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Rakia or Rakija (/ˈrɑːkiə, ˈræ-, rəˈkə/) is the collective term for fruit brandy popular in the Balkans. The alcohol content of rakia is normally 40% ABV, but home-produced rakia can be stronger (typically 50%).[citation needed]

Contents

NameEdit

Fruit brandies are commonly known as Rakia in Greece (Ρακί, Ρακή [raˈci], or Τσικουδιά/Tsikoudia, [t͜sikuˈðʝa]),Turkey "Rakı" (/rɑːˈkiː/, /rɑːˈkuː/, /rɑːˈkɜːr/, Turkish pronunciation: [ɾaˈkɯ]), Bulgaria (ракия), Croatia (rakija), Bosnia and Herzegovina (ракија/rakija), Albania (rakia), Macedonia (ракија), Serbia (ракија/rakija [ˈrǎkija]), Montenegro (ракија/rakija). In Slovenia, it is known as sadjevec or šnops. In Romania, the terms ţuică and palincă are used over rachiu, răchie. In Central Europe, it is known as "pálenka" in Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic and pálinka ([ˈpaːliŋkɒ]) in Hungary.

OverviewEdit

Common flavours are šljivovica, produced from plums, kajsija, produced from apricots, or grozdova/lozova in Bulgaria (raki rrushi in Albania), or "lozovača" or "komovica" in Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia and Bosnia produced from grapes, the same as "Zivania" in Cyprus. Fruits less commonly used are peaches, apples, pears, cherries, figs, blackberries, and quince. Similar spirits are produced in Romania, Moldova, Poland, Ukraine, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Russia and the Caucasus. In Albania, rakia is most commonly made out of grapes in mild climate regions and out of plums (and sometimes out of mulberry or walnuts) in colder climate areas.

Plum and grape rakia are sometimes mixed with other ingredients, such as herbs, honey, sour cherries and walnuts, after distillation. A popular home-made variant in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Serbia is rakia produced from mixed fruits. In the Istrian and Dalmatian regions of Croatia, rakija tends to be home-made exclusively from grapes, where the drink is also known locally as trapa or grappa (the latter name also being used in Italy).

Normally, rakia is colorless, unless herbs or other ingredients are added. Some types of rakia are kept in wooden barrels (oak or mulberry) for extra aroma and a golden color.

It is supposed to be drunk from special small glasses which hold from 30 to 50 ml.

Greek ouzo (from grape) and tsipouro (from pomace), Turkish rakı (from sun dried grapes) and arak in Lebanon and Levant region differ from rakia as they are redistilled with some herbs (commonly anise). Some tsipouro in Greece is made without anise in the same manner as pomace rakia (or pomace brandy). "Boğma rakı" in Turkey (common name of the domestic raki which is produced at homes and villages) is similar to rakia in the Balkans.


By countryEdit

TurkeyEdit

Raki or rakı (/rɑːˈk/, /rɑːˈk/, /rɑːˈkɜːr/, Turkish pronunciation: [ɾaˈkɯ]) is an unsweetened, occasionally (depending on area of production) anise-flavoured, alcoholic drink that is popular in Albania and Greece (where it is distinctly different and comes as an unflavoured distillate, unlike its Turkish counterpart), Iran, Turkic countries, and in the Balkan countries as an apéritif. It is often served with seafood or meze. It is comparable to several other alcoholic beverages available around the Mediterranean and the Middle East, e.g. pastis, ouzo, sambuca, arak and aguardiente. In Turkey, it is considered a national drink.

AlbaniaEdit

Raki (definite Albanian form: rakia) (a type of rakia) is a traditional drink in Albania.[1] Until the 19th century, meyhanes would serve wine or meze.[2]

BulgariaEdit

Bulgaria cites an old piece of pottery from the 14th century in which the word rakinja is inscribed. The country has taken measures to declare the drink as a national drink in the European Union to allow lower excise duty domestically but has yet yielded no concrete results.[3] During an archaeological study, Bulgarian archaeologists discovered an 11th-century fragment of a distillation vessel used for the production of rakiya. Due to the age of the fragment, hence contradicting the idea that rakiya production only began in the 16th century, some historians believe this indicates that rakiya did originally come from Bulgaria.[4]

 
Traditional distillation of rakia (plum brandy) in Međimurje (northern Croatia)

CroatiaEdit

Rakija is the most popular spirit in Croatia.[5] Travarica (herbal rakija) is usually served at the beginning of the meal, together with dried figs. The Croatian Adriatic coast is known for a great variety of herbal Rakija, some typical for only one island or group of islands. The island Hvar is famous for Rakija with the addition of Myrtus (mrtina — bitter and dark brown). Southern islands, such as Korčula, and the city of Dubrovnik are famous for Rakija with anise (aniseta), and in central Dalmatia the most popular rakia is Rakija with nuts (orahovica). It's usually homemade, and served with dry cookies or dried figs. In the summer, it's very typical to see huge glass jars of Rakija with nuts steeping in the liquid on every balcony, because the process requires the exposure of orahovica to the sun. In the northern Adriatic — mainly Istria — rakia is typically made of honey (medica) or mistletoe (biska). Biska, which is yellow-brown and sweet, is a typical liquor of Istria. In the interior of the country a spirit called šljivovica (shlivovitza) is made from plums, and one called viljamovka (viliam-ovka) is made from Williams pears.

SerbiaEdit

 
Quince rakija from Serbia in traditional flasks

Rakija is one of the most popular alcoholic drinks in Serbia.[6] It is the national drink of Serbia. Serbia is the world's largest rakia producer and drinks more rakia per capita than any other country.[7][8][9] According to Dragan Đurić, President of the Association of Producers of Natural Spirits, the EU protects the names of beverages by allowing the prefix Serbian.[6] In Serbia there are 10,000 private producers of rakia. 2,000 are on the official register and only about a hundred cellars produce high-quality brandy.[6] In 2007, the European Union awarded Serbia with trademarks for five different rakia brands (Šljivovica, Dunjevača, Medovača, Kruškovača and Jabukovača) making it the only country to have any trademarks for rakia brands.[10]

MacedoniaEdit

Rakija is one of the most popular spirit in Macedonia as many of the people in Macedonia start their day with shot of rakija. Most common types are yellow and white grape rakija. It's served with salad as an appetizer (traditionally shopska salad) or white cheese. Tikves winery makes the most famous rakija which is made in Kavadarci, Macedonia. A lot of Macedonian people make homemade white rakija with natural process from grape distillate and add anise which gives sweetness. In industrial production, the percentage of alcohol in rakija is between 40 and 45 percent, but in domestic production, this percentage can be more than 60.[citation needed]

ServingEdit

In Bulgaria, rakia is generally served with shopska salad, yogurt salad, pickled vegetables (turshiya) or other salads, which form the first course of the meal. Muskatova rakia is made from Muscat grapes, while the preparation method of dzhibrova rakia is the same as for Italian Grappa.

In summer, rakia is usually served ice cold, while in winter it's served "cooked" (Croatian: kuhana, Serbian: kuvana or grejana, Bulgarian: греяна (greyana), rakia (also called Šumadija tea in Serbia). Rakia is heated and sweetened with honey or sugar, with added spices. Heated in large kettles, it is often offered to visitors to various open-air festivities, especially in winter. It is similar to mulled wine, as weaker brands of rakia are used (or stronger ones diluted with water).

Ritual useEdit

Although wine is the essential part of the Eucharist rite in the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches in the region, rakia has found uses in certain religious and related rituals across the Balkans.

At the end of the Orthodox Christian burial service, at the exit from the cemetery, visitors are offered a piece of soda bread (pogača) and a glass of rakia. When drinking "for the soul" of the deceased, one spills some rakia on the ground, saying "For the peaceful rest of the soul", before drinking the rest.

During wedding ceremonies, the groom's father goes around all tables and offers a glass of rakia to all guests, sharing a toast for the happiness of the newlyweds. In general, in the Balkans, rakia is offered to guests in one's home as a welcoming gesture.

TypesEdit

There are many kinds of rakia, depending on the fruit it is produced from:

Fruits in Bulgaria in Bosnia, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia
Basic types
plum (slivovitz) сливова (slivova) сливовица(slivovitsa) šljivovica, шљивовица
grapes гроздова (grozdova)
гроздовица (grozdovitsa)
мускатова (muskatova)
lozovača/loza, лозова ракија/лозовача/лоза
grape pomace
(kom) *
джиброва (dzhibrova)
джибровица (dzhibrovitsa)
шльокавица (shlyokavitsa)
komovica, комова ракија/комовица
apricot кайсиева (kaysieva) mareličarka, kajsijevača, кајсијевача
peach прасковена (praskovena) rakija od breskve, ракија од брескве, breskavica
pear крушoва (krushova) kruškovača/vilijamovka, крушковача/виљамовка,крушка
apple ябълкова (yabalkova) jabukovača, јабуковача
mulberry черничева (chernicheva) dudova rakija/dudovača/dudara, дудова ракија/дудовача/дудара
quince дюлева (dyuleva) dunjevača, дуњевача
fig смокинова (smokinova) smokovača, смоквача
cherry черешова (chereshova) trešnjevača
mixed fruits плодова (plodova) -
with sour cherries вишновка (vishnovka) višnjevac/višnjevača, вишњевача
With additions
with roses гюлова (gyulova) ružica
with herbs билкова (bilkova) travarica, траварица/trava
with juniper klekovača, клековача
with honey ** медена (medena) medenica, medovača, medica, zamedljana (very popular in Istria - a region in Croatia), медовача/medovača,
with anise анасонлийка (anasonliyka) mastika, мастика

  *   Kom or komina is the fruity grape mash that remains after winemaking. It contains up to 5.5 litres of pure alcohol per 100 kg, and at least 40% dry matter.
  **  Not to be confused with mead, which is made solely of honey.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica". Retrieved 4 September 2013. 
  2. ^ Music of the Sirens, Inna Naroditskaya, Linda Phyllis Austern, Indiana University Press, p.290
  3. ^ Veselina Angelova, Liliya Tsatcheva (October 10, 2011). "A Bulgarian Archeologist Has Proved It - Rakia is Bulgarian". Trud. Archived from the original on January 15, 2012. 
  4. ^ "Bulgarian Archaeologists Discover 11th Century Rakia Distillation Vessel". www.novinite.com. 2015-07-27. 
  5. ^ "Hrvati najradije od svih žestokih pića piju rakiju". Večernji list (in Croatian). 28 July 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c "Nema šljivke bez podrške". Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
  7. ^ "Rakia, The Serbian National Drink". Sick Chirpse. Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
  8. ^ "Brandy history - Rakia Bar". Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
  9. ^ "Rakija". BELGRADIAN by KIELO. 2011. 
  10. ^ "Problemi oko izvoza šljivovice". B92. Retrieved 28 September 2014. 

External linksEdit

  Media related to Rakija at Wikimedia Commons