Lower Silesian Voivodeship, or Lower Silesia Province, in southwestern Poland, is one of the 16 voivodeships (provinces) into which Poland is divided. The voivodeship was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Wrocław, Legnica, Wałbrzych and Jelenia Góra Voivodeships, following the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. It covers an area of 19,946 square kilometres (7,701 sq mi), and as of 2019[update] has a total population of 2,899,986.
In the past 1,200 years, the region has been part of Great Moravia, the Medieval Kingdom of Poland, the Crown of Bohemia, Habsburg monarchy (Austria), Prussia, the German Empire, and modern Poland after 1945.
Silesian tribes settled the lands at the end of the first millennium after the Migration Period. During the period of Germania Slavica, the region became part of Great Moravia under Svatopluk I of Moravia. Mieszko I brought the various existing Silesian duchies under the rule of the Piast dynasty and they became the Duchy of Silesia. It was again divided into small realms reigned by Silesian branches of Piast princes after the testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth in 1138. With the Ostsiedlung, the cultural and ethnic Germanic influence grew with an influx of immigrants from the German-speaking areas of the Holy Roman Empire, of which Silesia was a direct part until the 1330s when it was subjugated to the Kingdom of Bohemia, then together with it became part of the Habsburg monarchy (1526), then the Kingdom of Prussia (1742/44), and subsequently the German Empire (1871). In 1945, Lower Silesia was made part of Poland as agreed at the post-war Potsdam Conference. As a consequence, Lower Silesia suffered a nearly total loss of its pre-war population between 1945 and 1950. Polish citizens dispossessed by the Soviets were then settled in the now emptied lands.
Lower Silesia was, during the early medieval era, one of Poland's cultural centers. The Book of Henryków (1273), which contains the earliest known sentence written in the Polish language, as well as a document which contains the oldest printed text in Polish, were both created within it. Złotoryja, Poland's first town, was granted municipal privileges according to German Magdeburg rights by Henry the Bearded. Over the centuries, Lower Silesia has experienced several epochal events such as the Protestant Reformation, the Silesian Wars, industrialisation and the two World Wars.
Although much of the region is relatively low-lying, Lower Silesia includes the Sudeten Foreland, as well as part of the Sudetes mountain range, that runs along the Polish/Czech border. Ski resorts in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship include Karpacz and Szklarska Poręba in the Karkonosze mountains.
The voivodeship has a number of mineral springs and is host to a large number of spa towns.
Lower Silesian Voivodeship is bordered by Lubusz Voivodeship to the north-west, Greater Poland Voivodeship to the north-east, Opole Voivodeship to the south-east, the Czech Republic (Hradec Králové Region, Liberec Region, Olomouc Region and Pardubice Region) to the south, and Germany (Saxony) to the west.
The Copernicus Airport Wrocław serves as an international and domestic airport.
Wrocław Główny is the largest railway station in Poland, serving an average of 21.2 million passengers annually. It offers the domestic and international connections of various carriers.
Wrocław being the largest city in the voivodeship has many sights and attractions, including the Market Square, Ostrów Tumski and Wrocław's dwarfs. The Festival of Good Beer is held every year of June.
The annual international Chopin Festival is held in the Fryderyk Chopin Theatre in the town of Duszniki-Zdrój. Other major attraction of the town is the Museum of Papermaking, established in a 17th-century paper mill.
Piast Castle in Legnica
Jedlinka Palace in Jedlina-Zdrój
Church of St. Clare and Hedwig church, Wrocław
Protected areas edit
Protected areas in Lower Silesian Voivodeship:
- 2 National Parks
- 12 Landscape Parks
- Barycz Valley Landscape Park (partly in Greater Poland Voivodeship)
- Bóbr Valley Landscape Park
- Bystrzyca Valley Landscape Park
- Chełmy Landscape Park
- Jezierzyca Valley Landscape Park
- Książ Landscape Park
- Owl Mountains Landscape Park
- Przemków Landscape Park
- Rudawy Landscape Park
- Ślęża Landscape Park
- Śnieżnik Landscape Park
- Sudety Wałbrzyskie Landscape Park
- 67 Nature reserves
- 20 protected landscape areas
- 3100 Natural monuments
- 114 Ecological usages
- 15 Teams nature and landscape
and many areas of Natura 2000 network.
Tourist routes edit
- The Main Trail Sudetes long-distance mountain trail
- The Piast Castles Trail
- Trail around Wrocław
- Cistercian trail
- The trail of the Valley of Palaces and Gardens of the Jelenia Góra Valley
- Lower Silesian Rout of St. James
- Sudetes Rout of St. James
- Camino de Santiago - Via Regia
- The Trail of Extinct Volcanoes on the Kaczawskie Foothills
- Lower Silesian Beer and Wine Trail
- EuroVelo 9
- Lower Silesian Bicycle Highway
- Bicycles S5 (Wrocław – Poznań)
- Blue Velo - The Odra River Bicycle Route
The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the province was 41.1 billion € in 2018, accounting for 8.3% of the Polish economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was €23,400 or 78% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 85% of the EU average. Lower Silesia Voivodship is the province with the second highest GDP per capita in Poland.
