Hungarian diaspora (Magyar diaszpóra) is a term that encompasses the total ethnic Hungarian population located outside current-day Hungary.
There are two main groups of the diaspora. In the first one are those, who are autochthonous to their homeland, and live outside Hungary since the border changes of the post-World War I Treaty of Trianon of 1920.[note 1] The victorious forces redrew the borders of Hungary so that it runs through Hungarian majority areas. As a consequence, 3.3 million Hungarians found themselves outside the new borders. These Hungarians are usually not counted into the term "Hungarian diaspora", regardless, they are listed in this article. The other main group are the emigrants, who left Hungary at various times (e.g., the Hungarian Revolution of 1956). There has been some emigration since Hungary joined the EU, especially to countries such as Germany, although this has not been as drastic as for certain other Central European countries like Poland or Slovakia.
Distribution by countryEdit
|Neighbor countries of Hungary|
|Romania||1,227,623 (2011) (not including Csángós)||Autochthonous in Transylvania, Csángó people in Moldavia, moved from Transylvania||Hungarians in Romania|
|Slovakia||458,467 (2011)||Autochthonous||Hungarians in Slovakia|
|Serbia||253,899 (2011)||Autochthonous in Vojvodina||Hungarians in Serbia|
|Ukraine||156,600 (2001)||Autochthonous in Zakarpattia Oblast||Hungarians in Ukraine|
|Austria||55,038 (2014)||Autochthonous in Burgenland||Hungarians in Austria|
|Croatia||14,048 (2011)||Autochthonous in Croatia, except Istria and Dalmatia.||Hungarians of Croatia|
|Slovenia||6,243 (2001)||Autochthonous in Eastern Slovenia||Hungarians in Slovenia|
|United States||1,563,081 (2006)||Immigrants||Hungarian Americans|
|Canada||315,510 (2006)||Immigrants||Hungarian Canadians|
|Israel||200,000 to 250,000 (2000s)||Most immigrants are Hungarian Jews|
|Germany||120,000 (2004)||Immigrants||Hungarians in Germany|
|France||100,000 to 200,000 (2000s)||Immigrants||Hungarians in France|
|Brazil||80,000 (2002)||Immigrants||Hungarian Brazilians|
|Russia||76,500 (2002)||Immigrants||Hungarians in Russia|
|United Kingdom||95,250 (2011) ||Immigrants||Hungarians in the United Kingdom|
|Chile||50,000 (2012)||Immigrants||Hungarians in Chile|
|Argentina||40,000 to 50,000 (2000s)||Immigrants||Hungarian Argentines|
|Switzerland||20,000 to 25,000 (2000s)||Immigrants|
|Czech Republic||14,672 (2001)||Immigrants|
|Turkey||6,800 (2001)||Immigrants||Hungarians in Turkey|
|Mexico||3,500 (2006)||Immigrants||Hungarians in Mexico|
|Finland||3,000 (2017)||Immigrants||Hungarians in Finland|
|New Zealand||1,476 (2006)||Immigrants||Hungarian New Zealander|
|Norway||~ 5000 (2019)||Immigrants|
Hungarian immigration patterns to Western Europe increased in the 1990s and especially since 2004, after Hungary's admission in the European Union. Thousands of Hungarians from Hungary sought available work through guest-worker contracts in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Finland, Sweden, Spain and Portugal.
A proposal supported by the DAHR to grant Hungarian citizenship to Hungarians living in Romania but without meeting Hungarian-law residency requirements was narrowly defeated at a 2004 referendum in Hungary. The referendum was invalid because of not enough participants. After the failure of the 2004 referendum, the leaders of the Hungarian ethnic parties in the neighboring countries formed the HTMSZF organization in January 2005, as an instrument lobbying for preferential treatment in the granting of Hungarian citizenship.
In 2010 some amendments were passed in Hungarian law facilitating an accelerated naturalization process for ethnic Hungarians living abroad; among other changes, the residency-in-Hungary requirement was waived. Between 2011 and 2012, 200,000 applicants took advantage of the new, accelerated naturalization process; there were another 100,000 applications pending in the summer of 2012. As of February 2013, the Hungarian government has granted almost 400,000 citizenships to Hungarians ‘beyond the borders’. In June 2013, Deputy Prime Minister Zsolt Semjén announced that he expects the number to reach about half a million by the end of the year.
The citizenship new law, which took effect on 1 January 2011, did not grant however the right to vote, even in national elections, to Hungarian citizens unless they also reside in Hungary on a permanent basis. A month later however, the Fidesz government announced that it intended to grant the right to vote to its new citizens. In 2014, the Hungarian citizens from abroad are able to participate in the parliamentary elections without Hungarian residency, however they can not vote for a candidate running for the seat in the single-seat constituency but for a party list.
In May 2010, Slovakia announced it would strip Slovak citizenship from anyone applying for the Hungarian one. Romania's President Traian Băsescu declared in October 2010 that "We have no objections to the adoption by the Hungarian government and parliament of a law making it easier to grant Hungarian citizenship to ethnic Hungarians living abroad."
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