List of political parties in Romania

This article lists political parties in Romania. Romania has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which no one party often has a chance of gaining parliamentary majority alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments. The current system was established following the Romanian Revolution of 1989 and the adoption of a new constitution in 1991; prior to these events, Romania was a single-party state under the Communist Party of Romania (PCR).

Since the early 1990s, Romanian politics saw a gradual decrease in the number of parties entering Parliament and a relative consolidation of existing parties along ideological lines. Major parties can be roughly grouped into liberal, social democratic, or conservative "families".[1] Extremist groups have a relatively low political profile in Romania, despite a surge in popularity of far right and Eurosceptic parties across Europe in the 2010s.[2]

Party switching (Romanian: traseism politic) remains an issue, however, as does corruption, leading to an overall low level of public trust in political parties (12% in December 2014).[3] To counter this perception, the two largest parties as of 2015 (the Social Democrats and the National Liberals) have initiated a series of internal reforms to strengthen their integrity criteria and impose disciplinary sanctions on party members investigated or convicted on corruption charges.[4][5][6]

Legal frameworkEdit

Article 40 of the Constitution of Romania states that citizens can freely associate into political parties, with the exception of judges, military and police personnel and other civil servants which are apolitical by law.[7] The same article bans parties which campaign against political pluralism, the rule of law, and Romania's sovereignty and territorial integrity. Romania's party system is regulated by Law no. 14/2003 on political parties; the law initially mandated a list of 25,000 supporters, residing in at least 18 counties and the Municipality of Bucharest, for a party to be formally registered. However, in February 2015, the unregistered Pirate Party of Romania filed a complaint with the Constitutional Court, arguing that the list requirement is a violation of the constitutional provisions on freedom of association. The Court subsequently struck down the requirement as unconstitutional, and on 6 May 2015, the Romanian Parliament approved a modified version of the law, which allows the formation of a political party with 3 signatures.[8][9]

Parties represented in ParliamentEdit

Current political parties with parliamentary representation, in order of the number of representatives they have in the Chamber of Deputies:

Logo Name Abbr. Founded Leader Ideology Position Deputies Senators MEPs European affiliation
  Social Democratic Party
(Romanian: Partidul Social Democrat)
PSD 2001 Marcel Ciolacu Social democracy
Left-wing nationalism
Social conservatism
Soft Euroscepticism
Centre-left 106 46 8 PES
  National Liberal Party
(Romanian: Partidul Național Liberal)
PNL 1990/1875 Florin Cîțu National liberalism
Liberal conservatism[10]
Pro-Europeanism
Centre-right 79 38 10 EPP
  Save Romania Union
(Romanian: Uniunea Salvați România)
USR 2016 Dacian Cioloș Anti-corruption[11][12]
Liberalism
Progressivism[13]
Pro-Europeanism
Centre to
centre-right
55 25 8 ALDE[14]
  Alliance for the Union of Romanians
(Romanian: Alianța pentru Unirea Românilor)
AUR 2019 George Simion
Claudiu Târziu
Romanian nationalism
Conservatism
Soft Euroscepticism
Romanian-Moldovan unionism
Right-wing populism
Right-wing to
far-right
27 13 0 ECR[15]
  Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania
(Romanian: Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România)
(Hungarian: Romániai Magyar Demokrata Szövetség)
UDMR
RMDSZ
1989 Hunor Kelemen Hungarian minority interests
Liberal conservatism
Regionalism
Pro-Europeanism
Centre-right 20 9 2 EPP
Humanist Power Party
(Romanian: Partidul Puterii Umaniste)
PPU 2015 Daniel Ionașcu Humanism[citation needed]
Social liberalism[citation needed]
Centre-left 4 1 1 None
Romanian Nationhood Party
(Romanian: Partidul Neamului Românesc)
NR 2018 Ninel Peia Romanian nationalism
Right-wing populism
Right-wing to
far-right
4 1 0 None

In addition, ethnic minority organizations are granted each seat in the Chamber of Deputies if: (1) are the sole official representative organization of the minority; (2) they participate in the legislative election and do not pass the 5% threshold but obtain at least 10% of the number of votes calculated to correspond to electing one deputy. These seats are added to the number of seats put up for election. As of 2021, there are eighteen such seats. The Hungarian minority organization, the Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR) passes the 5% threshold for both houses of the Romanian Parliament, and is treated as a regular party.

Parties only represented in the European ParliamentEdit

Besides the parties represented in the Romanian Parliament, the following parties only have representation in the European Parliament:

Logo Name Abbr. Founded Leader Ideology Position MEPs European affiliation
  PRO Romania
(Romanian: PRO România)
PRO 2018 Victor Ponta Social liberalism Centre to centre-left 1 European Democratic Party
People's Movement Party
(Romanian: Partidul Mișcarea Populară)
PMP 2014 Cristian Diaconescu Monarchism, Christian democracy, Romanian-Moldovan unionism[16] Centre-right 2 European People's Party
Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party
(Romanian: Partidul Național Țărănesc Creștin Democrat)
PNȚ-CD 1990 Aurelian Pavelescu Christian democracy, Agrarianism Centre-right 1 European Christian Political Movement

Minor partiesEdit

Ethnic minority organizationsEdit

Association of Italians of Romania Asociația Italienilor din România - RO.AS.IT., Associazione degli Italiani di Romania - RO.AS.IT.
Association of Macedonians of Romania Asociația Macedonenilor din România, Друштвото на Македонците од Романија
Bulgarian Union of the Banat - Romania Uniunea Bulgară din Banat - România, Български съюз на Банат - Румъния
Community of the Lipovan Russians in Romania Comunitatea Rușilor Lipoveni din România, Община русских-липован Румынии
Cultural Union of Ruthenians of Romania Uniunea Culturală a Rutenilor din România, Културне Товариство Русинів Романії
Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania Forumul Democrat al Germanilor din România, Demokratisches Forum der Deutschen in Rumänien
Democratic Union of Slovaks and Czechs in Romania Uniunea Democratică a Slovacilor și Cehilor din România, Demokratický svaz Slováků a Čechů v Rumunsku, Demokratický zväz Slovákov a Čechov v Rumunsku
Democratic Union of Turkish-Muslim Tatars of Romania Uniunea Democrată a Tătarilor Turco-Musulmani din România, Romanya Müslüman Tatar Türklerĭ Demokrat Bĭrlĭgĭ
Federation of Jewish Communities of Romania Federația Comunităților Evreiești din România
Hellenic Union of Romania Uniunea Elenă din România, Ένωση Ελλήνων της Ρουμανίας
League of Albanians of Romania Liga Albanezilor din România, Liga e shqiptarëve në Rumani
Party of the Roma Partida Romilor, Partida le Romenge
Turkish Democratic Union of Romania Uniunea Democrată Turcă din România, Romanya Türk Demokrat Birliği
Union of Armenians of Romania Uniunea Armenilor din România, Ռումինիայի հայերի միություն
Union of Croatians of Romania Uniunea Croaților din România, Zajedništvo Hrvata u Rumunjskoj
Union of Poles of Romania Uniunea Polonezilor din România "Dom Polski", Związek Polaków w Rumunii "Dom Polski"
Union of Serbs of Romania Uniunea Sârbilor din România, Савез Срба у Румунији
Union of Ukrainians of Romania Uniunea Ucrainienilor din România, Союз українців Румунії

Parties with elected representation at local and county levelEdit

The following are political parties which ran by themselves in the 2020 local elections and won elected representation at local and county level (does not include seats won on alliance tickets):[17]

Party Native name (Abbr.) Local councillors County councillors European Affiliation
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats Alianța Liberalilor și Democraților (ALDE) 861 15
Romanian Ecologist Party Partidul Ecologist Român (PER) 210 5
Green Party Partidul Verde (PV) 117 0 EGP
Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party Partidul Național Țărănesc Creștin Democrat (PNȚ-CD) 42 0 ECPM
Alternative for National Dignity Alternativa pentru Demnitate Națională (ADN) 46 0
Hungarian Civic Party Magyar Polgári Párt (MPP) / Partidul Civic Maghiar 36 0
Freemen's Party Partidul Oamenilor Liberi (POL) / A Szabad Emberek Pártja 35 2
Hungarian People's Party of Transylvania Erdélyi Magyar Néppárt (EMNP) / Partidul Popular Maghiar din Transilvania 33 0 EFA
Greater Romania Party Partidul România Mare (PRM) 31 0
"Prahova in Action" Party Partidul Prahova în Acțiune 27 2
Party of Ialomițans Partidul Ialomițenilor (PI) 23 0
Party of the Romanian Nation Partidul Neamul Românesc (NR) 20 0
RE:Start Romania Party Partidul RE:Start România 16 0
The Right Alternative Alternativa Dreaptă (AD) 13 0 ECRP
Republican Party of Romania Partidul Republican din România 13 0
National Peasant Alliance Alianța Național Țărănistă (Țărăniștii) 12 0
National Peasants' Party Maniu-Mihalache Partidul Național Țărănesc Maniu-Mihalache (PNȚMM) 10 0
ADER party for democracy, education and reconstruction Partidul Ader la Democrație, Educație și Reconstrucție (ADER) 8 0
Independent Union for Sighișoara Uniunea Independentă pentru Sighișoara (UIPS) 6 0
Phralipe Party of the Roma Partidul Phralipe al Romilor (PPR) 5 0
"Together for Moldova" Party Partidul Împreuna Pentru Moldova (IPM) 4 0
Pătârlagele Initiative Inițiativa Pătârlagele (iPTG) 4 0
Bloc for National Unity Blocul Unității Naționale (BUN) 4 0
Romanian Socialist Party Partidul Socialist Român (PSR) 3 0 PEL
Liberal Right Dreapta Liberală (DL) 3 0
Christian Democratic Union of Romania Uniunea Creștin-Democrată din România (UCDR) 3 0
European Romania Party Partidul România Europeană (PRE) 3 0
New Right Noua Dreaptă (ND) 2 0 APF
PACT for Galați PACT pentru Galați 2 0
Banat Party Partidul Banatul (PB) 2 0
Union for Bucovina Uniunea pentru Bucovina (UB) 2 0
Our Otopeni Initiative Inițiativa Otopeniul Nostru (ION) 1 0
National Alliance of Farmers Alianța Națională a Agricultorilor (ANA) 1 0
Alliance for the Unity of Rroma Alianța pentru Unitatea Rromilor (AURr) 1 0
Romanian National Party Partidul Național Român (PNR) 1 0
"National Force" Party Partidul Forța Națională 1 0

