Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe

Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe is a transnational composite nature UNESCO World Heritage site, encompassing forests in 12 European countries.

Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Stužica primeval forest, Slovakia.jpg
Stužica primeval forest
Location(see map)
CriteriaNatural: 
Reference1133ter
Inscription2007 (31st session)
Extensions2011 and 2017

The Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians include ten separate massifs located along the 185 km (115 mi) long axis from the Rakhiv mountains and Chornohora ridge in Ukraine over the Poloniny Ridge (Slovakia) to the Vihorlat Mountains in Slovakia. The Ancient Beech Forests of Germany include five locations, cover 4,391 hectares and were added in 2011.

The Carpathian site covers a total area of 77,971.6 ha (192,672 acres), out of which only 29,278.9 ha (72,350 acres) are part of the actual preserved area, while the rest is considered a "buffer zone". Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians cover areas of Zakarpattia and Prešov Regions. Over 70% of the site is located in Ukraine. The area includes two national parks, and some habitat controlled areas, mostly in Slovakia. Both national parks, along with a neighboring area in Poland, compose a separate biosphere reserve, the East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve. Besides Havešová, Rožok, and Stužica (all of them located in Bukovské vrchy), there is a fourth component situated in Slovakia, named Kyjovský prales of Vihorlat. Ukrainian locations include Chornohora, Kuziy-Trybushany, Maramarosh, Stuzhytsia–Uzhok, Svydovets, and Uholka–Shyrikyi Luh. Only a few of the ten components are accessible to visitors. Stužica is the only one of three locations in Bukovské vrchy (Slovakia) with available hiking trails. In 2017, UNESCO extended the site, adding forests in Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Romania, Slovenia, and Spain.[1][2]

The last intact virgin forest in the temperate latitudes of Europe is to be found in the Carpathians. Trees can live to a hundred years old in these forests, providing an important habitat for organisms such as mushrooms, moss, lichen, insects, rare birds (e.g. capercaillie and black grouse) and mammals (e.g. bats, brown bear, wolf and lynx). Large parts of the forest in the Romanian part of the Carpathians have been lost due to deforestation. The pressure on timber as a resource may increase due to international demand and European companies may start large-scale felling in neighbouring Ukraine. Currently unprotected areas of virgin forest can be permanently preserved in the Ukrainian Carpathians by expanding and reinforcing conservation areas. In the Ukrainian Carpathians there are nine national parks and two biosphere reserves. There is a general ban on tree felling in coniferous forest areas above 1,100 metres. If park administrations are shown to work, management of larger, previously unprotected areas of virgin forest to preserve them on a permanent basis, may occur. There are roughly 100,000 additional hectares of forest which could be integrated into the existing conservation areas.[3]

