"Verde împărat" (Romanian: Green Emperor) is a song recorded by Romanian singer Delia. It was digitally released on 23 October 2017 through Cat Music as a single from her fifth studio album 7 (2020). The track was written and composed by the singer herself, along with additional production from Alex Cotoi. "Verde împărat" is a liquid dubstep and chillout song, with instrumentation from flute, bass and percussion. Its lyrics revolve around Delia's relationship with her partner, who she compares to a "green emperor", along with various nature references.
The song was met with positive reviews from music critics, who thought that it expanded her artistry and praised her vocal performance. An accompanying music video for the track was shot by Alex Ceauşu in early October 2017, and uploaded onto Cat Music's official YouTube channel simultaneously with the single's release. The clip received similar acclaim for its showcase of nature and wilderness. It portrays the singer in a forest, wearing multiple nature-inspired outfits. For further promotion, Delia performed "Verde împărat" for Romanian radio station Radio ZU and during her 2017 concert tour Psihedelia at Sala Palatului. (Full article...)
"Miracle" is a song recorded by Romanian singer Paula Seling and Romanian-Norwegian performer Ovidiu Cernăuțeanu for the latter's 2014 studio album A Bit of Pop Won't Hurt Anyone. It was written by Beyond51, Frida Amundsen, Ovi and Philip Halloun, while production was solely handled by Beyond51. The track was made available for digital download on 28 February 2014 in various countries, along with CDs released in Romania and Norway by the Romanian Television (TVR) and DaWorks, respectively. "Miracle" has been described as a love-themed dance and eurodance song, featuring techno beats and a piano in its instrumentation. Reviewers compared the recording to the music of multiple producers, including Benny Benassi and Avicii.
The track represented Romania in the 2014 Eurovision Song Contest in Copenhagen, Denmark after winning the pre-selection show Selecția Națională. This marked the second time that Seling and Ovi took part in the contest, previously having placed third in 2010 with "Playing with Fire". In 2014, the country reached 12th place in a field of 26, scoring a total of 72 points. During the duo's show, the background LED screen displayed blue tones alongside butterflies and colour streams, while a circular piano was also used onstage as a symbol for unity. Several pyrotechnics were present during the performance, including the first use of holograms in the contest's history. "Miracle" received mixed reviews from music critics, who praised the duo's vocal delivery and the song's composition and dance nature, but criticized its lack of innovation and low-quality lyrics. (Full article...)
"Déjà Vu" is a song by Romanian musician Bob Taylor and Romanian recording artist Inna for the latter's debut studio album, Hot (2009). Released in June 2009, it was written and produced by Sebastian Barac, Radu Bolfea and Marcel Botezan. Musically, the single is of the dance genre, and originally contained the vocals of Romanian singer Alessia. However, after a feud over compensation between Taylor and her, the song was handed to Inna, although the early version had already been released.
When premiering the new version of "Déjà Vu", Taylor and Inna opted for pseudonyms before revealing their identity later. In order to accompany the single, a music video was shot at a club in Neptun, Romania by Tom Boxer, and it initially did not feature Inna until another version of the visual showed footage of her in Turkey. Commercially, the recording experienced success in European countries, reaching the top ten of the charts in Greece, the Commonwealth of Independent States, France and Romania, among others. "Déjà Vu" was certified Gold by the Dutch Association of Producers and Importers of Image and Sound Carriers (NVPI) for selling over 10,000 copies in the Netherlands. (Full article...)
"Colors" is a song by Romanian group Morandi intended to be the lead single off the group's fourth studio album, Zebra. However, it was later included in their compilation album, Best Of (2011). The supposed Zebra's mix of club and British rock served as inspiration for the track. Written by the group, the song was first released on 16 June 2009 in Romania and on 6 August 2009 for digital download and streaming in the United States through Universal Music Romania.
Commercially, the song topped the charts in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and Slovakia, and reached the top five in Bulgaria and the Czech Republic. A music video directed by Marius Moga and Giuliano Bekor was released to promote the song, which premiered on Romanian radio station Radio 21's website and was aired on MTV in late September 2009. The song was nominated at the 2010 Balkan Music Awards and at the 2010 Radio România Actualităţi Awards for Best Song from Romania and Best Pop/Dance Song, respectively. The video also received a nomination in the former ceremony for Best Video in the Balkans 2009. (Full article...)
"It's My Life" represented Romania in the 2013 Eurovision Song Contest in Malmö, Sweden after winning the pre-selection show Selecția Națională. The country reached 13th place in a field of 26, scoring a total of 65 points. Cezar's show featured him dressed in a black sequin cloak standing between fluorescent lighting tubes, while dancers who emerged from a red material placed under him performed interpretive dance. The performance was met with mixed reactions and often featured in publications' lists of Eurovision's most outstanding and peculiar performances. The track itself received similar reviews, with critics arguing over its catchiness, originality, composition and dance nature, as well as over Cezar's vocals. (Full article...)
