Seven chieftains of the Magyars

The Seven chieftains of the Magyars (or Hungarians) were the leaders of the seven tribes of the Hungarians at the time of their arrival in the Carpathian Basin in AD 895. Constantine VII, emperor of the Byzantine Empire names the seven tribes in his De Administrando Imperio, a list that can be verified with names of Hungarian settlements. The names of the chieftains, however, are not precisely known, as the chronicles include contradictory lists, some of which have been found to be false.

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The Seven chieftains of the Hungarian tribes in the Chronicon Pictum
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Álmos as depicted in the Chronicon Pictum
The chieftains. Detail from Árpád Feszty's cyclorama titled the Arrival of the Hungarians.

Chieftains edit

Constantine VII does not give the names of the chieftains of the Hungarian tribes, but describes some aspects of the leadership.

According to Anonymus edit

A Hungarian chronicler known as Anonymus, author of Gesta Hungarorum, names the seven chieftains as:

Most probably all persons on this list were real and significant personalities, but the list, as that of the seven chieftains who started the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, is certainly false.[1] Constantine VII names Tas as a grandson of Árpád. The relations of the early Hungarian leaders are subject of debate between historians.

According to Simon of Kéza edit

Hungarian chronicler Simon of Kéza names seven captains who led seven tribes in the Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum:

This list, having more legendary elements, is even less credible than that of Anonymus: only Árpád and Szabolcs match the time of the conquest.

According to Mark of Kalt edit

Hungarian chronicler Mark of Kalt names seven captains who led seven tribes in the Chronicon Pictum:

And this Captain Árpád had a special dignity in Scythia, it was the custom of his clan, according to the Scythian law and tradition, that he went alone before those who went to war and those who retreated, saying, therefore he was the first to enter this land before the other captains going to Pannonia.

According to Johannes Thuróczy edit

Hungarian chronicler Johannes Thuróczy names seven captains who led seven tribes in the Chronica Hungarorum:

In the Nádasdy Mausoleum edit

The seven Hungarian leaders depicted in Nádasdy Mausoleum:

Statues edit

In Budapest, Hungary, the Heroes' Square, better known as Hősök tere, has a representation of the different chieftains at the base of the column. At the base of the column is a group of seven mounted figures representing the Magyar chieftains who led the Hungarian people into the Carpathian basin. In the front is Árpád, considered the founder of the Hungarian nation. Behind him are the chieftains Előd, Ond, Kond, Tas, Huba, and Töhötöm (Tétény). Little survives in the historical record about these individuals and both their costumes and their horses are considered to be more fanciful than historically accurate.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Györffy György. István király és műve. Gondolat Budapest 1983. ISBN 963-281-221-2.
  2. ^ Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum