Hungarian Air Force
|Hungarian Air Force|
|Size||5,750 active duty personnel |
42 aircraft 
|Part of||Hungarian Defence Forces|
|Major General Nándor Kilián|
|Fighter||JAS 39 Gripen|
|Helicopter||Airbus H125, Airbus H145M|
|Attack helicopter||Mil Mi-24|
|Transport||Airbus A319, Dassault Falcon 7X|
The task of the current Hungarian Air Force is primarily defensive purposes. The flying units of the air force are organised into a single command; under the Air Command and Control Centre.
1918 to Pre–World War IIEdit
Following the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1918, a small air arm was established operating surviving aircraft from Hungarian factories and training schools. This air arm became the Hungarian Red Air Force under the short lived Hungarian Soviet Republic, but was disbanded upon its downfall.
World War IIEdit
Under the Treaty of Trianon (1920), Hungary was forbidden from owning military aircraft. However, a secret air arm was gradually established under the cover of civilian flying clubs. During 1938, as a result of the Bled agreement, the existence of the Royal Hungarian Air Force (Hungarian: Magyar Királyi Honvéd Légierő (MKHL)), was made known. The army's aviation service was reorganized and expanded.
Late 1938 the army aviation was once again reorganized. Admiral Horthy, the head of state, ordered that the army aviation should become an independent service effective 9 January 1939. Colonel Ferenc Feketehalmi Czeydner became the Air Section Chief in the Honvéd Ministry; Major General Waldemar Kenese became Inspector of the Air Force; Colonel Ferenc Szentnémedy became Chief-of-Staff, and Colonel László Háry was appointed head of the Magyar Királyi Honvéd Légierő (MKHL).
It subsequently participated in clashes with the newly established Slovak Republic and in the border confrontation with the Kingdom of Romania. In April 1941, operations were conducted in support of the German invasion of Yugoslavia and, on 27 June 1941, Hungary declared war on the Soviet Union.
In 1940, the decision was made to unite the Air Force, the anti-aircraft forces, and the civilian air defense organizations under one central headquarters. Colonel László Háry was retired 24 December 1940, and on 1 March 1941 the new organization was constituted. General András Littay became Air Sub-Department Chief, and Colonel Géza Vörös was appointed Head of the Air General Staff. On 1 June 1941, the Air Defense Corps was established, and Lieutenant General Béla Rákosi became Commander of Army Aviation. In effect the Air Force had once again become part of the Army.
In the summer of 1942, an air brigade was attached to the Luftwaffe's VIII. Fliegerkorps on the Eastern Front. Beginning March 1944, Allied bomber raids began on Hungary and progressively increased in intensity. The 101st "Puma" fighter group (later wing) was the elite unit of the MKHL (its name and insignia are carried on by the "Puma" fighter squadron of the Hungarian Air Force of today). Late in 1944 all efforts were redirected towards countering the advancing Red Army, but to no avail. All fighting in Hungary ended on 16 April 1945.
Post–World War II to PresentEdit
A small air arm was organised along Soviet lines during 1947. Following the communist takeover, Russian military aid was stepped up and a major expansion program initiated. By 1956 the Hungarian Air Force consisted of the 25th Fighter Division (25. Vadászrepülő Hadosztály, HQ in Taszár), the 66th Fighter Division (66. Vadaszrepülő Hadosztály, HQ in Kecskemét), the 82nd Separate Bomber Division (82. Önálló Bombázó Hadosztály, HQ in Kunmadaras), the 28th Ground Attack Division (28. Csatarepülő Hadosztály, HQ in Székesfehérvár) and a training air division. When Soviet forces invaded to suppress the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, sections of the Hungarian Air Force attacked Soviet forces and resisted Russian attempts to occupy their bases. The resistance was short-lived and the entire Hungarian air force was demobilized soon after. A reconstituted air arm was reformed in the following year as part of the Hungarian People's Army, but initially only as an internal security force. The remaining Hungarian air force assets were organised in the Aircraft Training Center (Repülő Kiképző Központ (RKK)) on April 1, 1957, with one mixed aircraft types squadron each at the main fighter air bases at Pápa, Taszár and Kecskemét. Gradually, starting in 1959 as Hungary became stable, the air force was expanded again, but it remained an integral part of the army and was essentially a defensive force.
