The Visegrád Group, also called the Visegrád Four, or V4 is a cultural and political alliance of four Central European states – the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia – for the purposes of furthering their European integration, as well as for advancing military, economic and energy cooperation with one another. The group used to be occasionally referred to as the Visegrád Triangle, due to the fact that it was originally an alliance of three states – the term has not been valid since 1993 due to the breakup of Czechoslovakia, but does continue to appear sometimes.
Visegrad Group, Visegrad Four (V4)
Map of Europe indicating the four member states of the Visegrád Group
|Establishment||15 February 1991|
|533,615 km2 (206,030 sq mi)|
• 2015 census
|120.0/km2 (310.8/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2015 estimate|
|$1.767 trillion (15th)|
• Per capita
The Group traces its origins to the summit meeting of leaders from Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland held in the Hungarian castle town of Visegrád on 15 February 1991. After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993, the Czech Republic and Slovakia became independent members of the group, thus increasing the total number of members to four. All four members of the Visegrád Group joined the European Union on 1 May 2004.
The Group's name in the languages of the four countries is Visegrádská čtyřka or Visegrádská skupina (Czech); Visegrádi Együttműködés or Visegrádi négyek (Hungarian); Grupa Wyszehradzka (Polish); and Vyšehradská skupina or Vyšehradská štvorka (Slovak).
The name of the Group is derived, and the place of meeting selected, from a meeting of the Bohemian (Czech), Polish, and Hungarian rulers in Visegrád in 1335. Charles I of Hungary, Casimir III of Poland, and John of Bohemia agreed to create new commercial routes to bypass the staple port Vienna and obtain easier access to other European markets. The recognition of Czech sovereignty over the Duchy of Silesia was also confirmed. A second meeting took place in 1339, where it was decided that after the death of Casimir III of Poland, the son of Charles I of Hungary, Louis I of Hungary, would become King of Poland provided that Casimir did not have a son.
The countries have a long shared history, including various territories being ruled by the Habsburg Empire and its successors at various times from the 1500s to World War I. Most recently, during the Cold War, the countries were satellite states of the Soviet Union as the Polish People's Republic, the Hungarian People's Republic and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. The year 1989 marks the Fall of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe. By 1990, the three Communist People's Republics ended and in December, 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed. In between, the Visegrád Group was established on 15 February 1991.
All four nations in the Visegrád Group are high-income countries with a very high Human Development Index. V4 countries have enjoyed more or less steady economic growth for over a century. In 2009, Slovakia adopted the euro as its official currency.
If counted as a single nation state, the Visegrád Group is the fifth largest economy in Europe and 12th largest in the world.
Based on Gross Domestic Product per capita (PPP) figures for the year 2015, the most developed country in the grouping is the Czech Republic (USD 34,017 per capita), followed by Slovakia (USD 29,209 per capita), Poland (USD 27,654 per capita) and Hungary (USD 26,941 per capita). The average GDP (PPP) in 2013 for the entire group was USD 25,797.
Within the EU, the V4 countries are pro-nuclear power, and are seeking to expand or found (in the case of Poland) a nuclear power industry. They have sought to counter what they see as an anti-nuclear power bias within the EU, believing their countries would benefit from nuclear power's zero emissions and high reliability.
Current member statesEdit
Poland has the region's largest economy (GDP PPP total of USD 1,051 billion, ranked 23rd in the world). According to the United Nations and the World Bank, it is a high-income country with a high quality of life and a very high standard of living. The Polish economy is the sixth-largest in the EU and one of the fastest-growing economies in Europe, with a yearly growth rate of over 3.0% before the late-2000s recession. Poland is the only European Union member to have avoided a decline in GDP, and in 2009 created the most GDP growth in the EU. As of December 2009, the Polish economy had not entered recession nor contracted. According to Poland's Central Statistical Office, in 2011 the Polish economic growth rate was 4.3%, the best result in the EU. The largest component of its economy is the service sector (67.3%), followed by industry (28.1%) and agriculture (4.6%). Since increased private investment and EU funding assistance, Poland's infrastructure has developed rapidly.
Poland's main industries are mining, machinery (cars, buses, ships), metallurgy, chemical, electrical, textile, and food processing. The high-technology and IT sectors are also growing with the help of investors such as Google, Toshiba, Dell, GE, LG, and Sharp. Poland is a producer of many electronic devices and components. Mineral extraction includes black and brown coal, copper, lead, zinc, salt, sulfur, magnesite, kaolin, and small amounts of oil and natural gas.
The economy of the Czech Republic is the group's second largest (GDP PPP of USD $359.054 billion total, ranked 50th in the world). Before the Second World War, the Czech Republic was one of the most advanced countries in the world. However, the transition from the socialist to the capitalist economic model in the early 1990s had a significant impact on the country's economy. Since the Velvet Revolution, the Czech Republic has successfully transformed itself into a free market economy. Today, the Czech Republic is a highly industrialized country and is, according to the World Bank, one of the world's thirty most developed countries.
The principal industries in the Czech Republic are chemicals, machinery, food processing, metallurgy and smelting. Other major industry sectors are energy, construction and consumer. Less important are the arms industry and glass, but these have a long tradition in Bohemia. Industry accounts for 35% of the Czech economy. The Czech Republic produces per capita second most cars, first being Slovakia. Main producers are Škoda auto, Peugeot-Citroen, Toyota and Hyundai. Other major companies are ČEZ (biggest company in central and eastern Europe), Škoda works (manufacturer of rail vehicles), Panasonic (electronics), Tatra (Heavy truck manufacturer), Arcelor Mittal (Metallurgy), PPF (largest Central European investment group) Pilsner Urquell (brewing) Aero (aerospace), and many others.
Hungary has the group's third largest economy (total GDP of USD $265.037 billion, 57th in the world). Hungary was one of the more developed economies of the Eastern bloc. With about $18 billion in foreign direct investment (FDI) since 1989, Hungary has attracted over one-third of all FDI in central and eastern Europe, including the former Soviet Union. Of this, about $6 billion came from American companies. Now it is an industrial agricultural state. The main industries are engineering, mechanical engineering (cars, buses), chemical, electrical, textile, and food industries. The service's sector accounted for 64% of GDP in 2007 and its role in the Hungarian economy is steadily growing.
The main sectors of Hungarian industry are heavy industry (mining, metallurgy, machine and steel production), energy production, mechanical engineering, chemicals, food industry, and automobile production. The industry is leaning mainly on processing industry and (including construction) accounted for 29.32% of GDP in 2008. The leading industry is machinery, followed by the chemical industry (plastic production, pharmaceuticals), while mining, metallurgy and textile industry seemed to be losing importance in the past two decades. In spite of the significant drop in the last decade, the food industry still contributes up to 14% of total industrial production and amounts to 7-8% of the country's exports.
Tourism employs nearly 150,000 people and the total income from tourism was 4 billion euros in 2008. One of Hungary’s top tourist destinations is Lake Balaton, the largest freshwater lake in Central Europe, with 1.2 million visitors in 2008. The most visited region is Budapest; the Hungarian capital attracted 3.61 million visitors in 2008. Hungary was the world’s 24th most visited country in 2011.
The smallest, but still considerably powerful V4 economy is that of Slovakia (GDP of USD $158.428 billion total, 70th in the world). Along with the Czech Republic, Slovakia was the most developed country of the Eastern Bloc. The first years after the revolution in 1989 saw stagnation. At the end of the 1990s, the economy grew and attracted much investment. Slovakia produces per capita the most cars.
The population is 64,301,710 inhabitants, which would rank 22nd largest in the world and 4th in Europe (very similar in size to France, Italy or the UK) if V4 were a single country. Most people live in Poland (38 million), followed by the Czech Republic (nearly 11 million), Hungary (nearly 10 million) and Slovakia (5.5 million).
- Budapest (Hungary) - 1,759,407 inhabitants (metro - 3,303,786)
- Warsaw (Poland) - 1,748,916 inhabitants (metro - 3,105,883)
- Prague (Czech Rep.) - 1,267,449 inhabitants (metro - 2,156,097)
- Bratislava (Slovakia) - 432,801 inhabitants (metro - 659,578)
Other important citiesEdit
- Poland - Kraków (762,448), Łódź (698,688), Wrocław (637,075), Poznań (541,561)
- Czech Rep. - Brno (377,440), Ostrava (294,200), Plzeň (169,033) Liberec (102,562)
- Hungary - Debrecen (203,914), Szeged (162,593), Miskolc (159,554), Pécs (145,985)
- Slovakia - Košice (240,688), Prešov (91,638), Žilina (81,515), Banská Bystrica (79,775)
The country holding the Group's presidency changes each year, in July:
International Visegrád FundEdit
The only solid organization of the Visegrád co-operation is the International Visegrád Fund (IVF), established in 1999, with its seat in Bratislava. According to a decision of the prime ministers, the Fund has an annual budget of EUR 8 million as of 2014[update]. With more than 11 annual deadlines and irregular calls for proposals the fund awards grants, scholarships and research fellowships, and artist residencies. Main recipients of its funding are citizens and non-governmental organizations from the V4 region, as well as countries of the Western Balkans, the Eastern Partnerships, and other countries.
On 12 May 2011, Polish Defence Minister Bogdan Klich said that Poland will lead a new EU Battlegroup of the Visegrád Group. The decision was made at the V4 defence ministers' meeting in Levoča, Slovakia, and the battlegroup became operational and was placed on standby in the first half of 2016. The ministers also agreed that the V4 militaries should hold regular exercises under the auspices of the NATO Response Force, with the first such exercise to be held in Poland in 2013. The battlegroup included members of V4 and Ukraine. Another V4 EU Battlegroup will be formed in the second semester of 2019.
Other cooperation areasEdit
On 14 March 2014, in response to the 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine, a pact was signed for a joint military body within the European Union. Subsequent Action Plan defines these other cooperation areas:
- Defence Planning
- Joint Training and Exercises
- Joint Procurement and Defence Industry
- Military Education
- Joint Airspace Protection
- Coordination of Positions
- Communication Strategy
Expert Working Group on EnergyEdit
In 2002 Hungary initiated establishment of an Expert Working Group on Energy. This expert group meets once or twice a year in V4 capitals on a rotation basis, and the head of the host country delegation always chairs the meeting.
On 27 April 2006 the Working Group met in Prague with the aim of discussing recommendations for V4 energy ministers concerning topics negotiated at ministerial level meetings. The WG elaborated recommendations concerning four groups of problems:
- Recommendations of general nature in the sphere of energy policy, including energy research and development.
- Recommendation to consider development of emergency natural gas storage.
- Recommendation to consider construction of new gas and oil pipelines and of new marine LNG terminals.
- Recommendations in the field of interconnecting power transmission grids.
Visegrad Patent InstituteEdit
Created by an agreement signed in Bratislava on February 26, 2015, the Institute aims at operating as an International Searching Authority (ISA) and International Preliminary Examining Authorities (IPEA) under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) as from July 1, 2016.
Relations with AustriaEdit
Austria is Visegrád Group's southwestern neighbour. The leadership of the Freedom Party of Austria, the third largest Austrian party following the 2017 Austrian legislative election, has expressed its willingness to closely cooperate with or to eventually apply for joining the Visegrád Group.
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- "V4". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
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- Visegrad grounds of Ukraine. Mirror Weekly. May 13, 2011
- "Bratislava Declaration of the Visegrad Group Heads of Government on the Deepening V4 Defence Cooperation". Visegradgroup.eu. Visegrád Group. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- "Today's Stock Market News and Analysis". Nasdaq.com. Retrieved 2016-05-01.
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- Strache will Österreichs Beitritt zur Visegrad-Gruppe. Die Presse. Published on 16.09.2016.
- Stephan Löwenstein. Zwischen Wien und Budapest. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung Published on 15.10.2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Visegrád Group.|
- Official website
- Official travel site of the Visegrád Group
- International Visegrád Fund official homepage
- Visegrad Insight - Independent analysis and opinion journal edited by editors from V4 countries
- Visegrad Revue - Webzine on the Visegrád Region and Central Europe
- Think Visegrád - V4 Think-Tank Platform
- Two Decades of Visegrád Cooperation: selected V4 Bibliography. Bratislava: International Visegrád Fund, 2011
- Cooperation of the Visegrád Four Member Countries (V4) in energy
- Visegrád Summer School in Villa Decius, Krakow, Poland