Changes in the administration of Transylvania between 1300 and 1867
They had wide-ranging administrative, military and judicial powers, but their jurisdiction never covered the whole province. The Saxon and Székely communities – organized into their own districts or "seats" from the 13th century – were independent of the voivodes. The kings also exempted some Transylvanian towns and villages from their authority over the centuries. Even so, the Voivodeship of Transylvania "was the largest single administrative entity" in the entire kingdom in the 15th century. Voivodes enjoyed income from the royal estates attached to their office, but the right to "grant lands, collect taxes and tolls, or coin money" was reserved for the monarchs. Although Roland Borsa, Ladislaus Kán and some other voivodes rebelled against the sovereign, most remained faithful royal officials. (Full article...)
3D model of Ciomadul's central sector seen from the south
Blakumen or Blökumenn were a people mentioned in Scandinavian sources dating from the 11th through 13th centuries. The name of their land, Blokumannaland, has also been preserved. Victor Spinei, Florin Curta, Florin Pintescu and other historians identify them as Romanians (variation of the exonym Vlach), while Omeljan Pritsak argues that they were Cumans. Judith Jesch adds the possibility that the terms meant "black men", the meaning of which is unclear. Historians identify Blokumannaland as the lands south of the Lower Danube which were inhabited by Vlachs in the Middle Ages, adding that the term may refer to either Wallachia (to the north of the Danube) or Africa in the modern Icelandic language. (Full article...)
Prior to Eurovision, "Tornerò" was promoted by a music video, live performances, radio submissions and fellow endeavours in several countries. Romania ultimately reached fourth place in the contest's final on 20 May, achieving 172 points. This remained the country's highest score until 2017. During Romania's show, Trăistariu was accompanied by dance group Big Bounce who performed a mixture of ballet and contemporary dance onstage. Following Eurovision, "Tornerò" achieved commercial success, reaching the top ten in Finland and Greece. (Full article...)
"Amazing" is a song recorded by Romanian singer Inna for her 2009 debut studio album Hot. It was released as the fourth single from the record on 6 August 2009. Written and produced by Play & Win members Sebastian Barac, Radu Bolfea and Marcel Botezan, "Amazing" is a Pop Music track with a Spanish guitar and beats in its instrumentation. One reviewer regarded the song as being similar to Inna's past work, however, with the addition of new elements. Other music critics gave positive reviews of the single, and praised its construction and foresaw its commercial success.
Play & Win were involved in a breach of contract controversy in August 2009, with Romanian singer Anca Badiu sustaining that "Amazing" had been originally intended for her before released by Inna. The song was aided by an accompanying music video premiered on 10 September 2009. Shot by Tom Boxer at the Atlantic ocean and near Lisbon, it portrays the singer surfing and being saved from drowning by a lifeguard. For further promotion, Inna also performed "Amazing" on several occasions, including at the 2010 Eska Music Awards and the MAD Video Music Awards. Commercially, the song topped the charts in Romania and Bulgaria, while reaching the top 20 in multiple other countries. It was also nominated in two categories at the 2010 Romanian Music Awards, and won in the Pop/Dance Song of the Year section at the 2010 Radio România Actualități Awards. (Full article...)
Maria Theresa started her 40-year reign when her father, Emperor Charles VI, died on 20 October 1740. Charles VI paved the way for her accession with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 and spent his entire reign securing it. He neglected the advice of Prince Eugene of Savoy, who believed that a strong military and a rich treasury were more important than mere signatures. Eventually, Charles VI left behind a weakened and impoverished state, particularly due to the War of the Polish Succession and the Russo-Turkish War (1735–1739). Moreover, upon his death, Saxony, Prussia, Bavaria, and France all repudiated the sanction they had recognised during his lifetime. Frederick II of Prussia (who became Maria Theresa's greatest rival for most of her reign) promptly invaded and took the affluent Habsburg province of Silesia in the eight-year conflict known as the War of the Austrian Succession. In defiance of the grave situation, she managed to secure the vital support of the Hungarians for the war effort. During the course of the war, Maria Theresa successfully defended her rule over most of the Habsburg monarchy, apart from the loss of Silesia and a few minor territories in Italy. Maria Theresa later unsuccessfully tried to recover Silesia during the Seven Years' War. (Full article...)
Image 38Ethnic map of Greater Romania according to the 1930 census. Sizeable ethnic minorities put Romania at odds with Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Soviet Union throughout the interwar period. (from History of Romania)
Image 51Leutnant Emil Rebreanu was awarded the Medal for Bravery in gold, the highest military award given by the Austrian command to an ethnic Romanian; he would later be hanged for desertion while trying to escape to Romania. Was the inspiration for his brother's famous novel "The Forest of the Hanged" (from History of Romania)
Image 751941 stamp depicting a Romanian and a German soldier in reference to the two countries' common participation in Operation Barbarossa. The text below reads "the holy war against Bolshevism". (from History of Romania)