During the Cold War period communist Hungary had numerous SA-2, SA-3 and also SA-5 (one unit) batteries and a large number of radar installations, mostly tasked with defending the Danube line against NATO air strikes. Army air defense was equipped with the SA-4, SA-6 Kub and SA-9, SA-13 systems besides conventional AAA units.
The Hungarian People's Army Air Force operated the Il-28, MiG-15, MiG-17, MiG-19, MiG-21, MiG-23 and Su-22 jet combat aircraft during its existence. In the 1980s it had three fighter regiments (wings) at the three main bases with three squadrons each, with a total of approximately 100 active supersonic fighter aircraft. From 1989 the force was downsized several times until the early 2000s when only one active fighter squadron was remaining with often only 2-4 flyable alert ready aircraft at a given time.
For most other former Warsaw Pact member countries, pilot training was not a big deal. Each nation maintained an independent aviation technical college, academy for training military aircraft pilots and technical personnel. After the Second World War, Hungary created György Kilián Aviation Technical College in 1949, but in the 1960s domestic pilot training was discontinued and the 18 then modern Aero L-29 Delfin jet trainers were handed over to the Soviet Union. The training of pilots was conducted in several schools and bases in the USSR in the following years, and also in Czechoslovakia, in Košice. In Hungary, only helicopter pilots and technicians were trained at Szolnok.
In 1993, Hungary commenced its first pilot training course since 1956 at the Szolnok Aviation Academy. For this, 12 Yak-52 primary trainers were purchased from Romania. The German Government also donated 24 Aero L-39 Albatros jet trainers. The cost of domestic pilot training was later deemed too high after change of government, and was halted after the completion of only one course. Also in 1997 the MIG-23s and Su-22s were withdrawn from service, the later type was retired just after an overhaul. During the 1990s all combat aircraft were fitted with new Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) systems to enable operations in Western airspace. In April 2002, Hungary joined the NATO Flying Training in Canada (NFTC) pilot training program.
Shortly after Hungary joined NATO in 1999, a push was made to replace the Air Force's MiG-29 fleet with a NATO-compatible fighter force. By 2001, several offers had been received, a Swedish offer with 24 JAS39C/D, the USA offered 24 used F-16's and multiple other offers had been received for the commissioning of various used aircraft. Despite the fact that the professional committees favored the F-16, on September 10, 2001 the Swedish bid won, and on December 20 Hungary signed a contract with the Swedish Government. The contract included leasing 14 JAS 39 Gripens, two of which are two-seaters, for 12 years beginning in 2006 (later extended until 2026). By December 2007 all the 14 jets had been delivered. After the lease period expires, Hungary will own the remaining Gripens.
The following units are part of the Hungarian Air Force, but like all other operational units of the Hungarian Defense Forces they fall under operational control of the Hungarian Defense Forces Command in Székesfehérvár
- Hungarian Defense Forces Command, in Székesfehérvár
- Air Command and Control Centre, in Veszprém
- Air Operations Centre
- Control and Reporting Centre
- Training and Reserve Control Centre, at Kecskemét Air Base
- Military Air Traffic Management Centre
- Meteorological Centre
- Simulation and Exercise Centre
- 12th Air Defense Missile Regiment "Arrabona", in Győr
- 54th Radar Regiment "Veszprém", in Veszprém
- Command Company
- 1st Radar Data Centre, in Békéscsaba, with RAT-31DL
- 2nd Radar Data Centre, in Medina, with RAT-31DL
- 3rd Radar Data Centre, in Bánkút, with RAT-31DL
- 11th Radar Company, in Kup
- 12th Radar Company, in Juta
- 21st Radar Company, in Debrecen
- 22nd Radar Company, in Békéscsaba
- Gap Filling Radar Company, in Medina
- 59th Air Base "Dezső Szentgyörgyi", at Kecskemét Air Base
- 86th Helicopter Base "Szolnok", at Szolnok Air Base
- Base Operations Center
- Attack Helicopter Battalion "Phoenix", with 2x Mi-24V, 6x Mi-24P
- Mixed Training Squadron, with 2x H125, 6x Z-242, 2x Z-143
- Operations Support Battalion
- Maintenance Battalion
- Logistic Battalion
- Pápa Air Base
- Air Command and Control Centre, in Veszprém
The Hungarian Air Force Aircraft Repair Facility at Kecskemét Air Base falls under the Hungarian Defense Forces Logistics Center in Budapest.
59th Air Base "Dezső Szentgyörgyi"Edit
The 59th Air Base is the home to fixed-winged aircraft of the Air Force. The 59th consists of one tactical fighter squadron and one airlift squadron.
The airlift squadron, nicknamed "Teve" operates the air force's transport aircraft, while the Fighter Squadron is nicknamed "Puma" and operates JAS-39C/D Gripen fighters. On 19 May 2015 one two-seater Saab JAS39D Gripen crashed at the end of the runway at the Čáslav AFB. The pilots ejected safely, but the aircraft, nr. 42 with callsign PUMA66 was written off, damaged beyond repair. A replacement Gripen D was delivered from Sweden in 2016. On 10 June 2015, a single-seater JAS 39C, nr. 30, performed a belly landing at Kecskemét Air Base, Hungary. The pilot, Major Sándor Kádár, ejected successfully, but suffered spinal injuries.
86th Helicopter Base "Szolnok"Edit
- The transport helicopter battalion of the 86th Wing operates H145M's.
- The Phoenix battalion operates Mi-24V/P attack helicopters.
- The Training Squadron operates Z-242L trainers and H125 helicopters.
12th Air Defense Missile RegimentEdit
The 12th Air Defense Missile Regiment is in charge of providing air defense to Hungary and fields:
- 2K12 Kub mobile Surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems. (To be replaced entirely with a modern system)
- Mistral lightweight SAM systems mounted on Unimog all-terrain vehicles
- 36D6 modernized, all-altitude surveillance radars, with domestically developed digital electronics suite.
Pápa Air Force Base was established as a military organization on 1 July 2001 as a part of Hungary's commitments to NATO's Infrastructural Development Program, and it is the legal successor of the HDF 47th Pápa Tactical Fighter Regiment.
|JAS 39 Gripen||Sweden||multirole||JAS 39C||12|
|Airbus A319||Germany||VIP transport||2|
|Dassault Falcon 7X||France||VIP transport||2|
|Embraer C-390||Brazil||transport / aerial refueling||2 on order|
|Mil Mi-24||Russia||attack||Mi-24 V/P||8|
|Airbus H145M||France / Germany||utility||18||2 on order|
|Airbus H225M||France / Germany||transport||16 on order|
|Zlín Z 42||Czech Republic||basic trainer||242||2|
|Zlín Z 43||Czech Republic||basic trainer||143||2|
|JAS 39 Gripen||Sweden||conversion trainer||JAS 39D||2|
|Eurocopter AS350||France||rotorcraft trainer||2|
|NASAMS||USA||SAM system||Kongsberg Defence Systems and Raytheon were awarded a 410 million euro contract to deliver the NASAMS system to the Hungarian Defence forces.|
The exact amount of batteries and other equipment is not yet known.
|2K12 Kub 2M||Soviet Union||SAM system||16||It is scheduled to be replaced by the new NASAMS system.|
|Mistral||France||SAM system||185||Mistral 3 + Safran Matis|
|EL/M-2084||Israel||Multi-mission radar (MMR)||5+6||The Hungarian government have ordered multiple ELM-2084 radar systems from Israel Aerospace Industries with Rheinmetall's Canadian subsidiary to start replacing Soviet-made but modernized P-37, PRV-17 and ST-68U locators from 2022. Rheinmetall Canada is also establishing assembly and future manufacturing site in Nyírtelek.|
|P–18 Spoon Rest||Soviet Union||2D VHF Radar||Upgraded and modernized by the HM Arzenál zrt.|
|Oerlikon Skyranger 35mm||Germany||Anti-aircraft defense||0||Hungary is looking to buy Lynx-based systems equipped with 35 millimeter turrets. The package will also include searching and tracking radars. |
The Hungarian aircraft marking is a set of aligned triangles which points toward the front of the aircraft. They are the same colour as the Hungarian flag, red, white, and green. The innermost triangle is green, follow by white, and then red. It is displayed on the side of helicopters and in the standard four wing positions on aircraft. It was used by the Royal Hungarian Air Force until 1942, and then reinstated after the Second World War. The new Gripen fighters wear a NATO standard compliant grey-on-grey (low-visibility) version of the Hungarian triangle insignia.
Ranks and insigniaEdit
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- IISS 2019, p. 117. sfn error: no target: CITEREFIISS2019 (help)
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