The following parties have won seats in the 2020 local elections only as part of electoral alliances:

Party Alliances Local councilors elected on alliance ticket
Bucureşti 2020 Party Pro Bucureşti 2020 Alliance 5

Parties without elected representationEdit

Party Native name (Abbr.) Founded
Communitarian Party of Romania Partidul Comunitar din România (PCDR) 2015
Democracy and Solidarity Party Partidul Democrației și Solidarității (Demos) 2018
National Rebirth Alliance Alianța Renașterea Națională (ARN) 2019
National Union for the Progress of Romania Uniunea Națională pentru Progresul României (UNPR) 2010
New Generation Party – Christian Democratic Partidul Noua Generație – Creștin Democrat (PNG-CD) 2000
New Republic Noua Republică 2013
Party of the Revolution Partidul Revoluției (PR) 2016
Social Christian People's Union Uniunea Populară Social Creștină (UPSC) 2006
Social Democratic Workers' Party Partidul Social Democrat al Muncitorilor (PSDM) 2015
United Left Party Partidul Stângii Unite 2005
United Romania Party Partidul România Unită (PRU) 2015

Defunct partiesEdit

Parties no longer active:

Parties active 1859–1918Edit

Conservative Party Partidul Conservator Active 1880–1918
Conservative-Democratic Party Partidul Conservator-Democrat An offshoot of the Conservative Party, led by Take Ionescu; merged into the Conservative Nationalist Party; active 1908–1922
Conservative Nationalist Party Partidul Conservator Naționalist An offshoot of the Conservative Party, active 1916 – c.1935
Constitutional Party Partidul Constituțional Active 1891–1907
Democratic Nationalist Party Partidul Naționalist-Democrat (PND) Right-wing nationalist party; active 1910–1938
Free and Independent Faction Fracțiunea liberă și independentă Active 1866–1875; merged into the National Liberal Party[18]
National Liberal Party Partidul Național-Liberal Active 1875–1947
National Party Partida Națională Active 1856–1859
Peasants' Party Partida Țărănească Active 1895[19]
Radical Party / Radical Democratic Party Partidul Radical / Partidul Democrat Radical An offshoot of the National Liberal Party, led by George Panu; active c. 1884[18]–1895; merged into the Conservative Party
Social Democratic Party of Romania Partidul Social Democrat din România (PSDR) Active 1910–1916, groups active illegally 1916–1918; Transformed into the Socialist Party of Romania
Romanian Social-Democratic Workers' Party Partidul Social-Democrat al Muncitorilor din România (PSDMR) Active 1893–1899; most of its leadership joined the National Liberal Party, with others members eventually joining the Social Democratic Party of Romania

Parties active 1918−1947Edit

The following parties were all active in Romania in the interwar period and, in some cases, through and after World War II. Dates of founding and dissolution are given, where known. Failing that, the earliest and latest dates known for activities are given.

This period saw the proliferation of numerous extremist parties inspired by fascism, socialism and Communism. The latter were effectively banned in 1924 by the so-called Mârzescu law.[20] A succession of coups drastically altered the political landscape as Romania went through a single-party dictatorship under the National Renaissance Front (1938–1940), then a military dictatorship without political parties (1940–1944), then briefly returning to multiparty democracy before finally becoming a people's republic (1944–1947).

Agrarian League Liga Agrară Offshoot of the People's Party; active 1929–1938
Agrarian Party Partidul Agrar Led by Constantin Argetoianu; active 1932–1938[21]
Bessarabian Peasants' Party Partidul Țărănesc din Basarabia () Founded in the Moldavian Democratic Republic; most of it merged into the Peasants' Party in 1921, a wing led by Ion Inculeț kept the name and later joined the National Liberal Party; active 1918–1923[22]
Bolshevik Leninist Group of Romania Grupul Bolșevic Leninist din România A Trotskyist grouping led by David Korner; active 1935.[23]
Citizen Bloc Blocul Cetățenesc A nationalist party led by Grigore Forțu; active 1934[24]
Citizen Committees-Dem. I. Dobrescu Comitetele Cetățenești Dem. I. Dobrescu A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party; active 1935–1938[25]
Communist Party of Romania Partidul Comunist din România (PCdR) Founded in 1921 as the Socialist-Communist Party (Partidul Socialist-Comunist), a group that emerged from the Socialist Party of Romania; after 1944 Romanian Communist Party (Partidul Comunist Român (PCR)); active 1921–1948. Absorbed the Social Democratic Party and renamed itself the Romanian Workers' Party
Conservative-Democratic Party Partidul Conservator-Democrat An offshoot of the Conservative Party, led by Take Ionescu; merged into the Conservative Nationalist Party; active 1908–1922
Conservative Nationalist Party Partidul Conservator Naționalist An offshoot of the Conservative Party, active 1916 – c.1935
Crusade of Romanianism Cruciada Românismului Fascist party; active 1935–1936.[26]
Democratic Bloc / Democratic Union Blocul democratic / Uniunea democratică Anti-fascist political organizations under the influence of the Romanian Communist Party, active 1935–1936, 1937–1939
Democratic Nationalist Party Partidul Naționalist-Democrat (PND) Right-wing nationalist party, active 1910–1938
Democratic Peasants' Party–Stere Partidul Țărănesc-Democrat Constantin Stere (PȚD) A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party, merged with the Radical Peasants' Party; active 1930–1933[27]
Democratic Peasants' Party–Lupu Partidul Țărănesc-Democrat Nicolae L. Lupu (PȚD) A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party; active 1946–1948[28]
Fire Swastika Svastica de Foc Fascist party, an offshoot of the National-Christian Defense League; active 1935–1938[21]
German Party Partidul German din România (PGR) / Deutsche Partei in Rumänien Generally backing the party in government, it became strongly influenced by National Socialism after 1936; active 1919–1944[29]
German People's Party Partidul Poporului German din România (PPGR) / Deutsche Volkspartei in Rumänien (DVPR) An offshoot of the German Party, active 1935–1938
Hungarian People's Union Uniunea Populară Maghiară (UPM) / Magyar Népi Szövetség (MNSZ) An offshoot of the Magyar Party, created as Union of Hungarian Workers of Romania' (Magyar Dolgozók Országos Szövetsége (MADOSZ)), in close alliance with the Communist Party of Romania; active 1934–1953
Independent Social Democratic Party Partidul Social Democrat Independent (PSDI) A dissident wing of the Social Democratic Party, led by Constantin Titel Petrescu; active 1946–1947[30]
Iron Guard Garda de Fier The usual name of the group founded as the Legion of the Archangel Michael (Legiunea Arhanghelul Mihail or Legiunea Arhanghelului Mihail), running in election first as the "Corneliu Codreanu" Grouping (Gruparea "Corneliu Codreanu") and then as the Everything For the Country Party (Partidul Totul pentru Țară (TPȚ)) - fascist party active between 1927 and c. 1944–1945 (with minor groups claiming heritage to this day)
Jewish Democratic Committee Comitetul Democratic Evreiesc In close alliance with the Communist Party of Romania; active 1946–1948[31]
Jewish Party Partidul Evreiesc Active 1923–1938[32]
Laborer Party Partidul Muncitor Active 1918; merged into the Peasants' Party[33]
League against Usury Liga Contra Cametei Active 1929 – c.1931[34]
Liberal Democratic Party Partidul Liberal-Democrat (PLD) Founded as "Free Man" Grouping (Gruparea "Omul Liber") - a dissident wing of the National Liberal Party, led by Jean Th. Florescu; active 1931–1935.[35]
Magyar Party Partidul Maghiar Active 1922–1938[36]
National-Agrarian Action Acțiunea Național-Agrară (ANA) An offshoot of the National Peasants' Party, merged into the National Union for Work and Reconstruction; active 1946–1947[37]
National Agrarian Party Partidul Național Agrar (PNA) An offshoot of the People's Party, merged into the National Christian Party; active c.1931–1935[38]
National Awareness Guard Garda Conștiinței Naționale (GCN) A fascist party formed around Constantin Pancu; active 1919–1922[39]
National-Christian Defense League Liga Apărării Național-Creștine (LANC) A far right proto-fascist party, merged into National Christian Party; active 1920–1935
National Christian Party Partidul Național-Creștin (PNC) Fascist party, active 1935–1938
National-Corporatist League Liga Național-Corporatistă A fascist party, led by Mihail Manoilescu; active 1932–1938[40]
National Fascist Movement Mișcarea Națională Fascistă (MNF) Active cca. 1923
National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement Mișcarea Națională Culturală și Economică Italo-Română Fascist party, merged into the National Fascist Movement; active 1921–1923[41]
National Liberal Party Partidul Național-Liberal (PNL) Active 1875–1947; the present-day PNL claims to be the successor of this party.
National Liberal Party-Brătianu Partidul Național Liberal-Brătianu (PNL) A dissident wing of the National Liberal Party; active 1931–1935
National Liberal Party-Tătărescu/National Liberal Party-Bejan Partidul Național-Liberal-Tătărescu (PNL) / Partidul Național-Liberal-Bejan (PNL) A dissident wing of the National Liberal Party; active 1944–1948
National Peasants' Party Partidul Național Țărănesc (PNȚ) Merger of the Romanian National Party and the Peasants' Party; active 1926–1947
National Peasants' Party–Alexandrescu Partidul Național Țărănesc-Anton Alexandrescu (PNȚ) An offshoot of the National Peasants' Party, in close alliance with the Romanian Communist Party, merged into the Ploughmen's Front; active 1945–1948[42]
National Renaissance Front Frontul Renașterii Naționale (FRN) Renamed Party of the Nation (Partidul Națiunii) in 1940, created as the fascist-inspired single official corporatist party by King Carol II; active 1938–1940
National Romanian Fascia Fascia Națională Română Merged into the National Fascist Movement; active c.1920–1923[43]
National Socialist Party Partidul Național-Socialist Fascist party; active 1933[44]
National Socialist German Workers' Party of the German ethnic group in Romania Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei der deutschen Volksgruppe in Rumänien (NSDAP-DVGiR) / Partidul Național-Socialist Muncitoresc German al Grupului Etnic German din România Local branch of the Nazi Party, membership limited to the German minority; active 1940–1944
National Union for Work and Reconstruction Uniunea Națională Muncă și Refacere (UNMR) Led by Constantin Argetoianu, partly merged into the Union of Patriots and the Ploughmen's Front; active 1947[37]
Peasant Workers' Bloc Blocul Muncitoresc-Țărănesc (BMȚ) An umbrella group for the banned Communist Party of Romania; active 1925–1933
Peasants' Party Partidul Țărănesc () Founded 1918, merged with the Romanian National Party into the National Peasants' Party in 1927
Peasants' Party–Lupu Partidul Țărănesc Nicolae L. Lupu (PȚD) A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party; active 1927–1934[45]
People's Party Partidul Poporului (PP) Founded under the name People's League (Liga Poporului); active 1918–1929
Ploughmen's Front Frontul Plugarilor Closely associated with the Romanian Communist Party; active 1933–1953
Progressive Conservative Party Partidul Conservator-Progresist An offshoot of the Conservative Party, led by Alexandru Marghiloman; active in 1918
Radical Peasants' Party Partidul Țărănesc-Radical (PȚR) A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party; active 1933–1938[46]
Romanian Front Frontul Român (FR) Far right offshoot of National Peasants' Party; active 1935 – c.1944[47]
Romanian National Party Partidul Național Român (PNR) Founded inside Austria-Hungary in 1881, merged with the Peasants' Party to form the National Peasants' Party in 1927
Social Democratic Party Partidul Social Democrat (PSD or PSDR) Created from the merger of the parties forming the Federation of Romanian Socialist Parties, merged into the Romanian Communist Party; active 1927–1948
Social Democratic Party of Bukovina Partidul Social Democrat din Bucovina Founded inside Austria-Hungary, briefly joined into the Socialist Party of Romania, before separating again and becoming an autonomous section of the Federation of Romanian Socialist Parties, which evolved into the Social Democratic Party; active 1896–1920, 1921–1927
Socialist Party (Popovici) Partidul Socialist (PS) An offshoot of the Social Democratic Party, led by Constantin Popovici, merged with the Independent Socialist Party to create the Unitary Socialist Party, only to break from the latter and ultimately join the Union of Patriots; active 1933, 1935–1944
Social Democratic Party of Transylvania and Banat / Socialist Party of Transylvania and Banat Partidul Social Democrat din Transilvania și Banat / Partidul Socialist din Transilvania și Banat Founded inside Austria-Hungary, it emerged from the Hungarian Social Democratic Party, and briefly joined into the Socialist Party of Romania, before separating again and becoming an autonomous section of the Federation of Romanian Socialist Parties, which evolved into the Social Democratic Party; active 1906–1920, 1921–1927
Socialist Democratic Party Partidul Socialist Democrat (PSD) Created by Ioan Flueraș and George Grigorovici, expelled from the Social Democratic Party for collaboration with totalitarian regimes; active 1945–1946[48]
Socialist Party of Romania Partidul Socialist din România (PS) Formed by members of the Social Democratic Party, it absorbed the Social Democratic Party of Transylvania and Banat and the Romanian Social Democratic Party of Bukovina; active 1918–1921
Socialist Peasants' Party Partidul Socialist-Țărăneasc (PSȚ) A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party, merged into the Ploughmen's Front; active 1943–1944[49]
Socialist Workers Party / Independent Socialist Party Partidul Socialist al Muncitorilor (PSM) / Partidul Socialist Independent (PSI) An offshoot of the Social Democratic Party, led by Leon Ghelerter, merged with the Socialist Party (Popovici) to create the Unitary Socialist Party; active 1928–1933
Union of Patriots/National Popular Party Uniunea Patrioților / Partidul Național-Popular (PNP) In close alliance with the Communist Party of Romania; active 1942–1948[50]
Ukrainian Workers' Party of Romania Партія українських працюючих Румунії "Визволення"/Vîzvolenia An offshoot of the Social Democratic Party of Bukovina, it closely collaborated with the Worker-Peasant Bloc; active primarily in northern Bukovina, in 1929–1934.
Unitary Socialist Party Partidul Socialist Unitar (PSU) Merger of the Independent Socialist Party and the Socialist Party (Popovici), merged into the Social Democratic Party; active 1933–1938, 1944[51]
Vlad Țepeș League Liga "Vlad Țepeș" Offshoot of the People's Party, led by Grigore Filipescu; active 1929–1938

