Balkans(Redirected from Balkan Peninsula)
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various definitions. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch from the Serbian-Bulgarian border to the Black Sea.
|Highest elevation||2,925 m (9,596 ft)|
|Highest point||Musala (Bulgaria)|
The Balkan Peninsula is bordered by the Adriatic Sea on the northwest, the Ionian Sea on the southwest, the Aegean Sea in the south and southeast, and the Black Sea on the east and northeast. The northern border of the peninsula is variously defined. The highest point of the Balkans is Mount Musala, 2,925 metres (9,596 ft), in the Rila mountain range.
The word Balkan comes from Ottoman Turkish balkan 'chain of wooded mountains'; related words are also found in other Turkic languages. The origin of the Turkic word is obscure; it may be related to Persian bālk 'mud', and the Turkish suffix an 'swampy forest' or Persian balā-khāna 'big high house'.
Classical antiquity and the early Middle Ages
From classical antiquity through the Middle Ages, the Balkan Mountains were called by the local Thracian name Haemus. According to Greek mythology, the Thracian king Haemus was turned into a mountain by Zeus as a punishment and the mountain has remained with his name. A reverse name scheme has also been suggested. D. Dechev considers that Haemus (Αἷμος) is derived from a Thracian word *saimon, 'mountain ridge'. A third possibility is that "Haemus" (Αἵμος) derives from the Greek word "haema" (αἷμα) meaning 'blood'. The myth relates to a fight between Zeus and the monster/titan Typhon. Zeus injured Typhon with a thunder bolt and Typhon's blood fell on the mountains, from which they got their name.
Late Middle Ages and Ottoman period
The earliest mention of the name appears in an early 14th-century Arab map, in which the Haemus mountains are referred to as Balkan. The first attested time the name "Balkan" was used in the West for the mountain range in Bulgaria was in a letter sent in 1490 to Pope Innocent VIII by Buonaccorsi Callimaco, an Italian humanist, writer and diplomat. The Ottomans first mention it in a document dated from 1565. There has been no other documented usage of the word to refer to the region before that, although other Turkic tribes had already settled in or were passing through the Peninsula. There is also a claim about an earlier Bulgar Turkic origin of the word popular in Bulgaria, however it is only an unscholarly assertion. The word was used by the Ottomans in Rumelia in its general meaning of mountain, as in Kod̲j̲a-Balkan, Čatal-Balkan, and Ungurus-Balkani̊, but especially it was applied to the Haemus mountain. The name is still preserved in Central Asia with the Balkan Daglary (Balkan Mountains) and the Balkan Province of Turkmenistan. English traveler John Morritt introduced this term into the English literature at the end of the 18th-century, and other authors started applying the name to the wider area between the Adriatic and the Black Sea. The concept of the "Balkans" was created by the German geographer August Zeune in 1808. During the 1820s, "Balkan became the preferred although not yet exclusive term alongside Haemus among British travelers... Among Russian travelers not so burdened by classical toponymy, Balkan was the preferred term."
Evolution of meaning
As time passed, the term gradually acquired political connotations far from its initial geographic meaning, arising from political changes from the late 19th-century to the creation of post–World War I Yugoslavia (initially the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes). Zeune's goal was to have a geographical parallel term to the Italic and Iberian Peninsula, and seemingly nothing more. The gradually acquired political connotations are newer and, to a large extent, due to oscillating political circumstances.[clarification needed]
In part due to the historical and political connotations of the term "Balkans", especially since the military conflicts of the 1990s, the term "Southeast Europe" is becoming increasingly popular even though it literally refers to a much larger area and thus is less precise. A European Union initiative of 1999 is called the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe, and the online newspaper Balkan Times renamed itself Southeast European Times in 2003.
In the languages of the region, the peninsula is known as:
- Slavic languages:
- Bulgarian: Балкански полуостров, transliterated: Balkanski poluostrov
- Macedonian: Балкански Полуостров, transliterated: Balkanski Poluostrov
- Serbian: Балканско полуострво / Balkansko poluostrvo
- Croatian: Balkanski poluotok
- Slovene: Balkanski polotok
- Bosnian: Balkansko poluostrvo / Балканско полуострво
- Romance languages:
- Turkic Languages:
- Turkish: Balkan Yarımadası or Balkanlar
- Other languages:
Definitions and boundaries
The Balkan Peninsula is surrounded by the Adriatic Sea to the west, the Mediterranean Sea (including the Ionian and Aegean seas) and the Marmara Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east. Its northern boundary is often given as the Danube, Sava and Kupa Rivers.[not in citation given] The Balkan Peninsula has a combined area of about 470,000 km2 (181,000 sq mi) (slightly smaller than Spain). It is more or less identical to the region known as Southeastern Europe.
From 1920 until World War II, Italy included Istria and some Dalmatian areas (like Zara, today's Zadar) that are within the general definition of the Balkan peninsula. The current territory of Italy includes only the small area around Trieste inside the Balkan Peninsula. However, the regions of Trieste and Istria are not usually considered part of the Balkans by Italian geographers, due to their definition of the Balkans that limits its western border to the Kupa River.
Entirely within the Balkan peninsula:
- Albania: 28,750 km2 (100% of total land)
- Bulgaria : 110,800 km2 (100%)
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: 51,180 km2 (100%)
- Kosovo[a]: 10,908 km2 (100%)
- Macedonia: 25,710 km2 (100%)
- Montenegro: 13,810 km2 (100%)
Mostly or partially within the Balkan peninsula:
- Croatia (southern mainland): 26,033 km2 (46%)
- Greece (mainland): 104,470 km2 (80%)
- Italy (Trieste and Monfalcone): 300 km2 (0.1%)
- Romania (mainland Dobruja): 12,000 km2 (5%)
- Serbia (southern part excluding Vojvodina, northern Belgrade) 54,000 km2 (65%)
- Slovenia (southwestern part): 5,000 km2 (25%)
- Turkey (European part): 23,764 km2 (3%)
The term "the Balkans" is used more generally for the region; it includes states in the region, which may extend beyond the peninsula, and is not defined by the geography of the peninsula itself.
The Balkans are usually said to comprise Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo,[a] the Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia and Slovenia, while Greece and Turkey are often excluded. Its total area is usually given as 666,700 square km (257,400 square miles) and the population as 59,297,000 (est. 2002).
Italy, although having a small part of its territory in the Balkan peninsula, is not included in the term "the Balkans".
The term Southeastern Europe is also used for the region, with various definitions. Individual Balkan states are also considered to be part of other regions, including Southern Europe and Eastern Europe. Croatia, Romania, Serbia and Slovenia are also sometimes considered part of Central Europe. Turkey, often including its European territory, is also included in Western or Southwestern Asia.
The institutions of the European Union have generally used the term "Western Balkans" to mean the Balkan area that includes countries that are not members of the European Union, while others refer to the geographical aspects. Each of these countries aims to be part of the future enlargement of the European Union and reach democracy and transmission scores but, until then, they will be strongly connected with the pre-EU waiting program CEFTA. Croatia, considered part of the Western Balkans, joined the EU in July 2013.
Nature and natural resources
Most of the area is covered by mountain ranges running from the northwest to southeast. The main ranges are the Balkan mountains, running from the Black Sea coast in Bulgaria to its border with Serbia, the Rhodope mountains in southern Bulgaria and northern Greece, the Dinaric Alps in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Montenegro, the Šar massif which spreads from Albania to Macedonia, and the Pindus range, spanning from southern Albania into central Greece and the Albanian Alps. The highest mountain of the region is Rila in Bulgaria, with Musala at 2925 m, Mount Olympus in Greece, being second at 2917 m and Vihren in Bulgaria being the third at 2914 m. The karst field or polje is a common feature of the landscape.
On the Adriatic and Aegean coasts the climate is Mediterranean, on the Black Sea coast the climate is humid subtropical and oceanic, and inland it is humid continental. In the northern part of the peninsula and on the mountains, winters are frosty and snowy, while summers are hot and dry. In the southern part winters are milder. The humid continental climate is predominant in Bosnia and Herzegovina, northern Croatia, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Macedonia, northern Montenegro, the interior of Albania and Serbia, while the other, less common climates, the humid subtropical and oceanic climates, are seen on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria and Turkey; and the Mediterranean climate is seen on the coast of Albania, the coast of Croatia, Greece, southern Montenegro and the Aegean coast of Turkey.[clarification needed]
Over the centuries many woods have been cut down and replaced with bush. In the southern part and on the coast there is evergreen vegetation. Inland there are woods typical of Central Europe (oak and beech, and in the mountains, spruce, fir and pine). The tree line in the mountains lies at the height of 1800–2300 m. The land provides habitats for numerous endemic species, including extraordinarily abundant insects and reptiles that serve as food for a variety of birds of prey and rare vultures.
The soils are generally poor, except on the plains, where areas with natural grass, fertile soils and warm summers provide an opportunity for tillage. Elsewhere, land cultivation is mostly unsuccessful because of the mountains, hot summers and poor soils, although certain cultures such as olive and grape flourish.
Resources of energy are scarce, except in the territory of Kosovo, where considerable coal, lead, zinc, chromium and silver deposits are located. Other deposits of coal, especially in Bulgaria, Serbia and Bosnia, also exist. Lignite deposits are widespread in Greece. Petroleum scarce reserves exist in Greece, Serbia and Albania. Natural gas deposits are scarce. Hydropower is in wide use, from over 1,000 dams. The often relentless bora wind is also being harnessed for power generation.
Metal ores are more usual than other raw materials. Iron ore is rare, but in some countries there is a considerable amount of copper, zinc, tin, chromite, manganese, magnesite and bauxite. Some metals are exported.
History and geopolitical significance
The Balkan region was the first area in Europe to experience the arrival of farming cultures in the Neolithic era. The Balkans have been inhabited since the Paleolithic and are the route by which farming from the Middle East spread to Europe during the Neolithic (7th millennium BC). The practices of growing grain and raising livestock arrived in the Balkans from the Fertile Crescent by way of Anatolia and spread west and north into Central Europe, particularly through Pannonia. Two early culture-complexes have developed in the region, Starčevo culture and Vinča culture. The Balkans are also the location of the first advanced civilizations. Vinča culture developed a form of proto-writing before the Sumerians and Minoans, known as the Old European script, while the bulk of the symbols had been created in the period between 4500 and 4000 BC, with the ones on the Tărtăria clay tablets even dating back to around 5300 BC.
The identity of the Balkans is dominated by its geographical position; historically the area was known as a crossroads of cultures. It has been a juncture between the Latin and Greek bodies of the Roman Empire, the destination of a massive influx of pagan Bulgars and Slavs, an area where Orthodox and Catholic Christianity met, as well as the meeting point between Islam and Christianity.
In pre-classical and classical antiquity, this region was home to Greeks, Illyrians, Paeonians, Thracians, Dacians, and other ancient groups. The Achaemenid Persian Empire incorporated parts of the Balkans comprising Macedonia, Thrace, Bulgaria, and the Black Sea coastal region of Romania between the late 6th and the first half of the 5th-century BC into its territories. Later the Roman Empire conquered most of the region and spread Roman culture and the Latin language, but significant parts still remained under classical Greek influence. The Romans considered the Rhodope Mountains to be the northern limit of the Peninsula of Haemus and the same limit applied approximately to the border between Greek and Latin use in the region (later called the Jireček Line). The Bulgars and Slavs arrived in the 6th-century and began assimilating and displacing already-assimilated (through Romanization and Hellenization) older inhabitants of the northern and central Balkans, forming the Bulgarian Empire. During the Middle Ages, the Balkans became the stage for a series of wars between the Byzantine Roman and the Bulgarian Empires.
Early modern period
By the end of the 16th-century, the Ottoman Empire had become the controlling force in the region after expanding from Anatolia through Thrace to the Balkans. Many people in the Balkans place their greatest folk heroes in the era of either the onslaught or the retreat of the Ottoman Empire. As examples, for Greeks, Constantine XI Palaiologos and Kolokotronis; and for Serbs, Miloš Obilić and Tzar Lazar; for Montenegrins, Đurađ I Balšić and Ivan Crnojević; for Albanians, George Kastrioti Skanderbeg; for ethnic Macedonians, Nikola Karev and Goce Delčev; for Bulgarians, Vasil Levski, Georgi Sava Rakovski and Hristo Botev and for Croats, Nikola Šubić Zrinjski.
In the past several centuries, because of the frequent Ottoman wars in Europe fought in and around the Balkans and the comparative Ottoman isolation from the mainstream of economic advance (reflecting the shift of Europe's commercial and political centre of gravity towards the Atlantic), the Balkans has been the least developed part of Europe. According to Halil İnalcık, "The population of the Balkans, according to one estimate, fell from a high of 8 million in the late 16th-century to only 3 million by the mid-eighteenth. This estimate is in harmony with the first findings based on Ottoman documentary evidence."
Most of the Balkan nation-states emerged during the 19th and early 20th centuries as they gained independence from the Ottoman Empire or the Austro-Hungarian empire: Greece in 1821, Serbia, Montenegro in 1878, Romania in 1881, Bulgaria in 1908 and Albania in 1912.
In 1912–1913 the First Balkan War broke out when the nation-states of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro united in an alliance against the Ottoman Empire. As a result of the war, almost all remaining European territories of the Ottoman Empire were captured and partitioned among the allies. Ensuing events also led to the creation of an independent Albanian state. Bulgaria insisted on its status quo territorial integrity, divided and shared by the Great Powers next to the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) in other boundaries and on the pre-war Bulgarian-Serbian agreement. Bulgaria was provoked by the backstage deals between its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on the allocation of the spoils at the end of the First Balkan War. At the time, Bulgaria was fighting at the main Thracian Front. Bulgaria marks the beginning of Second Balkan War when it attacked them. The Serbs and the Greeks repulsed single attacks, but when the Greek army invaded Bulgaria together with an unprovoked Romanian intervention in the back, Bulgaria collapsed. The Ottoman Empire used the opportunity to recapture Eastern Thrace, establishing its new western borders that still stand today as part of modern Turkey.
The First World War was sparked in the Balkans in 1914 when members of Mlada Bosna, a revolutionary organization with predominantly Serbian and pro-Yugoslav members, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Bosnia and Herzegovina's capital, Sarajevo. That caused a war between the two countries which—through the existing chains of alliances—led to the First World War. The Ottoman Empire soon joined the Central Powers becoming one of the three empires participating in that alliance. The next year Bulgaria joined the Central Powers attacking Serbia, which was successfully fighting Austro-Hungary to the north for a year. That led to Serbia's defeat and the intervention of the Entente in the Balkans which sent an expeditionary force to establish a new front, the third one of that war, which soon also became static. The participation of Greece in the war three years later, in 1918, on the part of the Entente finally altered the balance between the opponents leading to the collapse of the common German-Bulgarian front there, which caused the exit of Bulgaria from the war, and in turn the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, ending the First World War.
With the start of the Second World War, all Balkan countries, with the exception of Greece, were allies of Nazi Germany, having bilateral military agreements or being part of the Axis Pact. Fascist Italy expanded the war in the Balkans by using its protectorate Albania to invade Greece. After repelling the attack, the Greeks counterattacked, invading Italy-held Albania and causing Nazi Germany's intervention in the Balkans to help its ally. Days before the German invasion, a successful coup d'état in Belgrade by neutral military personnel seized power.
Although the new government reaffirmed Serbia's intentions to fulfill its obligations as member of the Axis, Germany, with Bulgaria, invaded both Greece and Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia immediately disintegrated when those loyal to the Serbian King and the Croatian units mutinied. Greece resisted, but, after two months of fighting, collapsed and was occupied. The two countries were partitioned between the three Axis allies, Bulgaria, Germany and Italy, and the Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state of Italy and Germany.
During the occupation the population suffered considerable hardship due to repression and starvation, to which the population reacted by creating a mass resistance movement. Together with the early and extremely heavy winter of that year (which caused hundreds of thousands deaths among the poorly fed population), the German invasion had disastrous effects in the timetable of the planned invasion in Russia causing a significant delay, which had major consequences during the course of the war.
Finally, at the end of 1944, the Soviets entered Romania and Bulgaria forcing the Germans out of the Balkans. They left behind a region largely ruined as a result of wartime exploitation.
During the Cold War, most of the countries on the Balkans were governed by communist governments. Greece became the first battleground of the emerging Cold War. The Truman Doctrine was the US response to the civil war, which raged from 1944 to 1949. This civil war, unleashed by the Communist Party of Greece, backed by communist volunteers from neighboring countries (Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia), led to massive American assistance for the non-communist Greek government. With this backing, Greece managed to defeat the partisans and, ultimately, remained the only non-communist country in the region.
However, despite being under communist governments, Yugoslavia (1948) and Albania (1961) fell out with the Soviet Union. Yugoslavia, led by Marshal Josip Broz Tito (1892–1980), first propped up then rejected the idea of merging with Bulgaria and instead sought closer relations with the West, later even spearheaded, together with India and Egypt the Non-Aligned Movement. Albania on the other hand gravitated toward Communist China, later adopting an isolationist position.
In the 1990s, the transition of the regions' ex-Soviet bloc countries towards democratic free-market societies went peacefully with the exception of Yugoslavia. Wars between the former Yugoslav republics broke out after Slovenia and Croatia held free elections and their people voted for independence on their respective countries' referenda. Serbia in turn declared the dissolution of the union as unconstitutional and the Yugoslavian army unsuccessfully tried to maintain status quo. Slovenia and Croatia declared independence on 25 June 1991, followed by the Ten-Day War in Slovenia. Till October 1991, the Army withdrew from Slovenia, and in Croatia, the Croatian War of Independence would continue until 1995. In the ensuing 10 years armed confrontation, gradually all the other Republics declared independence, with Bosnia being the most affected by the fighting. The long lasting wars resulted in a United Nations intervention and NATO ground and air forces took action against Serb forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia.
From the dissolution of Yugoslavia six republics achieved international recognition as sovereign republics, but these are traditionally included in Balkans: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia. In 2008, while under UN administration, Kosovo declared independence (according to the official Serbian policy, Kosovo is still an internal autonomous region). In July 2010, the International Court of Justice, ruled that the declaration of independence was legal. Most UN member states recognise Kosovo. After the end of the wars a revolution broke in Serbia and Slobodan Milošević, the Serbian communist leader (elected president between 1989 and 2000), was overthrown and handed for trial to the International Criminal Tribunal for crimes against the International Humanitarian Law during the Yugoslav wars. Milošević died of a heart attack in 2006 before a verdict could have been released. Ιn 2001 an Albanian uprising in Macedonia forced the country to give local autonomy to the ethnic Albanians in the areas where they predominate.
With the dissolution of Yugoslavia an issue emerged over the name under which the former (federated) republic of Macedonia would internationally be recognized, between the new country and Greece. Being the Macedonian part of Yugoslavia (see Vardar Macedonia), the federated Republic under the Yugoslav identity had the name Republic of Macedonia on which it declared its sovereignty in 1991. Greece, having a large region (see Macedonia) also under the same name opposed to the usage of this name as an indication of a nationality. The issue is currently under negotiations after a UN initiation.
Balkan countries control the direct land routes between Western Europe and South West Asia (Asia Minor and the Middle East). Since 2000, all Balkan countries are friendly towards the EU and the USA.
Greece has been the member of the European Union since 1981 while Slovenia is a member since 2004, Bulgaria and Romania are members since 2007, and Croatia is a member since 2013. In 2005, the European Union decided to start accession negotiations with candidate countries; Turkey, and Macedonia were accepted as candidates for EU membership. In 2012, Montenegro started accession negotiations with the EU. In 2014, Albania is an official candidate for accession to the EU. In 2015, Serbia is expected to start accession negotiations with the EU.
Greece and Turkey have been NATO members since 1952. In March 2004, Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia have become members of NATO. As of April 2009, Albania and Croatia are members of NATO. Montenegro joined in June 2017.
All other countries have expressed a desire to join the EU or NATO at some point in the future.
Politics and economy
Currently all of the states are republics, but until World War II all countries were monarchies. Most of the republics are parliamentary, excluding Romania and Bosnia which are semi-presidential. All the states have open market economies, most of which are in the upper-middle income range ($4,000 – $12,000 p.c.), except Croatia, Greece and Slovenia that have high income economies (over $12,000 p.c.), and are classified with very high HDI in contrast to the remaining states which are classified with high HDI. The states from the former Eastern Bloc that formerly had planned economy system and Turkey mark gradual economic growth each year, only the economy of Greece drops for 2012 and meanwhile it was expected to grow in 2013. The Gross domestic product (Purchasing power parity) per capita is highest in Slovenia (over $36,000), followed by Greece (over $29,000), Croatia and Romania (over $25,000), Turkey, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Serbia, Macedonia ($10,000 – $15,000) and Bosnia, Albania and Kosovo (below $10,000). The Gini coefficient, which indicates the level of difference by monetary welfare of the layers, is on the second level at the highest monetary equality in Albania, Bulgaria and Serbia, on the third level in Greece, Montenegro and Romania, on the fourth level in Macedonia, on the fifth level in Turkey, and the most unequal by Gini coefficient is Bosnia at the eighth level which is the penultimate level and one of the highest in the world. The unemployment is lowest in Romania (below 10%), followed by Bulgaria, Turkey, Albania (10 – 15%), Greece (15 – 20%), Montenegro, Serbia, Bosnia (20 – 30%), Macedonia (over 30%) and Kosovo (over 40%).
- On political, social and economic criteria the divisions are as follows:
- Territories members of the European Union: Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Romania and Slovenia
- Territories currently in negotiation process for EU membership: Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey
- Territories official candidates for EU membership: Albania and Macedonia
- Territories with "potential candidates" status for EU membership: Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo
- On border control and trade criteria the divisions are as follows:
- Territories in the Schengen Area: Greece and Slovenia
- Territories that are legally bound to join the Schengen Area: Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania
- Territories in a customs union with the EU: Turkey
- Territories members of the Central European Free Trade Agreement: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia.
- On currency criteria the divisions are as follows:
- Territories members of the Eurozone: Greece and Slovenia
- Territories using the Euro without authorization by the EU: Kosovo and Montenegro
- Territories using national currencies and are candidates for the Eurozone: Bulgaria (lev), Croatia (kuna), Romania (leu)
- Territories using national currencies: Albania (lek), Bosnia and Herzegovina (convertible mark), Macedonia (denar), Serbia (dinar) and Turkey (lira).
- On military criteria the divisions are as follows:
- Member territories of NATO: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Montenegro, Romania, Slovenia and Turkey
- Member territories of the Partnership for Peace with Individual Partnership Action Plan and Membership Action Plan for joining NATO: Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia
- Member territories of the Partnership for Peace: Serbia
- On the recent political, social and economic criteria there are two groups of countries:
- Former communist territories: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia and Slovenia
- Territories with capitalist past: Greece and Turkey
- During the Cold War the Balkans were disputed between the two blocks. Greece and Turkey were members of NATO, Bulgaria and Romania of the Warsaw Pact, while Yugoslavia was proponent of a third way and was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement. After the dissolution of Yugoslavia, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina kept an observer status within the organisation.
See also the Black Sea regional organizations
|Albania||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Bulgaria||Croatia||Greece||Kosovo[a]||Macedonia||Montenegro||Romania||Serbia||Slovenia||Turkey|
|Coat of arms|
|October 29, |
|Current President||Ilir Meta||Bakir Izetbegović||Rumen Radev||Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović||Prokopis Pavlopoulos||Hashim Thaçi||Gjorge Ivanov||Filip Vujanović||Klaus Iohannis||Aleksandar Vučić||Borut Pahor||Recep Tayyip Erdoğan|
|Current Prime Minister||Edi Rama||Denis Zvizdić||Boyko Borisov||Andrej Plenković||Alexis Tsipras||Ramush Haradinaj||Zoran Zaev||Duško Marković||Viorica Dăncilă||Ana Brnabić||Miro Cerar||Binali Yıldırım|
|Area||28,748 km²||51,197 km²||110,879 km²||56,594 km²||131,957 km²||10,908 km²||25,713 km²||13,812 km²||238,391 km²||77,474 km²||20,273 km²||783,562 km²|
|Water area %||4.7%||0.02%||2.16%||1.1%||0.99%||1.0%||1.09%||2.61%||2.97%||0.13%||0.6%||1.3%|
|GDP (nominal) total (2016)||$12.269 billion||$16.324 billion||$49.364 billion||$57.868 billion||$194.594 billion||$6.471 billion||$10.424 billion||$4.182 billion||$181.944 billion||$42.139 billion||$43.791 billion||$751 billion|
|GDP (PPP) per capita (2018)||$13,274||$12,986||$21,578||$25,807||$29,090||$12,003||$15,977||$18,261||$25,533||$16,063||$36,566||$28,346|
|Gini Index (2012)||29.0||33.0||36.0||32.0||36.7||N/A||43.2||33.2||27.3||29.7||25.6||40.0|
|HDI (2017)||0.764 (High)||0.750 (High)||0.794 (High)||0.827 (Very High)||0.866 (Very High)||0.786 (High)||0.748 (High)||0.807 (Very High)||0.802 (Very High)||0.776 (High)||0.890 (Very High)||0.767 (High)|
The region is inhabited by Albanians, Aromanians, Bulgarians, Bosniaks, Croats, Gorani, Greeks, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Serbs, Slovenes, Romanians, Turks, and other ethnic groups which present minorities in certain countries like the Romani and Ashkali.[not in citation given]
|State||Population (2016)||Density/km2 (2013)||Life expectancy|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||3,515,982||69||76.7 years|
The region is a meeting point of Orthodox Christianity, Islam and Roman Catholic Christianity. Eastern Orthodoxy is the majority religion in both the Balkan peninsula and the Balkan region. A variety of different traditions of each faith are practiced, with each of the Eastern Orthodox countries having its own national church. A part of the population in the Balkans defines itself as irreligious.
|Territories in which the principal religion is Eastern Orthodoxy (with national churches in parentheses)||Religious minorities of these territories|
|Bulgaria: 59% (Bulgarian Orthodox Church)||Islam (7%) and undeclared (31%)|
|Greece: 98% (Greek Orthodox Church)||Islam (1%), Catholicism, other and undeclared|
|Macedonia: 64% (Macedonian Orthodox Church)||Islam (33%), Catholicism|
|Montenegro: 72% (Serbian Orthodox Church, Montenegrin Orthodox Church)||Islam (19%), Catholicism (3%), other and undeclared (5%)|
|Romania: 81% (Romanian Orthodox Church)||Protestantism (6%), Catholicism (5%), other and undeclared (8%)|
|Serbia: 84% (Serbian Orthodox Church)||Catholicism (5%), Islam (3%), Protestantism (1%), other and undeclared (6%)|
|Territories in which the principal religion is Catholicism||Religious minorities of these territories|
|Croatia (86%)||Eastern Orthodoxy (4%), Islam (1%), other and undeclared (7%)|
|Slovenia (57%)||Islam (2%), Orthodox (2%), other and undeclared (36%)|
|Territories in which the principal religion is Islam||Religious minorities of these territories|
|Albania (58%)||Catholicism (10%), Orthodoxy (7%), other and undeclared (24%)|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina (51%)||Orthodoxy (31%), Catholicism (15%), other and undeclared (4%)|
|Kosovo (95%)||Roman Catholicism (2%), Eastern Orthodoxy (1%)|
The Jewish communities of the Balkans were some of the oldest in Europe and date back to ancient times. These communities were Sephardi Jews, except in Transylvania, Croatia and Slovenia, where the Jewish communities were mainly Ashkenazi Jews. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the small and close-knit Jewish community is 90% Sephardic, and Ladino is still spoken among the elderly. The Sephardi Jewish cemetery in Sarajevo has tombstones of a unique shape and inscribed in ancient Ladino. Sephardi Jews used to have a large presence in the city of Thessaloniki, and by 1900, some 80,000, or more than half of the population, were Jews. The Jewish communities in the Balkans suffered immensely during World War II, and the vast majority were killed during the Holocaust. An exception were the Bulgarian Jews, most of whom were saved by Boris III of Bulgaria, who resisted Adolf Hitler, opposing their deportation to Nazi concentration camps. Almost all of the few survivors have emigrated to the (then) newly founded state of Israel and elsewhere. Almost no Balkan country today has a significant Jewish minority.
The Balkan region today is a very diverse ethno-linguistic region, being home to multiple Slavic, and Romance languages, as well as Albanian, Greek, Turkish, and others. Romani is spoken by a large portion of the Romanis living throughout the Balkan countries. Throughout history many other ethnic groups with their own languages lived in the area, among them Thracians, Illyrians, Romans, Celts and various Germanic tribes. All of the aforementioned languages from the present and from the past belong to the wider Indo-European language family, with the exception of the Turkic languages (e.g., Turkish and Gagauz).
|State||Principal language||Linguistic minorities|
|Albania||98% Albanian||2% other|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||53% Bosnian||31% Serbian, 15% Croatian, 2% other|
|Bulgaria||88% Bulgarian||5% Turkish, 2% Romani, 1% other, 5% unspecified|
|Croatia||96% Croatian||1% Serbian, 3% other|
|Greece||99% Greek||1% other|
|Kosovo[a]||94% Albanian||2% Bosnian, 2% Serbian, 1% Turkish, 1% other|
|Macedonia||67% Macedonian||25% Albanian, 4% Turkish, 2% Romani, 1% Serbian, 2% other|
|Montenegro||43% Serbian||37% Montenegrin (official), 5% Bosnian, 5% Albanian, 5% other, 4% unspecified|
|Romania||91% Romanian||7% Hungarian, 1% Romani|
|Serbia||88% Serbian||3% Hungarian, 2% Bosnian, 1% Romani, 3% other, 2% unspecified|
|Slovenia||91% Slovene||5% Serbo-Croatian, 4% other|
|Turkey||84% Turkish||12% Kurdish, 4% other and unspecified|
Most of the states in the Balkans are predominantly urbanized, with the lowest number of urban population as % of the total population found in Kosovo at under 40%, Bosnia and Herzegovina at 40% and Slovenia at 50%.
A list of largest cities:
|Sarajevo||Bosnia and Herzegovina||275.524||413,593||2013|
- * Only the European part of Istanbul is a part of the Balkans. It is home to two thirds of the city's 14,025,646 inhabitants.
The time zones in the Balkans are defined as the following:
|a.||^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations member states.|
|b.||^ As The World Factbook cites, regarding Turkey and Southeastern Europe; "that portion of Turkey west of the Bosphorus is geographically part of Europe."|
|c.||^ The population only of European Turkey, that excludes the Anatolian peninsula, which otherwise has a population of 75,627,384 and a density of 97.|
- Colin S. Gray, Geoffrey Sloan (2014-01-14). Geopolitics, Geography and Strategy. ISBN 9781135265021. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
- "Balkans". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-12-13.
- "Balkan". Encarta World English Dictionary. Microsoft Corporation. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 31 March 2008.
- "balkan". Büyük Türkçe Sözlük (in Turkish). Türk Dil Kurumu. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011.
Sarp ve ormanlık sıradağ
- Oxford English Dictionary, 2013, s.v.
- Current Trends in Altaic Linguistics; European Balkan(s), Turkic bal(yk) and the Problem of Their Original Meanings, Marek Stachowski, Jagiellonian University, p. 618.
- Todorova, Maria N. (1997). Imagining the Balkans. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. p. 27. ISBN 9780195087512.
- "Bulgaria". Hemus – a Thracian name. Indiana University. p. 54.
- Balkan Studies. 1986.
- Decev, D (1986). Balkan Studies. University of Michigan. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "Gods and Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus". Google Books. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- Dobrev, Ivan (1989). Проиcхождение географического названия Балкан – Sixieme Congres international d'etudes du Sud-Est Europeen (in French). Sofia: Ed.de l'Académie bulgare des Sciences.
- Todorova, Maria (2009). Imagining the Balkans. Oxford University Press US. p. 22. ISBN 0-19-538786-4.
- Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Editors: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online Reference Works.
- "Balkan – Brill Reference". brillonline.com.
- "Balkhan Mountains". World Land Features Database. Land.WorldCityDB.com. Archived from the original on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2008.
- Pavic, Silvia (22 November 2000). "Some Thoughts About The Balkans". About, Inc. Archived from the original on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2008.
- Maria Todorova Gutgsell, Imagining the Balkans (Oxford University Press, 2009; ISBN 0-19-972838-0), p. 24.
- "Balkanize". merriam-webster.com.
- Bideleux, Robert; Ian Jeffries (2007). A history of Eastern Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-415-36627-4.
- Jelavich 1983a, p. 1.
- "britannica.com". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- Hajdú, Zoltán (2007). Southeast-Europe: State Borders, Cross-border Relations, Spatial Structures. Pécs, Hungary: Hungarian Academy of Sciences. ISBN 978-963-9052-65-9. Retrieved June 8, 2015.
- Lampe, John R. (2014). Balkans Into Southeastern Europe, 1914–2014: A Century of War and Transition. London, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-01907-3. Retrieved June 8, 2015.
- Švob-Ðokic, Nada, ed. (2001). Redefining Cultural Identities: Southeastern Europe (PDF). Zagreb, Croatia: National and University Library in Zagreb. ISBN 953-6096-22-6. Retrieved June 8, 2015.
- Istituto Geografico De Agostini, L'Enciclopedia Geografica – Vol.I – Italia, 2004, Ed. De Agostini p.78
- "Field Listing: Area". CIA: The World Factbook. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- "Proleksis encyclopedia". Proleksis encyclopedia. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- Geographical horizon (Scientific and Professional magazine of the Croatian Geographical Society), article; On the north border and confine of the Balkan Peninsula, No1/2008, year LIV, ISSN 0016-7266, p.30-33
- "The Law of the Sea".
- "Balkans". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
The Balkans are usually characterized as comprising Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia—with all or part of each of those countries located within the peninsula. Portions of Greece and Turkey are also located within the geographic region generally defined as the Balkan Peninsula, and many descriptions of the Balkans include those countries too. Some define the region in cultural and historical terms and others geographically, though there are even different interpretations among historians and geographers....Generally, the Balkans are bordered on the northwest by Italy, on the north by Hungary, on the north and northeast by Moldova and Ukraine, and on the south by Greece and Turkey or the Aegean Sea (depending on how the region is defined)...For discussion of physical and human geography, along with the history of individual countries in the region, see Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, and Turkey. Area 257,400 square miles (666,700 square km). Pop. (2002 est.) 59,297,000.
- According to an earlier version of the Britannica, the Balkans comprise the territories of the states of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo,[a] the Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia and the European part of Turkey; it notes Turkey as a non-Balkan state and the inclusion of Slovenia and the Transylvanian part of Romania in the region as dubious.
- Pond, Elizabeth (2006). Endgame in the Balkans: Regime Change, European Style. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-8157-7160-9.
- Zoltan Hajdu, ed. (2007). "The European integration and regional policy of the West Balkans". Southeast-Europe: state borders, cross-border relations, spatial structures. Ivan Illes, Zoltan Raffay. Centre for Regional Studies. p. 141. ISBN 978-963-9052-65-9. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- "European Economic and Social Committee – Western Balkans". European Economic and Social Committee. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- "European Union External Action – EU relations with the Western Balkans". Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- Redaktion: PT-DLR. "Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany – Western Balkan Countries". Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- "Austrian Foreign Miniistry – The Western Balkans – A Priority of Austrian Foreign Policy".
- "WBIF – Western Balkans Investment Framework – Stakeholders". Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- "European Commission – Trade – Countries and regions – Western Balkans". Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- "Western Balkans: Enhancing the European Perspective" (PDF). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council. 5 March 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2008.
- Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs. "Western Balkans Summit". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
- "Western Balkans – Trade – European Commission". europa.eu.
- "Perspectives on the Region" (PDF). Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- De Munter, André (December 2016). "Fact Sheets on the European Union:The Western Balkans". European Parliament. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
- "Regions and territories: Kosovo". BBC News. 20 November 2009. Archived from the original on 14 February 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- Borza, EN (1992), In the Shadow of Olympus: The Emergence of Macedon, Princeton University Press, p. 58, ISBN 0691008809
- Perlès, Catherine (2001), The Early Neolithic in Greece: The First Farming Communities in Europe, Cambridge University Press, p. 1, ISBN 9780521000277
- Haarmann, Harald (2002). Geschichte der Schrift (in German). C.H. Beck. p. 20. ISBN 978-3-406-47998-4.
- Goldstein, I. (1999). Croatia: A History. McGill-Queen's University Press.
- Joseph Roisman, Ian Worthington A Companion to Ancient Macedonia pp 135–138, 342–345 John Wiley & Sons, 7 jul. 2011 ISBN 978-1-4443-5163-7
- "JSTOR". jstor.org.
- Twenty Years of Balkan Tangle. Mary Edith Durham (2007). p.125. ISBN 1-4346-3426-4
- Considered a Bulgarian in Bulgaria
- An economic and social history of the Ottoman Empire. Suraiya Faroqhi, Donald Quataert (1997). Cambridge University Press. p.652. ISBN 0-521-57455-2
- "The Balkan Wars and World War I". p. 28. Library of Congress Country Studies.
- Encyclopedia of World War I, Spencer Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, p.242
- Europe in Flames, J. Klam, 2002, p.41
- Russia's life-saver, Albert Loren Weeks, 2004, p.98
- Schreiber, Stegemann and Vogel 1995, p. 484.
- Schreiber, Stegemann and Vogel 1995, p. 521.
- Inside Hitler's Greece:The Experience of Occupation, Mark Mazower, 1993
- Hermann Goring: Hitler's Second-In-Command, Fred Ramen, 2002, p.61
- The encyclopedia of codenames of World War II#Marita, Christopher Chant, 1986, p. 125–6
- "Kosovo independence declaration deemed legal". Reuters. 22 July 2010. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
- Ceremony marks the accession of Albania to NATO, NATO – News, 7 April 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2009.
- Archives, EWB (20 April 2017). "Darmanović: Montenegro becomes EU member in 2022 - European Western Balkans".
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. 2009–2016.
- GINI index
- "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". europa.eu.
- "List of Countries by Population Density".
- "Country Comparison: Life Expectancy at Birth". CIA: The World Factbook. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- "Kosovo". The World Bank. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- "Turkish Statistical Institute. Registered population as of 2012". Archived from the original on 10 October 2012.
- Okey, Robin (2007). Taming Balkan Nationalism. Oxford University Press.
- "FIELD LISTING :: RELIGIONS". CIA.
- European Jewish Congress – Bosnia-Herzegovina, Accessed 15 July 2008.
- "Greece". Jewish Virtual Library.
- "FIELD LISTING :: LANGUAGES". CIA.
- "Data: Urban population (% of total)". The World Bank. 1960–2016.
- "ROMANIA: Counties and Major Cities". Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "BULGARIA: Major Cities". Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- Statistical Officeof the Republic of Serbia Archived 14 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. page 32
- "CROATIA: Counties and Major Cities". Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "GREECE: Regions and Agglomerations". Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "MACEDONIA". Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "Albania: Prefectures and Major Cities - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de.
- "SLOVENIA: Major Cities". Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "SERBIA: Regions, Districts and Major Cities". Archived from the original on 8 November 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- Cite error: The named reference
Bosnianwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "Çorlu (Tekirdağ, Turkey) – Population Statistics and Location in Maps and Charts". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- Crampton (2014-07-15). The Balkans Since the Second World War. ISBN 9781317891161.
- Gray, Colin S. (1999). Geopolitics, Geography and Strategy. London, United Kingdom: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7146-8053-8.
- Banac, Ivo (October 1992). "Historiography of the Countries of Eastern Europe: Yugoslavia". American Historical Review. University of Chicago Press. 97 (4): 1084–1104. doi:10.2307/2165494. JSTOR 2165494.
- Banac, Ivo (1984). The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-9493-2.
- Goldstein, Ivo (1999). Croatia: A History. Montreal, Quebec, Canada: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-2017-2.
- Carter, Francis W., ed. An Historical Geography of the Balkans Academic Press, 1977.
- Dvornik, Francis. The Slavs in European History and Civilization Rutgers University Press, 1962.
- Fine, John V. A., Jr. The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century ; The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, .
- Jelavich, Barbara (1983a). History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521274586.
- Jelavich, Barbara (1983b). History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century. 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521274593.
- Jelavich, Charles and Jelavich, Barbara, eds. (1963). The Balkans in Transition: Essays on the Development of Balkan Life and Politics Since the Eighteenth Century. University of California Press.
- Kitsikis, Dimitri (2008). La montée du national-bolchevisme dans les Balkans. Le retour à la Serbie de 1830. Paris: Avatar.
- Lampe, John R., and Marvin R. Jackson; Balkan Economic History, 1550–1950: From Imperial Borderlands to Developing Nations Indiana University Press, 1982
- Király, Béla K., ed. East Central European Society in the Era of Revolutions, 1775–1856. 1984
- Komlos, John (15 October 1990). Economic Development in the Habsburg Monarchy and in the Successor States. East European Monographs No. 28. East European Monographs. ISBN 978-0-88033-177-7.
- Mazower, Mark (2000). The Balkans: A Short History. Modern Library Chronicles. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-64087-8.
- Schreiber, Gerhard; Stegemann, Bernd; Vogel, Detlef (1995). The Mediterranean, south-east Europe, and north Africa, 1939–1941. Germany and the 2nd World War. Volume III. Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-822884-4.
- Stavrianos, L. S. (1 May 2000) . The Balkans since 1453. with Traian Stoianovich. New York: NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-9766-2. online free to borrow
- Stoianovich, Traian (September 1994). Balkan Worlds: The First and Last Europe. Sources and Studies in World History. New York: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-1-56324-032-4.
- Zametica, John. Folly and malice: the Habsburg empire, the Balkans and the start of World War One (London: Shepheard–Walwyn, 2017). 416pp.