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The Parliament of Romania (Romanian: Parlamentul României) is the national legislature of Romania, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaților), and the Senate (Senat). Its meeting place is at the Palace of the Parliament in Bucharest.

Parliament of Romania
Parlamentul României
LV Legislature
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
Houses Senatul
Camera Deputaților
History
Founded 1862
Leadership
Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu, ALDE
Since 10 March 2014
Liviu Dragnea, PSD
Since 21 December 2016
Structure
Seats 136 Senators
328 Deputies
SEN2016.svg
Senate political groups

Government (76)[1]

  •      PSD (67)
  •      ALDE (9)

Parties Supporting the Government (9)

Opposition (51)

  •      PNL (30)
  •      USR (13)
  •      PMP (8)
CDEP2016.svg
Chamber of Deputies political groups

Government (168)[2]

  •      PSD (154)
  •      ALDE (14)

Parties Supporting the Government (38)

Opposition (123)

  •      PNL (69)
  •      USR (30)
  •      PMP (16)
  •      Independents (8)
Senate committees
Chamber of Deputies committees
Joint committees


Elections
1992 – 2008, 2016 - present: Closed list, D'Hondt method
2008 - 2016: Mixed member proportional representation
1992 – 2008, 2016 - present: Closed list, D'Hondt method
2008 - 2016: Mixed member proportional representation
Senate last election
December 11, 2016
Chamber of Deputies last election
December 11, 2016
Senate next election
2020
Chamber of Deputies next election
2020
Meeting place
Casa Poporului.jpg
Palace of the Parliament, Bucharest, Romania
Website
http://www.parlament.ro/

Prior to the modification of the Constitution in 2003, the two houses had identical attributes. A text of a law had to be approved by both houses. If the text differed, a special commission (comisie de mediere) was formed by deputies and senators, that "negotiated" between the two houses the form of the future law. The report of this commission had to be approved in a joint session of the Parliament. After the 2003 referendum, a law still has to be approved by both houses, but each house has designated matters it gets to deliberate before the other, in capacity of "deciding chamber" (Romanian: cameră decizională). If that first chamber adopts a law proposal (relating to its competences), it is passed on to the other one, which can approve or reject. If it makes amendments, the bill is sent back to the deciding chamber, the decision of which is final.

In 2009, a referendum was held to consult the population about turning the parliament into a unicameral body and reducing the number of representatives to 300. Although the referendum passed, the results are not binding, a referendum explicitly mentioning the modification of the constitution being required to achieve this.[3]

Contents

HistoryEdit

The parliamentary history of Romania starts in May 1831 in Wallachia, where a constitutional document was adopted, Regulamentul Organic ("The Organic Statute" or "The Organic Regulation"); less than a year later, in January 1832, this same statute was implemented in Moldavia as well. The organic regulation laid the foundations for the parliamentary institution in the Romanian Principalities.

The Paris Convention of 19 August 1858 and, especially, Statutul Dezvoltător ("The Expanding Statute") of that convention (which introduced a bicameral parliament, by founding Corpul Ponderator, later renamed Senat), adopted on the initiative of prince (Domnitor) Alexandru Ioan Cuza, by means of a plebiscite in 1864, perfected and enlarged the principle of national representation. Under the political regime established by the Paris Convention, the legislative power faced an obvious process of modernization, and the legislative power as National Representation, which operated in accordance with the organization and operation mode of parliaments in Western Europe at that time.[4]

The historical process of formation of the Parliament of Romania in the modern age strongly boosted the affirmation of national sovereignty, subsequently leading to the Union of the two Principalities, in 1859. Under the dome of the Romanian Parliament, on 9 May 1877, the Declaration of Romania's Independence was read, and, in 1920, the documents of union with Transylvania and Bessarabia under the Treaty of Trianon were read, the formal beginning of Greater Romania.

In February 1938, amid the rather chaotic European political association that eventually led to World War II, King Carol II, who always tended to favor his own personal rule over parliamentarism, imposed a rule of authoritarian monarchy. Under the royal dictatorship, the parliament became merely a decorative body, deprived of its main attributes.