Communist-era parties (1947–1989)Edit

Although distinct parties in the communist era were not politically relevant, the following were the officially recognized political forces:

Romanian Communist Party Partidul Comunist Român (PCR) Known as Romanian Workers' Party (Partidul Muncitoresc Român (PMR)) between 1948 and 1965; disestablished in 1989
Front of Socialist Unity and Democracy Frontul Democrației și Unitații Socialiste (FDUS) An organization created as an outlet of the PCR; active 1968-1989
General Union of Romanian Trade Unions Uniunea Generală a Sindicatelor din România (UGSR) Active 1948–1989
Hungarian People's Union Uniunea Populară Maghiară (UPM) / Magyar Népi Szövetség (MNSZ) Created as Union of Hungarian Workers of Romania (Magyar Dolgozók Országos Szövetsége (MADOSZ)), in close alliance with the Romanian Communist Party; active 1934–1953
Jewish Democratic Committee Comitetul Democratic Evreiesc In close alliance with the Romanian Communist Party; active 1946–1953[31]
Ploughmen's Front Frontul Plugarilor Closely associated with the Romanian Communist Party; active 1933–1953

Other parties were allowed to exist, with unclear status, until mid-1948.[52]

Post−1989 partiesEdit

Alliance for Romania Alianța pentru România (APR) Splinter of the Party of Social Democracy in Romania; absorbed into National Liberal Party; active June, 1997–August, 2001
Civic Alliance Party Partidul Alianța Civică (PAC) Absorbed into National Liberal Party; active 1991–1998
Civic Force Forța Civică (FC) Absorbed into Democratic Liberal Party; active 2004–2014
Conservative Party Partidul Conservator (PC) Founded as the Romanian Humanist Party; merged into the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats; active 1991–2015
Democratic Agrarian Party of Romania Partidul Democrat Agrar din România (PDAR) Merged into the Romanian National Party; active 1990–1998
Democratic Force Forţa Democrată (FD) Created by former members of the Democratic Party; active 2004-2013
Democratic Liberal Party Partidul Democrat Liberal (PDL) Absorbed into National Liberal Party; active 2007–2014
Democratic National Salvation Front Frontul Democrat al Salvării Naționale Splinter of the National Salvation Front, merged into the Party of Social Democracy in Romania; active 1992–1993
Democratic Party Partidul Democrat (PD) Created as the National Salvation Front, merged into the Democratic Liberal Party; active 1990–2007
Democratic Party of Labour Partidul Democrat al Muncii (PDM) Merged into the Democratic Party; active 1990–1994
Democratic Union of the Roma of Romania Uniunea Democratică a Romilor din România (UDRR) Active 1990-1992
Ecological Federation of Romania Federația Ecologistă din România (FER) Splinter of Ecological Federation of Romania, absorbed into People's Action; active 1990-2004
Ecological Movement of Romania Mișcarea Ecologistă din România (MER) Absorbed into Ecological Federation of Romania; active 1990-1998
Ecologist Union of Romania Party Partidul Uniunea Ecologistă din România (PUER) Absorbed into Ecologist Party of Romania; active March–August 2012
Everything For the Country Party Partidul "Totul Pentru Țară Dissolved; active 1993–2015
Freedom, Unity and Solidarity Party Partidul Libertate, Unitate și Solidaritate (PLUS) Merged into Save Romania Union; active 2018–2020
Liberal Democratic Party Partidul Liberal Democrat Splinter of the Democratic Party, merged into the Democratic Liberal Party; active 2006–2007
Liberal Party Partidul Liberal (PL) Absorbed into the National Liberal Party; active 1997–1998
Liberal Party 1993 Partidul Liberal 1993 (PL 93) Merged into the Liberal Party; active 1993–1997
Liberal Reformist Party Partidul Liberal Reformator Splinter of the National Liberal Party, merged into the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats; active 2014–2015
Liberal Union–Bratiănu Uniunea Liberală Bratiănu (UL-B) Splinter of the National Liberal Party; active 1990-2003
M10 M10 Merged into The Right Alternative; active 2015–2019
National Alliance Party Partidul Alianța Națională (PAN) Merged into Democratic Party; active 2000–2001
National Christian Democratic Alliance Alianța Natională Creștin Democrată (ANCD) Splinter of the Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party, rejoined the main party; active 1999-2001
National Christian Democratic Party Partidul Național Democrat Creștin (PNDC) Active 1990–2014
National Democratic Party Partidul Național Democrat (PND) Merged into the Party of the Social-Democratic Unity; active 1990–1992
National Initiative Party Partidul Inițiativa Națională (PIN) Create by former members of the Democratic Party, absorbed into the National Union for the Progress of Romania; active 2005-2011
