in this category include emerald and tourmaline.


The term "inclusion" is also used in the context of metallurgy and metals processing.[6][7] During the melt stage of processing particles such as oxides can enter or form in the liquid metal which are subsequently trapped when the melt solidifies. The term is usually used negatively such as when the particle could act as a fatigue crack nucleator or as an area of high stress intensity.[8][9]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Types of Mineral Inclusions". Geology Page. 2017-06-03. Retrieved 2020-08-08.
  2. ^ a b "What Are Inclusions?". Retrieved 2020-08-08.
  3. ^ "Geologic Principles". Archived from the original on 2021-10-17. Retrieved 2020-08-08.
  4. ^ Barnola, J.-M; Raynaud, D.; Lorius, C.; Barkov, N.I. (2003). "Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Vostok Ice Core". Retrieved 2020-08-08.
  5. ^ "Types of Mineral Inclusions with Photos". 2017-01-20. Retrieved 2020-08-08.
  6. ^ Petersen, Christian (August 2, 2020). "What Are Inclusions in Steel?". wiseGEEK. Retrieved 2020-08-08.
  7. ^ "The Origins of Oxide Inclusions :: Total Materia Article". Retrieved 2020-08-08.
  8. ^ Ashby, M. F. (2019). Materials: engineering, science, processing and design. Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, UK. Hugh Shercliff, David Cebon (4th ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-102376-1. OCLC 852806045.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  9. ^ "Inclusion Metallurgy". Department Metallurgy - Metallurgie Department. Retrieved 2020-08-08.