GDP per capita in Lower Silesia Voivodeship: GDP in Poland:
|Lower Silesian Voivodeship||GDP per capita||Poland||GDP per capita|
|2000||$10 440 (+2.8%)||2000||$10 140 (+4.0%)|
|2005||$13 060 (+4.9%)||2005||$12 600 (+3.5%)|
|2006||$13 700 (+7.3%)||2006||$13 020 (+6.2%)|
|2007||$14 980 (+9.5%)||2007||$13 760 (+6.5%)|
|2008||$16 030 (+7.2%)||2008||$14 450 (+5.0%)|
|2009||$16 350 (+2.0%)||2009||$14 720 (+1.9%)|
Cities and towns edit
The voivodeship contains 8 cities and 83 towns. The cities (governed by a city mayor or prezydent miasta) are listed below in descending order of population (as of 2019):
- Oleśnica (37,169)
- Dzierżoniów (33,239)
- Oława (33,029)
- Zgorzelec (30,374)
- Bielawa (29,971)
- Kłodzko (26,845)
- Jawor (22,890)
- Świebodzice (22,793)
- Polkowice (22,480)
- Nowa Ruda (22,067)
- Lubań (21,087)
- Kamienna Góra (19,010)
- Bogatynia (17,436)
- Strzegom (16,106)
- Jelcz-Laskowice (15,803)
- Złotoryja (15,564)
- Boguszów-Gorce (15,368)
- Ząbkowice Śląskie (15,004)
- Chojnów (13,355)
- Trzebnica (13,331)
- Brzeg Dolny (12,511)
- Strzelin (12,460)
- Wołów (12,373)
- Góra (11,797)
- Milicz (11,304)
- Kowary (10,869)
- Syców (10,397)
- Bystrzyca Kłodzka (10,134)
- Kudowa-Zdrój (9,892)
- Środa Śląska (9,516)
- Oborniki Śląskie (9,099)
- Lwówek Śląski (8,869)
- Ziębice (8,708)
- Siechnice (8,113)
- Chocianów (7,892)
- Pieszyce (7,123)
- Kąty Wrocławskie (6,994)
- Sobótka (6,981)
- Żarów (6,719)
- Twardogóra (6,692)
- Gryfów Śląski (6,636)
- Szklarska Poręba (6,557)
- Żmigród (6,435)
- Piława Górna (6,412)
- Głuszyca (6,361)
- Polanica-Zdrój (6,324)
- Piechowice (6,194)
- Przemków (6,107)
- Lubawka (6,028)
- Pieńsk (5,828)
- Stronie Śląskie (5,709)
- Szczawno-Zdrój (5,608)
- Ścinawa (5,582)
- Lądek-Zdrój (5,572)
- Szczytna (5,141)
- Jaworzyna Śląska (5,124)
- Bolków (4,990)
- Bierutów (4,867)
- Jedlina-Zdrój (4,828)
- Karpacz (4,593)
- Duszniki-Zdrój (4,584)
- Leśna (4,439)
- Olszyna (4,348)
- Nowogrodziec (4,243)
- Zawidów (4,180)
- Świeradów-Zdrój (4,147)
- Mieroszów (4,070)
- Mirsk (3,886)
- Wojcieszów (3,668)
- Prochowice (3,602)
- Niemcza (2,965)
- Węgliniec (2,846)
- Złoty Stok (2,758)
- Wąsosz (2,662)
- Międzylesie (2,575)
- Bardo (2,562)
- Radków (2,406)
- Międzybórz (2,341)
- Świerzawa (2,286)
- Prusice (2,243)
- Wiązów (2,241)
- Lubomierz (1,979)
- Wleń (1,759)
Administrative division edit
- 1 one district Wałbrzyski
- Powiats in the district
- 2 second district Legnicki
- Powiats in the district
- 3 third district Jeleniogórski
- Powiats in the district
The counties are listed in the following table (ordering within categories is by decreasing population).
|Witold Krochmal||4 January 1999 – 22 October 2001|
|Ryszard Nawrat||22 October 2001 – 21 March 2003|
|Stanisław Łopatowski||31 March 2003 – 21 December 2005|
|Krzysztof Grzelczyk||21 December 2005 – 29 November 2007|
|Rafał Jurkowlaniec||29 November 2007 – 1 December 2010|
|Aleksander Skorupa||28 December 2010 – 11 March 2014|
|Tomasz Smolarz||12 March 2014 – 8 December 2015|
|Paweł Hreniak||8 December 2015 – 2019|
|Jarosław Obremski||Since 2019|
See also edit
- "Population. Size and structure and vital statistics in Poland by territorial division in 2019. As of 30th June". stat.gov.pl. Statistics Poland. 15 October 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- "EU regions by GDP, Eurostat". Retrieved 18 September 2023.
- "Sub-national HDI - Subnational HDI - Global Data Lab". globaldatalab.org. Radboud University Nijmegen. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
- Arkadiusz Belczyk,Tłumaczenie polskich nazw geograficznych na język angielski Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine [Translation of Polish Geographical Names into English], 2002–2006.
- "Past and Present Regions of Poland – Lower Silesia". Archived from the original on 20 July 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
- "Dolnośląski Szlak Piwa i Wina".
- "Regional GDP per capita ranged from 30% to 263% of the EU average in 2018". Eurostat.
- Internet, JSK. "Delegatury Urzędu – Dolnośląski Urząd Wojewódzki". Archived from the original on 31 May 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2017.