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Croatia ( ( listen) kroh-AY-shə; Croatian: Hrvatska [xř̩ʋaːtskaː]), officially the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Republika Hrvatska, listen (help·info)), is a sovereign state situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. Its capital is Zagreb, which forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with its twenty counties. Croatia has a total area of 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles) and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics.
The Croats arrived in the area of present-day Croatia during the 6th century AD. They organised the state into two duchies by the 9th century. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Petar Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir. Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. During the early 19th century, parts of the country were split into the French Illyrian Provinces while Austria-Hungary occupied its Bosnia and Herzegovina side–a dispute settled by the 1878 Treaty of Berlin. In 1918, after World War I, Croatia was included in the unrecognized State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs which seceded from Austria-Hungary and merged into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year. The Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully for four years following the declaration.
Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a very high standard of living. Croatia is a member of the European Union (EU), United Nations (UN), the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization (WTO), and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has constantly invested in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.
Dubrovnik (Italian: Ragusa, Croatian: Dubrovnik, ˈdǔ.bro̞ːʋ.nik) is a historic city on the Adriatic Sea coast in the extreme south of Croatia, positioned at 42°39′N 18°04′E / 42.650°N 18.067°E. It is one of the most prominent tourist resorts, a seaport and the center of the Dubrovnik–Neretva county. Its population was 43,770 in 1991 and 49,728 in 2001. in 2001 the absolute majority of its citizens declared themselves as Croats with 88.39% (2001 census). Dubrovnik is nicknamed "Pearl of the Adria".
The prosperity of the city of Dubrovnik has always been based on maritime trade. In the Middle Ages, as the Republic of Ragusa, it became the only eastern Adriatic city-state to rival Venice. Supported by its wealth and skilled diplomacy, the city achieved a remarkable level of development, particularly during the 15th and 16th centuries. Ragusa was one of the centers of the development of the Croatian language and literature, home to many notable poets, playwrights, painters, mathematicians, physicists and other scholars.
Hvar (local Croatian dialect: Hvor or For, Greek: Pharos, Latin: Pharina, Italian: Lesina) is a town on the eponymous island of Hvar in Dalmatia, Croatia. The municipality has a population of 4,138 (2001) while the city itself is inhabited by 3,672 people, making it the largest settlement on the island of Hvar.
The town's harbour provided a suitable location for a port, being geographically ideal and also protected by islands, making it a safe haven for boats hiding from hazardous winds.
Did you know...
- ...the word "cravat" comes from the French "cravate" which is a corruption of "Croat" — Croatian "Hrvat"?
- ...that the Republic of Dubrovnik was one of the first countries to recognize independence of the United States, first in Europe to end slavery and one of the first that built drainage in Medieval Europe (1296)?
- ...that the first Croatian king Tomislav elevated Croatia into Kingdom in year 925?
- ...that Croatian vernacular names of marine algae are the most numerous within Europe, their richness being subequal to the maximal one for Japanese algae in the rest of the world?
- ...that the first pharmacy in Europe was opened in the Croatian town of Trogir in 1271?
- ...that Croatian aviation pioneer David Schwarz created the first flyable rigid airship, which was also the first airship with an external hull made entirely of metal?
- ...that Croatian officer Ivan Vukić invented torpedo in 1860 and that the first torpedo factory was opened in the Croatian town of Rijeka?
- ...that movie director Alfred Hitchcock said in May 1964 that Zadar has the most beautiful sunset in the world?
- ...that Croatia is according to the quantity of water resources per capita third country in Europe, behind Iceland and Norway?
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Croatian saints and the beatified
Count Josip Jelačić of Bužim (October 16, 1801 - May 20, 1859) was Ban of Croatia, as well as a noted army general remembered for his largely successful military campaigns during the Revolutions of 1848.
Josip Jelačić was born in the town of Petrovaradin, at the time part of the Slavonian Military Frontier, in the noble House of Jelačić to Croatian father Baron Franjo Jelačić and Austrian mother Anna Portner von Höflein. Jelačić gained his versatile education in Theresian Military Academy in Vienna. After graduation he entered army with the rank of lieutenant, and was eventually promoted to the Lieutenant Field Marshal.
On October 17, 1835, Jelačić successfully led a military campaign against Bosnian Ottoman troops in Velika Kladuša. On March 23, 1848 Croatian parliament elected him to the position of the Ban of Croatia. His policy was unity of Croatian provinces and equality of people in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. When Hungarian nationalist politicians refused to recognize Croats as a political people and continued to discriminate them, Jelačić, with a great support of Austria to do that "without any delay", decided to invade Hungary. In his campaign, that eventually ended with a truce, he managed to return occupied Međimurje to Croatia. In 1849, Jelačić and Prince Alfred I managed to suppress Wienies revolution, and later that year Hungarian revolution. Emperor Franz Joseph appointed Jelačić as a governor of Rijeka and Dalmatia, so Croatia was after a long time formally united.
As Ban, Jelačić abolished serfdom, helped with the establish of the Archdiocese of Zagreb, unification of city of Zagreb as well as with opening of the Croatian National Theater, constantly encouraging economic, scientific and cultural activities.
Wikipedia in Croatian