National Liberal Party-Câmpeanu Partidul Național-Liberal-Câmpeanu (PN-L-C) Splinter of the National Liberal Party, rejoined the main party; active 1995–2003
National Liberal Party-Democratic Convention Partidul Național Liberal - Convenţia Democrată (PNL-CD) Splinter of the National Liberal Party, merged into the Liberal Party; active 1991–1997
National Liberal Party Youth Wing Partidul Național-Liberal Aripa Tînără (PNLAT) Splinter of the National Liberal Party, merged into the Liberal Party 1993; active 1990–1992
National Reconstruction Party of Romania Partidul Reconstrucției Naționale a României Merged into Democratic Agrarian Party of Romania; active 1990-1992
National Salvation Front–Social Democratic Frontul Salvării Naţionale–Social Democrat (FSN–SD) Splinter of the National Salvation Front, merged into the Party of the Social-Democratic Unity; active 1991–1992
New Romania Party Partidul Noua Românie Merged into the Romanian National Party; active 1994–1998
Party of Free Change Partidul Liber-Schimbist (PL-S) Active 1990–1996
Party of Young Free Democrats of Romania Partidul Tineretului Liber Democrat din Romania (PTLD) Merged into the Republican Party (1990); active 1990–1992
Party of Social Democracy in Romania Partidul Democrației Sociale din România (PSDR) Merged into the Social Democratic Party; active 1993–2001
Party of Romanian Life Partidul Vieții Românești (PVR) Active 2000–2002
Party of the Social Democratic Unity Partidul Unității Social Democrate (PUSD) Merged into the Democratic Party; active 1992-1995
People's Action Acțiunea Populară (AP) Splinter of the Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party, merged into the National Liberal Party; active 2003–2008
People's Party Partidul Popular (PP) Merged into the National Liberal Party; active 2003–2014
People's Party – Dan Diaconescu Partidul Poporului – Dan Diaconescu (PP-DD) Absorbed into the National Union for the Progress of Romania; active 2011–2015
Republican Party (1990) Partidul Republican (PR) Merged into the Party of Social Democracy in Romania; active 1990-1993
Republican Party (1993) Partidul Republican (PR) Created by former members of the Republican Party (1990); active 1993-2003
Republican Party (2004) Partidul Republican (PR) Created as the Party of the Third Millennium, renamed in 2005; active 2004-2007
Romanian Democratic Front Frontul Democrat Român Merged into the Democratic Party; active 1990–1997
Romanian Liberal Democratic Party Partidul Liberal Democrat Român Created by former members of the Liberal Party, merged into the Greater Romania Party; active 1999–2002
Romanian National Party Partidul Național Român Merged into the National Alliance Party; active 1998–2000
Romanian National Unity Party Partidul Unității Naționale a Românilor / Partidul Unității Națiunii Române (PUNR) Merged into the National Alliance Party in 2000; re-emerged as a distinct party in 2001; merged into the Conservative Party in 2006; active 1990–2000, 2001–2006
Romanian Rebirth Party Partidul Renașterea Românească Active 2004–2013
Romanian Social Democratic Party Partidul Social Democrat Român (PSDR) Merged into the Social Democratic Party; active 1990–2001
Romanian Social Party Partidul Social Românesc (PSRO) Created as Romanian Democratic Union, name changed in 2015; active 2013–2018
Romanian Socialist Democratic Party Partidul Socialist Democratic Român (PSDR) Merged into the Party of Social Democracy in Romania; active 1990–1993
Romanian Socialist Party (1992) Partidul Socialist Român Active 1992-2013
Social Protection People's Party Partidul Popular și al Protecției Sociale Absorbed into National Union for the Progress of Romania; active 1994–2011
Save Bucharest Union Uniunea Salvaţi Bucureştiul (USB) Absorbed into the Save Romania Union; active 2015–2016
Socialist Alliance Party Partidul Alianța Socialistă Created by former members of the Socialist Party of Labour, merged into the Socialist Alternative Party; active 2004–2013
Socialist Party of Labour Partidul Socialist al Muncii (PSM) Absorbed into the Social Democratic Party; active 1990-2003
Union for Romanian Reconstruction Uniunea pentru Reconstrucția României (URR) Absorbed into Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party; active 2002-2005
Union of Right-Wing Forces Uniunea Forțelor de Dreapta (UFD) Founded as Alternative for Romania Party (Partidul Alternativa României, PAR), changed its name to UFD in 2000, absorbed into National Liberal Party in April 2003; active 1996-2003
Workers' Social Democratic Party Partidul Social Democrat al Muncitorilor (PSDM) Created by former members of the Romanian Social Democratic Party as the Social Democratic Party "Constantin Titel Petrescu", renamed in 2011; active 2003–2013