ForestsEdit

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Location of the Primary Beech World Heritage Sites in Europe.
Protected site Type of natural reserve Region Country Protected area Buffer zone
Lumi i Gashit Valbonë Valley National Park Kukës Albania 1261,52 ha 8977,48 ha
Rrajca Shebenik-Jablanica National Park Elbasan 2129,45 ha 2569,75 ha
Nationalpark Kalkalpen Nationalpark Kalkalpen Upper Austria Austria 1867.45 ha[4] 1545.05 ha[4]
Dürrenstein Forest Dürrenstein Forest Lower Austria, Styria 2946.2 ha[4] 14197.24 ha[4]
Sonian Forest Sonian Forest Brabant Belgium 269,31 ha 4650,86 ha
Central Balkan National Park Central Balkan National Park central Balkan Mountains Bulgaria 10988,91 ha 11720,85 ha
Paklenica National Park Paklenica National Park Lika-Senj, Zadar Croatia 2031,78 ha 810,11 ha
Hajdučki and Rožanski strict reservations Northern Velebit National Park Lika-Senj 1289,11 ha 9869,25 ha
Jasmund Jasmund National Park Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Germany 492,5 ha 2510,5 ha
Serrahn Müritz National Park 268,1 ha 2568 ha
Grumsiner Forest Grumsiner Forest Nature Reserve Brandenburg 590,1 ha 274,3 ha
Hainich Hainich National Park Thuringia 1573,4 ha 4085,4 ha
Kellerwald Kellerwald-Edersee National Park Hesse 1467,1 ha 4271,4 ha
Cervara Valley Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo, Lazio e Molise Abruzzo Italy 119,7 ha 751,61 ha
Moricento Forest 192,7 ha 751,61 ha
Coppo del Morto 104,71 ha 415,51 ha
Coppo del Principe 194,49 ha 446,62 ha
Val Fondillo 325,03 ha 700,95 ha
Cozzo Ferriero Pollino National Park Calabria, Basilicata 95,74 ha 482,61 ha
Foresta Umbra Gargano National Park Apulia 182,23 ha 1.752,54 ha
Cimino Mount Cimino Mount Abruzzo, Lazio 57,54 ha 87,96 ha
Raschio Mount Regional Natural Park of the Bracciano-Martignano lake complex Lazio 73,73 ha 54,75 ha
Sasso Fratino Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona, Campigna National Park Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany 781,43 ha 6.936,64 ha
Cheile Nerei-Beușnița Cheile Nerei-Beușnița National Park Caraș-Severin Romania 4292,27 ha 5959,87 ha
Şinca secular forest Şinca secular forest Brașov 338,24 ha 445,76 ha
Slătioara secular forest Slătioara secular forest Suceava 609,12 ha 429,43 ha
Cozia Cozia National Park Vâlcea 109,58 ha 14253 ha
Domogled – Valea Cernei Domogled-Valea Cernei National Park Mehedinți, Caraș-Severin, Gorj 9732,26 ha 51461,28 ha
Groșii Țibleșului Groșii Țibleșului National Park Maramureș 346,37 ha 563,57 ha
Izvoarele Nerei Semenic-Cheile Carașului National Park Caraș-Severin 4677,21 ha 2494,83 ha
Strîmbu Băiuț Strîmbu Băiuț National Park Maramureș 598,14 ha 713,09 ha
Stužica – Bukovské vrchy Poloniny National Park* Prešov Slovakia 2950 ha 11300 ha
Rožok Preserved areas of Prešov 67,1 ha 41,4 ha
Vihorlat 2578 ha 2413 ha
Havešová 171,3 ha 63,9 ha
Forest reserve of the Virgin Forest of Krokar Forest reserve of the Virgin Forest of Krokar Kočevje Slovenia 74,50 ha 47,90 ha
Snežnik–Ždrocle forest reserve Snežnik–Ždrocle forest reserve Ilirska Bistrica, Loška Dolina 720,24 128,80
Tejera Negra Beech Sierra Norte de Guadalajara Natural Park Castile-La Mancha Spain 255,52 ha 13880,86 ha
Montejo Beech Beech area of Montejo de la Sierra Community of Madrid 71,79 ha 13880,86 ha
Lizardoia Integral Reserve Irati Forest Navarre 63,97 ha 24494,52 ha
Aztaparreta Integral Reserve of the Ravine of Aztaparreta 171,06 ha 24494,52 ha
Cuesta Fría Beech Ayllón Castile and León 213,65 ha 14253 ha
Canal de Asotín Picos de Europa National Park 109,58 ha 14253 ha
Chornohora Carpathian Biosphere Reserve Zakarpattia Ukraine 2476,8 ha 12925 ha
Uholka – Shyrikyi Luh 11860 ha 3301 ha
Svydovets 3030,5 ha 5639,5 ha
Maramarosh 2243,6 ha 6230,4 ha
Kuziy – Trybushany 1369,6 ha 3163,4 ha
Stuzhytsia – Uzhok Uzhanian National Nature Park 2532 ha 3615 ha
Gorgany Gorgany Nature Reserve Ivano-Frankivsk 753,48 ha 4637,59 ha
Roztochya Roztochya Biosphere Reserve Lviv 384,81 ha 598,21 ha
Satanіvska Dacha Podilski Tovtry National Nature Park Khmelnytskyi 212,01 ha 559,37 ha
Synevyr National Nature Park Synevir Zakarpattia 2865,04 ha 2181,74 ha
Zacharovanyi Krai Zacharovany Krai National Nature Park 1258,13 ha 1275,44 ha

* – Most of the Slovak components of the World Heritage site are situated in the Poloniny National Park in the easternmost and also the least populated part of the country. The National Park was created on 1 October 1997 with a protected area of 298.05 km² and a buffer zone of 109.73 km².

Tentative listEdit

In 2018 and 2019, several more forests were placed on the World Heritage Tentative list as a proposal for the expansion of the Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe site. Forests included on the Tentative list are:

In Serbia[5][6]

In Montenegro[7]

In Switzerland[8]

In Bosnia and Herzegovina[9]

In Poland[10]

In North Macedonia[11]

In Italy[12]

In Slovakia[13]

In Czechia[14]

In France[15]

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe". UNESCO.
  2. ^ "Unesco approves the extension of the Carpathian Primary Beech forests".
  3. ^ "Protecting virgin forest in the Ukrainian Carpathians".
  4. ^ a b c d Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  5. ^ "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe (Serbia)". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  6. ^ "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe - extension (Serbia)". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  7. ^ "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe (Montenegro)". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  8. ^ "Forêts primaires et anciennes de hêtres des Carpates et d'autres régions d'Europe (Switzerland)". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  9. ^ "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe - extension (Bosnia and Herzegovina)". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  10. ^ "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe - extension (Poland)". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  11. ^ "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe - extension (North Macedonia)". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  12. ^ "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe - extension (Italy)". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  13. ^ "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe - extension (Slovakia)". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  14. ^ "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe - extension (Czechia)". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  15. ^ "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe - extension (France)". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 January 2020.

External linksEdit