Portal:Croatia

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Croatia (/krˈʃə/ (listen), kroh-AY-shə; Croatian: Hrvatska, pronounced [xř̩ʋaːtskaː]), officially the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Republika Hrvatska, ), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe. It shares a coastline along the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro to the southeast, and shares a maritime border with Italy to the west and southwest. Croatia's capital and largest city, Zagreb, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, with twenty counties. The country spans an area of 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles), hosting a population of nearly 3.9 million.

The Croats arrived in the late 6th century. By the 9th century, they had organized the territory into two duchies. Croatia was first internationally recognized as independent on 7 June 879 during the reign of Duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, and in December 1918, merged into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of Croatia was incorporated into a Nazi-installed puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia. A resistance movement led to the creation of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, which after the war became a founding member and constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, and the War of Independence was successfully fought over the next four years.

Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a member of the European Union, NATO, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. Croatia is set to replace its national currency, the Croatian kuna with the euro on 1 January 2023, officially becoming the 20th euro area member. Should there be no unforeseen obstacles, Croatia should also join the Schengen Area on the same date. An active participant in United Nations peacekeeping, Croatia contributed troops to the International Security Assistance Force and filled a nonpermanent seat on the United Nations Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.

Croatia is classified by the World Bank as a high-income economy and ranks highly on the Human Development Index. Service, industrial sectors, and agriculture dominate the economy, respectively. Tourism is a significant source of revenue for the country, which is ranked among the 20 most popular tourist destinations. The state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides social security, universal health care, and tuition-free primary and secondary education while supporting culture through public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing. (Full article...)

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The president of Croatia, officially the President of the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Predsjednik Republike Hrvatske), is the head of state, commander-in-chief of the military and chief representative of the Republic of Croatia both within the country and abroad. The president is the holder of the highest office in Croatia. However, the president is not the head of the executive branch ("non executive president") as Croatia has a parliamentary system in which the holder of the post of prime minister is the most powerful person within the country's constitutional framework and everyday politics.

The president maintains the regular and coordinated operation and stability of the national government system, and safeguards the independence and territorial integrity of the country. The president has the power to call ordinary and extraordinary elections for the Croatian Parliament (in a manner specified by the Constitution), as well as to call referendums (with countersignature of the prime minister). The president formally appoints the prime minister on the basis of the balance of power in parliament and consultations conducted with the leaders of parliamentary parties, grants pardons and awards decorations and other state awards. The president and Government (Cabinet) cooperate in conducting foreign policy. In addition, the president is the commander-in-chief of the Croatian Armed Forces. The president appoints the director of the Security and Intelligence Agency in agreement with the prime minister. The president may dissolve the Parliament under circumstances provided by the Constitution. Although enjoying immunity, the president is impeachable for violation of the Constitution. In case of a temporary or permanent incapability by the president to discharge the duties of his or her office, the speaker of the Parliament assumes the office of acting president until the president resumes his or her duties, or until the election of a new president within 60 days of the permanent vacancy occurring. (Full article...)

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Zdenko Blažeković (23 September 1915 – 12 January 1947) was a Croatian fascist official who held several posts in the World War II Ustaše regime in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH). He was the student commissar at the Ustaše University Centre (USS), leader of the male Ustaše Youth organisation and a sports commissioner in the NDH.

Born in the town of Bihać, he graduated from high school in Osijek before applying to join a polytechnic college in Zagreb with the intention of becoming a builder. He was a member of various Croatian cultural and athletic organizations during his youth, and even played as goalkeeper for Hajduk Osijek and HAŠK football clubs. (Full article...)

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D21 was an 80.1-kilometre-long (49.8 mi), north–south state road in Istria County, Croatia. A short section of D21 was a part of the European route E751. The northern terminus of the route was located at the Croatia–Slovenia border at the Dragonja River. There it connected to Koper, Slovenia, and Trieste, Italy, via the Slovene route G11 further north. The route was generally parallel to A9 motorway, with which it formed several junctions, either directly or via short connectors, at Buje, Bale and Vodnjan – towns served directly by D21. The southern terminus of the route was found in the city of Pula, at the southern tip of the Istrian Peninsula.

The road, as well as all other state roads in Croatia, was managed and maintained by Hrvatske ceste, a state-owned company. The road carried an annual average daily traffic of about 2,000 vehicles, and the traffic volume increased by up to 1,000 vehicles in summer as the road was used by tourists in the region. The southernmost portion of the road was significantly more congested as it carries Pula suburban traffic. (Full article...)

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