Iron Gate I Hydroelectric Power Station

The Iron Gate I Hydroelectric Power Station (Romanian: Porțile de Fier I, Serbian: Ђердап I/Đerdap I) is the largest dam on the Danube river and one of the largest hydro power plants in Europe. It is located on the Iron Gate gorge, between Romania and Serbia.

Iron Gate I Hydroelectric Power Station
HE ĐerdapI Karataš.jpg
Iron Gates seen from Kladovo
LocationIron Gate
Coordinates44°40′15″N 22°31′45″E / 44.67083°N 22.52917°E / 44.67083; 22.52917Coordinates: 44°40′15″N 22°31′45″E / 44.67083°N 22.52917°E / 44.67083; 22.52917
Construction began7 September 1964
Opening date16 May 1972 (1972-05-16)
Dam and spillways
ImpoundsDanube River
Height60 m (200 ft)
Length1,278 m (4,193 ft)[1]
CreatesIron Gate I Reservoir
Total capacity2.1 km3 (0.50 cu mi)
Catchment area577,250 km2 (222,880 sq mi)
Surface area104.41 km2 (40.31 sq mi)
Power Station
TurbinesRomania: 6 × 194.3 MW
Serbia: 3 × 171 MW, 3 × 201 MW
Installed capacity2,281.8 MW
Annual generationRomania: 5.24 TWh
Serbia: 5.65 TWh

The Romanian side of the power station produces approximately 5.24 TWh annually, while the Serbian side of the power station produces 5.65 TWh.[2] The discrepancy in power output between the two halves is due to the generating equipment. While Romania's equipment is newer and thus more efficient (thereby generating more power), it is proving more unreliable; resulting in increased downtime for maintenance/repairs, and consequently lower annual power output overall.[3]


The project started in 1964 as a joint-venture between the governments of Romania and Yugoslavia for the construction of a major dam on the Danube River which would serve both countries. At the time of completion in 1972, it was the 10th largest hydroelectric power stations in the world with twelve Kaplan turbines generating 2,052 MW, divided equally between the two countries at 1,026 MW each.[2]

The small inhabited island of Ada Kaleh was submerged during the construction.


As the original turbines' 30 years lifespan came to an end, in 1998 the Romanian half of the dam started a program of modernization. As part of this program, the first of the turbines was stopped in 1999. By 2007 the program was completed and the Romanian half of the dam's operations were back to full capacity. The nominal capacity of each of the six units was increased from 171 MW to 194.3 MW, thus giving an installed capacity of 1,166 MW[4] and increasing the entire power generation capacity of the dam to 2,192 MW at the time. On the Serbian part of the dam, modernization started in July 2008;[5] so far Units 4 to 6.[6] The units are being[needs update] upgraded with the help of Russian company Power Machines from Saint Petersburg, as well as their subcontractors with the participation of eleven domestic companies.

In addition to the upgrades, the Serbian side is planning on building a new, smaller power station, called Iron Gate III (Serbian: Ђердап III/Đerdap III).[7]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Specifications
  2. ^ a b HE Djerdap (in Serbian) Archived 2009-08-13 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Politika: Đerdap još čeka majstore (in Serbian)
  4. ^ "Hidroelectrica". Archived from the original on 2012-11-22. Retrieved 2012-09-01.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-06-27. Retrieved 2009-03-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ Đerdap: Počela treća faza revitalizacije
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-10-06. Retrieved 2009-03-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External linksEdit