Carol abdicated in September 1940, and the succeeding National Legionary State suspended parliament. The National Legionary State as such lasted less than five months, but it was succeeded by Ion Antonescu's military dictatorship, and parliament remained suspended. After 23 August 1944, under the pressure of Soviet and other communist forces, the parliament was re-organized as a single legislative body, the Assembly of Deputies, changed under the 1948 constitution, into the Great National Assembly, a merely formal body, totally subordinate to the power of the Romanian Communist Party.

The Romanian Revolution of December 1989 opened the road for Romanians to restore authentic pluralistic electoral democracy, respecting human rights, and observing the separation of powers and the rulers' responsibility before representative bodies. Thanks to the documents issued by the provisional revolutionary power, Romania has returned to a bicameral parliamentary system. All these stipulations can be found in the country's new Constitution, approved by referendum in 1991.

During more than a decade of post-communist transition, the Chamber of Deputies and Senate debated and adopted numerous laws and regulations aimed at reforming the entire society on a democratic basis, guaranteeing respect of fundamental human rights, promoting reform and privatization, consolidating market economic institutions and those of a state ruled by law, which led to Romania's integration into such institutions at NATO and the European Union.

List of presidents of the HousesEdit

The 1866, 1923, and 1938 Constitution of Romania state that the assembly presidents are elected at the beginning of each session. This tradition was kept in the early years of the People's Republic. In modern times, both presidents of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Senate are elected for the entire duration of that house's term. Under special circumstances the presidents of the houses can be revoked.

The political stance of the presidents of the assembly prior to the development of a modern party system is shown by:

     C (Conservative)      MC (Moderate Conservative)
     RL (Radical Liberal)      ML (Moderate Liberal)

The political stance of the presidents of the assembly after the development of a modern party system is shown by:

     PNL = National Liberal Party      PC = Conservative Party
     PNR = Romanian National Party      PP = People's Party
     PCD = Conservative-Democratic Party      PNȚ = National Peasants' Party
     PND = Democratic Nationalist Party      PNC = National Christian Party
     FRN = National Renaissance Front
(from 1940 PN; Party of the Nation)
     FP = Ploughmen's Front
     PMR = Romanian Workers' Party
(from 1965 PCR; Romanian Communist Party)
     FSN = National Salvation Front
     PDSR = Party of Social Democracy in Romania
(from 2001 PSD; Social Democratic Party)
     PNȚCD = Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party
     PSDR = Romanian Social Democratic Party      PD-L = Democratic Liberal Party
(until 2008 PD; Democratic Party)
     ALDE = Alliance of Liberals and Democrats      Mil. = Military
     Ind. = Independent

19th CenturyEdit

El.
yr.
Leg.
no.
LOWER HOUSE UPPER HOUSE
# Name Portrait Born-Died Took office Left office Party # Name Portrait Born-Died Took office Left office Party
1862 I Assembly of Deputies not yet established
1 Metropolitan-primate Nifon Rusailă   24 January 1862 2 May 1864 Ind.
1864 II 2 Alexandru Emanoil Florescu   1822-1907 29 December 1864 25 June 1865 C Corpul Ponderator
1 Metropolitan-primate Nifon Rusailă   6 December 1864 1 June 1866 Ind.
3 Emanoil Costache Epureanu   1823 - 1880 12 December 1865 3 January 1866 C
4 Nicolae Catargiu   1830 - 1882 9 January 1866 12 February 1866 C
1866
(Apr)
III (3) Emanoil Costache Epureanu   1823 - 1880 9 May 1866 6 July 1866 C Senat
(1) Metropolitan-primate Nifon Rusailă   1 June 1866 6 June 1868 Ind.
1866
(Nov)
IV 5 Lascăr Catargiu   1823 - 1899 12 December 1866 1 November 1867 C
6 Anastasie Fătu   1816 - 1886 15 January 1868 15 November 1868 RL 2 Ștefan Golescu   1809 - 1874 6 September 1868 15 November 1868 RL
7 Ion C. Brătianu   1821 - 1891 18 November 1868 29 January 1869 RL 3 Nicolae Golescu   1810 - 1877 18 November 1868 9 July 1869 RL
1869 V 8 Costache Negri   1812 – 1876 8 May 1869 17 November 1869 ML 4 Alexandru Plagino   1821 - 1894 2 September 1869 4 March 1871 MC
9 Grigore Balș   -1895 20 November 1869 1 May 1870 MC
1870 VI 10 Gheorghe Costa-Foru   1820 - 1876 2 July 1870 3 February 1871 C
11 Nicolae Pǎcleanu   5 February 1871 16 March 1871 RL
1871 VII 12 Dimitrie Ghica   1816 - 1897 26 May 1871 17 February 1876 C (1) Metropolitan-primate Nifon Rusailă   4 March 1871 5 May 1875 Ind.
1875 VIII 5 Metropolitan-primate Calinic Miclescu   9 June 1875 25 March 1879 Ind.
13 Constantin N. Brăiloiu   1809/10 - 1889 18 February 1876 3 May 1876 C
1876 IX 14 Constantin A. Rosetti   1816 - 1885 25 June 1876 26 May 1878 PNL
15 Gheorghe Vernescu   1829 - 1900 6 June 1878 15 November 1878 PNL
(14) Constantin A. Rosetti   1816 - 1885 17 November 1878 9 June 1881 PNL
1879 X 6 Constantin Bosianu   1815 - 1882 25 May 1879 15 November 1879 PNL
7 Dimitrie Ghica   1816 - 1897 17 November 1879 8 September 1888 PNL
1881 XI 16 Dimitrie C. Brǎtianu   1818 - 1892 9 June 1881 21 October 1882 PNL
17 Dimitrie Lecca   1832 - 1888 21 October 1882 5 March 1883 PNL
1883 XII (14) Constantin A. Rosetti   1816 - 1885 16 May 1883 17 October 1883 PNL
(17) Dimitrie Lecca   1832 - 1888 19 October 1883 4 July 1888 PNL
1884 XIII
1888 XIV (5) Lascăr Catargiu   1823 - 1899 10 November 1888 14 January 1889 PC 8 Ion Emanoil Florescu   1819 - 1893 4 November 1888 7 December 1889 PC
18 Constantin Grădișteanu   1833 - 1890 19 January 1889 16 November 1889 PC 9 Nicolae Crețulescu   1812 - 1900 13 December 1889 6 June 1890 PC
19 Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino   1833 - 1913 16 November 1889 22 February 1891 PC (8) Ion Emanoil Florescu   1819 - 1893 17 November 1890 21 February 1891 PC
1891 XV 20 Gheorghe Rosnovanu   1832 - 1904 3 May 1891 11 December 1891 PC 10 Constantin Boerescu   1845 - 1928 1 March 1891 11 December 1891 PC
1892 XVI 21 Gheorghe Manu   1833 - 1911 26 February 1892 24 October 1895 PC 11 Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino   1833 - 1913 25 February 1892 24 October 1895 PC
1895 XVII 22 Petre S. Aurelian   1833 - 1909 9 December 1895 21 November 1896 PNL (7) Dimitrie Ghica   1816 - 1897 9 December 1895 15 February 1897 PNL
12 Dimitrie Alexandru Sturdza   1833 - 1914 20 February 1897 31 March 1897 PNL
23 Dimitrie Gianni   1832 - 1902 23 November 1896 21 April 1899 PNL 13 Eugeniu Stătescu   1836 - 1905 31 March 1897 18 November 1897 PNL
14 Nicolae Gane   1838 - 1916 18 November 1897 21 April 1899 PNL
1899 XVIII 24 Constantin Olănescu   1845 - 1928 13 June 1899 21 September 1900 PC (10) Constantin Boerescu   1836 - 1908 13 June 1899 14 February 1901 PC
(19) Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino   1833 - 1913 25 September 1900 14 February 1901 PC

20th CenturyEdit

El.
yr.
Leg.
no.
LOWER HOUSE UPPER HOUSE
# Name Portrait Born-Died Took office Left office Party # Name Portrait Born-Died Took office Left office Party
1901 XIX Assembly of Deputies Senate
25 Mihail Pherekyde   1842 - 1926 24 March 1901 9 December 1904 PNL (13) Eugeniu Stătescu   1836 - 1905 24 March 1901 15 November 1902 PNL
26 Ștefan Șendrea   1842 - 1907 9 December 1904 23 December 1904 PNL 15 Petre S. Aurelian   1833 - 1909 16 November 1902 23 December 1904 PNL
1905 XX 27 Grigore Trandafil   1840 - 1907 25 February 1905 23 February 1907 PC (10) Constantin Boerescu   1836 - 1908 25 February 1905 26 April 1907 PC
28 Constantin Cantacuzino-Pașcanu   1856 - 1927 26 February 1907 26 April 1907 PC
1907 XXI (25) Mihail Pherekyde   1842 - 1926 8 June 1907 15 December 1909 PNL (15) Petre S. Aurelian   1833 - 1909 9 June 1907 24 January 1909 PNL
29 Basile M. Missir   1843 - 1929 15 December 1909 16 February 1910 PNL
(25) Mihail Pherekyde   1842 - 1926 16 February 1910 10 January 1911 PNL 16 Constantin Budișteanu   1838 - 1911 28 January 1909 10 January 1911 PNL
1911 XXII (24) Constantin Olănescu   1845 - 1928 8 March 1911 17 October 1912 PC (11) Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino   1833 - 1913 10 March 1911 23 March 1913 PC
1912 XXIII (28) Constantin Cantacuzino-Pașcanu   1856 - 1927 1 December 1912 11 January 1914 PCD
17 Theodor Rosetti   1837 - 1932 27 March 1913 3 July 1913 PC
18 Ion Lahovari   1844 - 1915 3 July 1913 11 January 1914 PC
1914 XXIV (25) Mihail Pherekyde   1842 - 1926 21 February 1914 11 December 1916 PNL 19 Basile M. Missir   1843 - 1929 21 February 1914 9 December 1916 PNL
30 Vasile C. Morțun   1860 - 1919 11 December 1916 25 April 1918 PNL 20 Emanoil Porumbaru   1845 - 1921 9 December 1916 25 April 1918 PNL
1918 XXV 31 Constantin Meissner   1854 - 1942 5 June 1918 5 November 1918 PCP 21 Dimitrie I. Dobrescu   1869 - 1948 4 June 1918 5 November 1918 PCP
1919 XXVI 32 Alexandru Vaida-Voevod   1872 - 1950 28 November 1919 1 December 1919 PNR 22 Paul Bujor   1862 - 1952 28 December 1918 26 March 1920 PȚB
33 Nicolae Iorga   1871 - 1940 9 December 1919 26 March 1920 PND
1920 XXVII 34 Duiliu Zamfirescu   1858 - 1922 30 June 1920 22 January 1922 PP 23 Constantin Coandă   1857 - 1932 22 June 1920 22 January 1922 PP
1922 XXVIII 35 Mihail Orleanu   1859 - 1942 6 April 1922 27 March 1926 PNL 24 Mihail Pherekyde   1842 - 1926 31 March 1922 24 January 1926 PNL
25 Constantin I. Nicolaescu   1861 - 1945 3 February 1926 27 March 1926 PNL
1926 XXIX 36 Petre P. Negulescu   1870 - 1951 10 July 1926 5 June 1927 PP (23) Constantin Coandă   1857 - 1932 8 July 1926 5 June 1927 PP
1927 XXX 37 Nicolae Săveanu   1866 - 1952 30 July 1927 10 November 1928 PNL 26 Constantin I. Nicolaescu   1861 - 1945 18 June 1927 10 November 1928 PNL
1928 XXXI 38 Ștefan Cicio Pop   1865 - 1934 23 December 1928 30 April 1931 PNȚ 27 Traian Bratu   1875 - 1940 23 December 1928 30 April 1931 PNȚ
1931 XXXII 39 Dimitrie Pompeiu   1873 - 1954 20 June 1931 10 June 1932 PND 28 Mihail Sadoveanu   1880 - 1961 18 June 1931 10 June 1932 Ind.
1932 XXXIII (38) Ștefan Cicio Pop   1865 - 1934 10 August 1932 18 November 1933 PNȚ 29 Neculai Costăchescu   1876 - 1939 4 August 1932 18 November 1933 PNȚ
1933 XXXIV (37) Nicolae Săveanu   1866 - 1952 10 February 1934 19 November 1937 PNL 31 Leonte Moldovan   1865 - 1943 10 February 1934 15 November 1935 PNL
1934 XXXV
32 Constantin Dimitriu-Dovlecel   1872 - 1945 15 November 1935 15 November 1936 PNL
33 Alexandru Lapedatu   16 November 1936 20 March 1937 PNL
1937 XXXVI
1939 XXXVII (32) Alexandru Vaida-Voevod   1872 - 1950 9 June 1939 5 September 1940 FRN/PN 34 Nicolae Iorga   1871 - 1940 9 June 1939 13 June 1939 Ind.
35 Constantin Argetoianu   1871 - 1955 15 June 1939 5 August 1940 FNR/PN
1946 XXXVIII 40 Mihail Sadoveanu   1880 - 1961 5 December 1946 24 February 1948 BPD suspended
1948 XXXIX Great National Assembly disbanded
41 Gheorghe Apostol   1913 - 2010 7 April 1948 11 June 1948 PMR
42 Constantin Agiu   11 June 1948 27 December 1948 PMR
43 Constantin Pârvulescu   1895 - 1992 27 December 1948 5 July 1949 PMR
44 Dumitru Petrescu   5 July 1949 28 December 1949 PMR
45 Alexandru Drǎghici   28 December 1949 26 January 1950 PMR
(44) Dumitru Petrescu   26 January 1950 29 May 1950 PMR
46 Constantin Doncea   1904 - 1973 29 May 1950 6 September 1950 PMR
(41) Gheorghe Apostol   1913 - 2010 6 September 1950 5 April 1951 PMR
47 Ioan Vințe   1910 - 1996 5 April 1951 26 March 1952 PMR
(41) Gheorghe Apostol   1913 - 2010 26 March 1952 6 June 1952 PMR
48 Gheorghe Stoica   2 June 1952 30 November 1952 PMR
1952 XL (45) Constantin Pârvulescu   1895 - 1992 23 January 1953 5 March 1961 PMR
1957 XLI
1961 XLII
49 Ștefan Voitec   1900 - 1984 20 March 1961 28 March 1974 PMR/PCR
1965 XLIII
1969 XLIV
50 Miron Constantinescu   1917 - 1974 28 March 1974 18 July 1974 PCR
51 Nicolae Giosan   26 July 1974 12 December 1989 PCR
1975 XLV
1980 XLVI
1985 XLVII
1990 XLVIII Assembly of Deputies Senate
52 Marțian Dan   1935 - 2002[5] 19 June 1990 16 October 1992 FSN 35 Alexandru Bârlădeanu   1911 - 1997 18 June 1990 16 October 1992 FSN
1992 XLIX Chamber of Deputies 36 Oliviu Gherman   1930 - 22 October 1992 22 November 1996 FDSN/PDSR
53 Adrian Năstase   1950 - 28 October 1992 22 November 1996 FDSN/PDSR
1996 L 54 Ion Diaconescu   1917 - 2011 27 November 1996 30 November 2000 PNȚCD 37 Petre Roman   1946 - 27 November 1996 22 December 1999 PD
38 Mircea Ionescu-Quintus   1917 - 2017 4 February 2000 30 November 2000 PNL
2000 LI 55 Valer Dorneanu   1944 - 15 December 2000 30 November 2004 PDSR/PSD 39 Nicolae Văcăroiu   1943 - 15 December 2000 14 October 2008 PDSR/PSD

21st CenturyEdit

El.
yr.
Leg.
no.
LOWER HOUSE UPPER HOUSE
# Name Portrait Born-Died Took office Left office Party # Name Portrait Born-Died Took office Left office Party
2004 LII Chamberof Deputies Senate
(53) Adrian Năstase   1950 - 19 December 2004 16 March 2006 PSD 39 Nicolae Văcăroiu   1943 - 15 December 2000 14 October 2008 PDSR/PSD
56 Bogdan Olteanu   1971 - 20 March 2006 13 December 2008 PNL
Doru Ioan Tărăcilă
(acting)
  1951 - 14 October 2008 28 October 2008 PSD
40 Ilie Sârbu   1950 - 28 October 2008 13 December 2009 PSD
2008 LIII 57 Roberta Anastase   1976 - 19 December 2008 3 July 2012 PD-L 41 Mircea Geoană   1958 - 19 December 2009 23 November 2011 PSD
Petru Filip (acting)   1955 - 23 November 2011 28 November 2011 PDL
43 Vasile Blaga   1956 - 28 November 2011 3 July 2012 PDL
58 Valeriu Zgonea   1967 - 3 July 2012 20 December 2012 PSD 44 Crin Antonescu   1959 - 3 July 2012 20 December 2012 PNL
2012 LIV 20 December 2012 13 June 2016 19 December 2012 4 March 2014
Cristian Dumitrescu   1955 - 5 March 2014 10 March 2014 PSD
45 Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu   1952 - 10 March 2014 21 December 2016 Ind./PLR/ALDE
Florin Iordache   1960 - 13 June 2016 September 2016 PSD
59 Florin Iordache September 2016 21 December 2016
2016 LV 60 Liviu Dragnea   1962 - 21 December 2016 Incumbent PSD 21 December 2016 Incumbent ALDE

FunctioningEdit

Prior to the modifications of the Constitution in 2003, the two houses had identical attributes. A text of a law had to be approved by both houses. If the text differed, a special commission (comisie de mediere) was formed by deputies and senators, that "negotiated" between the two houses the form of the future law. The report of this commission had to be approved in a joint session of the Parliament. This French procedure proved to be extremely long and inefficient with respect to the expectations of the Romanians towards democracy.

After the 2003 referendum, a law still has to be approved by both houses, but in some matters one is "superior" to the other, being called "decision chamber" ("cameră decizională"). This eliminates the process of "negotiation" between the two houses, and keeps the Senate as the upper house and the Chamber as the lower house.

CompositionEdit

2016–2020Edit

e • d Seats in the Senate of Romania
Party Election seating Lost Won Present seating
Seats  % Seats  %
  Social Democratic Party 67 49.26% 0 0 67 49.26%
  National Liberal Party 30 22.05% 0 0 30 22.05%
  Save Romania Union 13 9.56% 0 0 13 9.56%
  Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania 9 6.62% 0 0 9 6.62%
  Alliance of Liberals and Democrats 9 6.62% 0 0 9 6.62%
  People's Movement Party 8 5.88% 0 0 8 5.88%
Total 136 100 136 100
e • d Seats in the Chamber of Deputies of Romania
Party Election seating Lost Won Present seating
Seats  % Seats  %
  Social Democratic Party 154 46.95% 0 1 154 46.95%
  National Liberal Party 69 21% 0 0 69 21%
  Save Romania Union 30 9.15% 0 0 30 9.15%
  Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania 21 6.4% 0 0 21 6.4%
  People's Movement Party 18 5.5% 1 0 16 4.9%
  Alliance of Liberals and Democrats 20 6.1% 5 0 14 4.2%
  Independents 0 8 8 2.4%
  Ethnic minorities parties 17 5.2% 0 0 17 5.2%
Total 328 100 329 100

2008–2012Edit

e • d Seats in the Senate of Romania, 6th legislature
Party Election seating Lost Won Present seating
Seats  % Seats  %
  Democratic Liberal Party 51 37.22% 19 2 35 37.96%
  Social Democratic Party 49 35.77% 15 3 40 31.39%
  National Liberal Party 28 20.44% 16 4 27 16.79%
  Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania 9 6.57% 2 0 7 6.57%
  National Union for the Progress of Romania 4 12 12 7.3%
  Independents 2 2
  Vacant seats 14
Total 137 100 137 100


e • d Seats in the Chamber of Deputies of Romania, 6th legislature
Parliamentary Group Election seating Lost Won Present
Seats  % Seats  %
  Democratic Liberal Party 115 34.43% 29 12 106 37.24%
  Social Democratic Party 114 34.13% 29 2 91 28.53%
  National Liberal Party 65 19.46% 21 6 56 16.22%
  Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania 22 6.59% 2 0 20 6.61%
  Ethnic minorities parties 18 5.39% 2 0 16 5.41%
  National Union for the Progress of Romania 16 16 12 6.01%
  Deputies without a group 8
  Vacant seats 25
Total 334 100 334 100

2004 – 2008Edit

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit