1992 Romanian general election

General elections were held in Romania on 27 September 1992, with a second round of the presidential election on 11 October.[1] They were the first held after the adoption of a permanent constitution via a referendum held the previous winter.

1992 Romanian presidential election

← 1990 27 September 1992 (first round)
11 October 1992 (second round)
1996 →
Turnout76.3% (first round)
73.2% (second round)
  Ion Iliescu (2004).jpg EConstantinescu.JPG
Nominee Ion Iliescu Emil Constantinescu
Party FDSN PNŢ-CD
Alliance CDR
Popular vote 7,393,429 4,641,207
Percentage 61.43% 38.57%

President before election

Ion Iliescu
FDSN

Elected President

Ion Iliescu
FDSN

Incumbent Ion Iliescu led the field in the first round, but was forced into a runoff with Emil Constantinescu, candidate of the opposition Romanian Democratic Convention. Constantinescu ran on a quicker transition to a market economy and purging remaining Communist influence from the government. He benefited from a marked downturn in Iliescu's popularity tied to both high unemployment and concerns that Iliescu was wavering in his commitment to democracy.[2][3]

Despite this, opinion polls ahead of the runoff suggested that Iliescu was favoured for a second full term. Not only was it believed that his 16-point first-round lead was too large for Constantinescu to overcome, but most of the minor candidates were expected to throw their support to Iliescu.[4] In the end, Iliescu was reelected with 61 percent of the vote.

In the parliamentary election, Iliescu's Democratic National Salvation Front, which had split off from the National Salvation Front earlier in the year, emerged as the largest party in Parliament, winning 117 of the 341 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 49 of the 143 seats in the Senate.

Presidential candidatesEdit

Participating candidatesEdit

Name Lifespan Public Administration Experience Affiliation and endorsements Alma mater and profession Candidacy
Announcement dates
 
Ion Iliescu
Born: March 3, 1930
(age 62)
Oltenița, Călărași County
President of Romania (1989-election day)
President of Water Surfaces Management Council (1979-1984)
Member of the State Council (full member: 1979-1980, observative: 1974-1979)
President of Iași County Council (1974-1979)
Vice-President of Timiș County Council (1971-1974)
Minister of Youth (1967-1971)
Deputy (1957-1961, 1965-1973, 1975-1985)
Former presidential election:
1990: 85.1% (winner)
Affiliation: FDSN Energy Institute, Moscow State University (1954)

fluid mechanics engineer,
publishing house manager
 
Emil Constantinescu
Born: November 19, 1939
(age 52)
Tighina (de jure, Republic of Moldova; de facto Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic)
Rector of University of Bucharest (1992-election day) Affiliation: CDR Faculty of Law, University of Bucharest (1960)
Faculty of Geology, University of Bucharest (1966)

geology professor
 
Gheorghe Funar
Born: September 29, 1949
(age 42)
Sânnicolau Mare, Timiș County
Mayor of Cluj-Napoca (1992-election day) Affiliation: PUNR Faculty of Economics and Business Management, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (unknown year)

economist
 
Caius Traian Dragomir
Born: July 16, 1939
(age 53)
Slatina, Olt County
State Secretary for Public Information with the Government of Romania (1991-election day) Affiliation: none
Endorsed by: FSN
Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest (1963)

physicist
poet
 
Mircea Druc
Born: July 25, 1941
(age 51)
Pociumbăuți, Rîșcani District, Republic of Moldova
Prime Minister of the Moldavian SSR (1990-1991) Affiliation: none
Endorsed by: MER
Faculty of History and Philology, Moldova State University, Chișinău (1960)
Faculty of Philology, Saint Petersburg State University (1964)

administrative sciences professor
 
Ioan Mânzatu
Born: August 11, 1932
(age 60)
Bobâlna, Cluj County
Vice-President of Romania (1990) Affiliation: Republican Party Faculty of Physics, Babeș-Bolyai University (unknown year)

physics professor


Withdrawn candidatesEdit

Name Lifespan Public Administration Experience Affiliation and endorsements Alma mater and profession Candidacy
Announcement dates
 
Ioan Lup
Born: unknown birthdate
unknown birthplace
Affiliation: PNȚ-CD unknown education

unknown
Intention: June 25, 1992[5]
Withdrawal: June 25, 1992[6]
Endorsed Ion Rațiu: June 25, 1992
Endorsed Emil Constantinescu: June 27, 1992
 
Nicu Stăncescu
Born: unknown birthdate
unknown birthplace
Affiliation: Party of Democratic Unity unknown education

unknown
Withdrawal: June 27, 1992[7]
Endorsed Emil Constantinescu: June 27, 1992
 
Sergiu Cunescu
Born: March 16, 1923
(age 69), Bucharest
Died: March 16, 2005, unknown location
Affiliation: PSDR Faculty of Electromagnetics, Politehnica University of Bucharest (unknown year)

combustion engine engineer
Withdrawal: June 27, 1992[8]
Endorsed Emil Constantinescu: June 27, 1992
 
Nicolae Manolescu
Born: November 27, 1939
(age 52)
Râmnicu Vâlcea, Vâlcea County
Affiliation: Civic Alliance Party Faculty of Philology, University of Bucharest (1962)

writer, book critic
Withdrawal: June 27, 1992[9]
Endorsed Emil Constantinescu: June 27, 1992
 
Ion Rațiu
Born: June 6, 1917
(age 75), Turda, Cluj County
Died: January 17, 2000, London
Chancellor at Romanian Embassy in UK (1940) Affiliation: PNȚ-CD Faculty of Law, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (1938)
Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge (1943)

lawyer, economist, journalist
Intention: June 25, 1992[10]
Withdrawal: June 27, 1992[11]
Endorsed Emil Constantinescu: June 27, 1992


ResultsEdit

PresidentEdit

 
Presidential election - First round
 
Presidential election - Second round
 
Ion Iliescu's first round vote share by county
 
Emil Constantinescu's first round vote share by county
 
Gheorghe Funar's first round vote share by county

Gheorghe Funar and Ioan Mânzatu openly endorsed Ion Iliescu in the second round.

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Ion Iliescu Democratic National Salvation Front 5,633,465 47.3 7,393,429 61.4
Emil Constantinescu Romanian Democratic Convention 3,717,006 31.2 4,641,207 38.6
Gheorghe Funar Romanian National Unity Party 1,294,388 10.9
Caius Traian Dragomir National Salvation Front 564,655 4.7
Ioan Mânzatu Republican Party 362,485 3.0
Mircea Druc Independent 326,866 2.7
Invalid/blank votes 597,565 119,174
Total 12,496,430 100 12,153,810 100
Registered voters/turnout 16,380,663 76.3 16,597,508 73.2
Source: Nohlen & Stöver

ParliamentEdit

SenateEdit

Party Votes % Seats +/–
Democratic National Salvation Front 3,091,221 28.31 49 New
Romanian Democratic Convention[a] 2,204,025 20.16 34 +22
National Salvation Front 1,133,355 10.38 18 –73
Romanian National Unity Party 887,597 8.12 14 +12
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania 830,193 7.60 12 0
Greater Romania Party 421,042 3.85 6 New
Romanian Democratic Agrarian Party 359,042 3.28 5 +5
Socialist Party of Labour 347,658 3.18 5 New
National Liberal Party 290,866 2.66 0 –10
Ecological Movement of Romania 231,401 2.11 0 –1
Republican Party 205,988 1.88 0
National Democratic Solidarity 97,212 0.89 0 New
Romanian Socialist Democratic Party 60,708 0.55 0
New Liberal Party 57,213 0.52 0 New
Party of Social Democratic Unity 51,987 0.47 0 New
Liberal Union–Bratiănu 48,222 0.44 0
National Peasant Party 43,360 0.39 0 New
Liberal Monarchist Party of Romania 42,561 0.38 0 New
Party of the Roma 40,946 0.37 0 New
Convention of Social Solidarity 34,491 0.31 0 New
Democratic Cooperatist Party 30,938 0.28 0 New
Party for the Honouring of the Heroes of the Revolution and National Salvation 27,513 0.25 0
Republican Party of Romanian Unity 24,009 0.21 0 New
Traditional Social Democratic Party 23,068 0.21 0 New
National Party of Free Producers from Romania 20,442 0.18 0 New
General Union of Roma in Romania 19,245 0.17 0 New
Free Democratic Union of the Roma of Romania 18,528 0.16 0
Christian Republican Party 17,332 0.15 0
Democratic Romanian Front 16-20.XII.1989 Timișoara 16,665 0.15 0 New
Romanian Humanistic Party 16,484 0.15 0 New
Movement for Romania 13,922 0.12 0 New
Free Republican Party 13,401 0.12 0 New
Christian National Democratic Party 13,356 0.12 0 New
Independent National Peasant Christian Democratic Party 12,587 0.11 0 New
Romanian Labour Party 12,344 0.11 0 New
Romanian Renaissance and Independence Party 12,266 0.11 0 New
Party of the Gypsies of Romania 10,811 0.09 0
Party of Free Change 8,720 0.07 0
Antitotalitarian Party 'Down the Nomenklatura' 8,446 0.07 0 New
Independent Social Democratic Party 8,146 0.07 0 New
National League of Expropriated of Romania 6,210 0.05 0 New
Alliance of National Dignity 5,661 0.05 0 New
United Democratic Convention 4,968 0.04 0 New
Christian Democratic Union 4,738 0.04 0
Party Democratic Future of the Motherland 4,175 0.03 0
Romanian Party for the New Society 3,523 0.03 0
Party of Labour 3,256 0.02 0
Party of Social Justice (New Democracy) of the North West of Romania 3,247 0.02 0
Party of Social Justice 3,050 0.02 0
Social Democratic Party "Titel Petrescu| 2,993 0.02 0 New
Democratic Party of Labour 2,933 0.02 0
Humanitarian Party of Peace 2,213 0.02 0 New
Christian Democratic Party of the Revolution 1,743 0.01 0 New
Party of the Democratic Union of Moldova 1,726 0.01 0 New
Forum of Democracy and National Unity of Romania 1,413 0.01 0
Romanian Popular Democratic Realistic Revolutionary Party 1,410 0.01 0 New
Party of Heroes Fallen for the Freedom of the Alive Heroes, Affected by the Barbarian Bullets 913 0.00 0 New
Party of Small Owners and Free Initiative of Romania 805 0.00 0 New
Party of the National Right 648 0.00 0 New
Independent Democratic Party 609 0.00 0 New
Democratic Forum of Germans 558 0.00 0
Party Movement 'Motherland's Shield' 493 0.00 0 New
National Romanian Party 397 0.00 0
Democratic Alliance of the Roma Party 258 0.00 0 New
Conservative Humanistic Party 138 0.00 0 New
Independents 52,327 0.47 0 –1
Invalid/blank votes 1,554,725
Total 12,496,430 100 143 +25
Registered voters/turnout 16,380,663 76.29
Source: AEP
  1. ^ Of the 34 seats won by the CDR, the PNȚCD won 21, the PAC 7, the PNL-CD 4, the PNL-AT 1 and the PSDR 1.

Chamber of DeputiesEdit

Party Votes % Seats +/–
Democratic National Salvation Front 3,003,573 27.74 117 New
Romanian Democratic Convention[a] 2,170,289 20.04 82 +60
National Salvation Front 1,101,425 10.17 43 –220
Romanian National Unity Party 836,547 7.72 30 +21
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania 809,653 7.47 27 –2
Greater Romania Party 422,136 3.89 16 New
Socialist Party of Labour 328,283 3.03 13 New
Romanian Democratic Agrarian Party 322,990 2.98 0 –9
National Liberal Party 284,678 2.62 0 –29
Ecological Movement of Romania 243,740 2.25 0 –8
Republican Party 177,056 1.63 0
Romanian Socialist Democratic Party 94,154 0.86 0 –5
National-Democratic Solidarity 78,615 0.72 0 New
New Liberal Party 63,098 0.58 0 New
Liberal Union–Bratiănu 54,673 0.50 0 –1
Party of the Roma 52,170 0.48 1 New
Party of Social-Democratic Unity 50,114 0.46 0 New
National Peasant Party 48,031 0.44 0 New
Liberal Monarchist Party of Romania 38,542 0.35 0 New
Convention of Social Solidarity 35,286 0.32 0 New
Democratic Forum of Germans 34,471 0.31 1 0
Democratic Cooperatist Party 32,446 0.29 0 New
Free Democratic Union of the Roma of Romania 31,060 0.28 0 0
National Party of Free Producers from Romania 29,688 0.27 0 New
Party for the Honouring of the Heroes of the Revolution and National Salvation 25,781 0.23 0 0
Republican Party of Romanians Unity 23,447 0.21 0 New
Romanian Humanistic Party 22,908 0.21 0 New
Traditional Social Democratic Party 21,800 0.20 0 New
General Union of Roma in Romania 21,734 0.20 0 New
Christian Republican Party 18,633 0.17 0 0
Romanian Labour Party 16,439 0.15 0 New
Community of the Lippovan Russians 14,861 0.13 1 0
Independent National Peasant Christian Democratic Party 14,828 0.13 0 New
Democratic Romanian Front 16-20.XII.1989 Timișoara 14,779 0.13 0 New
Romanian Renaissance and Independence Party 13,573 0.12 0 New
Free Republican Party 13,353 0.12 0 New
Movement for Romania 12,708 0.11 0 New
Party of Free Change 12,360 0.11 0 –1
Independent Social Democratic Party 11,497 0.10 0 New
Christian National Democratic Party 11,472 0.10 0 New
Party of the Gypsies of Romania 9,679 0.08 0 0
Hellenic Union of Romania 8,913 0.08 1 0
United Democratic Convention 8,863 0.08 0 New
Democratic Union of Turkish-Muslim Tatars 7,688 0.07 1 0
Union of the Ukrainians of Romania 7,641 0.07 1 0
Social Democratic Party "Constantin Titel Petrescu| 7,171 0.06 0 New
Union of Armenians of Romania 7,044 0.06 1 0
National League of Expropriated of Romania 6,886 0.06 0 New
Alliance of National Dignity 6,064 0.05 0 New
Party of the National Right 5,622 0.05 0 New
Christian Democratic Union 5,605 0.05 0 0
Democratic Union of Serbs and Carasovenians of Romania 5,306 0.04 1 0
Romanian Party for the New Society 5,250 0.04 0 0
Independent Democratic Party 5,140 0.04 0 New
Democratic Union of Slovaks and Czechs of Romania 4,662 0.04 1 0
Antitotalitarian Party 'Down with the Nomenklatura' 4,623 0.04 0 New
Party Democratic Future of the Motherland 4,322 0.03 0 0
Italian Community of Romania 4,111 0.03 1 New
Democratic Party of Labour 3,888 0.03 0 –1
Forum of Democracy and National Unity of Romania 3,180 0.02 0 0
Party of Social Justice (New Democracy) of the North West of Romania 3,063 0.02 0 0
Union of Poles of Romania 2,987 0.02 1 0
Party 'Will of the People' 2,704 0.02 0 New
Party of Justice and Social Democracy of Romania 2,687 0.02 0 New
Party of Labour 2,623 0.02 0 0
Turkish Muslim Democratic Union of Romania 2,569 0.02 1 New
Party of Social Justice 2,525 0.02 0 0
Party of the Democratic Union of Moldova 2,358 0.02 0 New
National Romanian Party 2,201 0.02 0 0
Bulgarian Union of Banat–Romania 1,886 0.01 1 0
National Movement 'Motherland's Shield' Party 1,738 0.01 0 New
Movement for European Integration 1,367 0.01 0 New
Humanitarian Party of Peace 1,173 0.01 0 New
Romanian Popular Democratic Realistic Revolutionary Party 1,126 0.01 0 New
Christian Democratic Party of the Revolution 1,075 0.00 0 New
Party of Small Owners and Free Initiative of Romania 651 0.00 0 New
Union of Croatians of Romania 217 0.00 0 New
Conservative Humanistic Party 101 0.00 0 New
'Republican Tribune' Party 48 0.00 0 New
Independents 57,855 0.53 0 –1
Invalid/blank votes 1,645,820
Total 12,496,430 100 341 –54
Registered voters/turnout 16,380,663 76.29
Source: AEP
  1. ^ Of the 82 seats won by the CDR, the PNȚCD won 41, the PAC 13, the PNL-AT 11, the PSDR 10, the PER 4 and the PNL-CD 3.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1591 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  2. ^ "Romanians Vote but Runoff Is Expected". The New York Times. 28 September 1992.
  3. ^ "Romanian Vote Inconclusive; Runoff Planned Next Sunday". The New York Times. The Associated Press. 6 October 1992.
  4. ^ "President Favored In Romanian Runoff Today". The New York Times. 11 October 1992.
  5. ^ https://romanialibera.ro/aldine/history/marea-greseala-a-lui-corneliu-coposu--a-impiedicat-candidatura-lui-ion-ratiu-la-presedintia-romaniei-din-partea-conventiei-438462
  6. ^ https://romanialibera.ro/aldine/history/marea-greseala-a-lui-corneliu-coposu--a-impiedicat-candidatura-lui-ion-ratiu-la-presedintia-romaniei-din-partea-conventiei-438462
  7. ^ https://romanialibera.ro/aldine/history/marea-greseala-a-lui-corneliu-coposu--a-impiedicat-candidatura-lui-ion-ratiu-la-presedintia-romaniei-din-partea-conventiei-438462
  8. ^ https://romanialibera.ro/aldine/history/marea-greseala-a-lui-corneliu-coposu--a-impiedicat-candidatura-lui-ion-ratiu-la-presedintia-romaniei-din-partea-conventiei-438462
  9. ^ https://romanialibera.ro/aldine/history/marea-greseala-a-lui-corneliu-coposu--a-impiedicat-candidatura-lui-ion-ratiu-la-presedintia-romaniei-din-partea-conventiei-438462
  10. ^ https://romanialibera.ro/aldine/history/marea-greseala-a-lui-corneliu-coposu--a-impiedicat-candidatura-lui-ion-ratiu-la-presedintia-romaniei-din-partea-conventiei-438462
  11. ^ https://adevarul.ro/locale/zalau/tradare-democratiei-secretele-refuielilor-politice-fostii-mari-lideri-taranisti-bunii-prieteni-ion-ratiu-corneliu-coposu-1_54be86dc448e03c0fdc95139/index.html