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "The Ideological Institutionalization of the Romanian Party System". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  2. ^ "The Extreme Right in Contemporary Romania" (PDF). Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  3. ^ "Crește încrederea în Președinție și Armata, scade în Biserica și presa - sondaj INSCOP". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  4. ^ "PSD și PNL se întrec în demonstrații de reformă internă, să-i excludă pe membrii corupți". Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  5. ^ "Modificare statut PSD: Membrii condamnați în primă instanță pentru corupție, suspendați din partid". Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  6. ^ "PNL a definitivat modificările la Statut, în privința criteriilor de integritate". Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  7. ^ "ARTICLE 40". Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  8. ^ "Partidul Pirat din România schimbă legea partidelor politice la CCR: nu mai e nevoie de minimum 25.000 de membri fondatori". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  9. ^ "Camera Deputaților a adoptat trei legi electorale: legea finanțarii partidelor reexaminata, legea partidelor politice și legea alegerilor locale". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  10. ^ "National Liberal Party (PNL)". Retrieved 4 August 2016.
  11. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2016). "Romania". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  12. ^ "Leader of Romanian anti-corruption party resigns". POLITICO. 1 June 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  13. ^ Luiza Ilie (6 December 2016). "New progressive party gives Romanian centrists a chance in election". Reuters.
  14. ^ "ALDE Party Council meets in Zürich". ALDE. 2019-06-28. Retrieved 2019-06-28.
  15. ^ "Cine este AUR, partidul venit de nicăieri care ar putea intra în Parlament. Ce spunea George Simion, fondatorul partidului, în urmă cu câteva zile: Noi suntem legaţi de micul producător, de ţăranul român. Prima lege pe care am da-o ar fi protejarea capitalului român pentru agricultori". Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  16. ^ https://www.osw.waw.pl/en/publikacje/analyses/2017-01-11/prospects-centre-left-government-romania
  17. ^ "Rezultate finale 27 Septembrie 2020". BEC, Biroul Electoral Central (in Romanian). Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  18. ^ a b Ornea
  19. ^ Niculae, et al., p. 39
  20. ^ "Mârzescu Law". Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  21. ^ a b Veiga, p.215
  22. ^ Niculae et al., p.12
  23. ^ "How the Bolshevik-Leninist Group of Romania was Founded" (with introduction), at the Marxists Internet Archive; retrieved 19 July 2007
  24. ^ Gruber, Cap. V
  25. ^ Niculae et al., p.15
  26. ^ Veiga, p.228-230
  27. ^ Niculae et al., p.14
  28. ^ Frunză, p.299; Niculae et al., p.16, 45; Videnie, p.46
  29. ^ "Germanii", on Divers.ro Archived 2007-01-28 at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ Frunză, p.282
  31. ^ a b Ștefan
  32. ^ "Evreii", on Divers.ro Archived 2006-08-04 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ Niculae et al., p.9
  34. ^ Mihailov
  35. ^ Tineretul Liberal Gorj Archived 2007-09-26 at the Wayback Machine; Marian Ștefănescu, Jean Th. Florescu și misiunea sa la Madrid Archived 2007-01-02 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ "Maghiarii", on Divers.ro Archived 2006-01-08 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ a b Otu
  38. ^ Veiga, p.215, 224
  39. ^ Veiga, p.45-49
  40. ^ Veiga, p.214
  41. ^ Veiga, p.163
  42. ^ Frunză, p.118-119, 299; Niculae et al., p.16; Videnie, p.46
  43. ^ Veiga, p.179
  44. ^ Veiga, p.133, 163, 254, 255
  45. ^ Niculae et al., p.14, 15
  46. ^ Niculae et al., p.14-15
  47. ^ Niculae et al., p.15; Veiga, p.215
  48. ^ 110 ani de social-democrație, p. 6, 24
  49. ^ Frunză, p.116, 125, 187
  50. ^ Frunză, p.117; Marin, "II. Viața și opera lui G. Călinescu sub comunism"
  51. ^ 110 ani de social-democrație, p.5, 21; Frunză, p.203-204, 214
  52. ^ Frunză, p.357

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit