The 12th century is the period from 1101 to 1200 in accordance with the Julian calendar. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages and overlaps with what is often called the "'Golden Age' of the Cistercians". The Golden Age of Islam experienced significant development, particularly in Islamic Spain.

Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 12th century

In Song dynasty China an invasion by Jurchens caused a political schism of north and south. The Khmer Empire of Cambodia flourished during this century, while the Fatimids of Egypt were overtaken by the Ayyubid dynasty. Following the expansions of the Ghaznavids and Ghurid Empire, the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent took place at the end of the century.

Events edit

1101–1109 edit

The Ghurid Empire converted to Islam from Buddhism.

1110s edit

  • 1111: On April 14, during Henry V's first expedition to Rome, he is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
  • 1113: Paramavishnulok is crowned as King Suryavarman II in Cambodia. He expands the Khmer Empire and built Angkor Wat during the first half of the century. He establishes diplomatic relations with China.
  • 1115: The Georgian army occupies Rustavi in the war with the Muslims.
  • 1115: In Java, King Kamesvara of Kadiri ascends to the throne. Janggala ceases to exist and comes under Kadiri domination, highly possible under royal marriage. During his reign, Mpu Dharmaja writes Kakawin Smaradahana, a eulogy for the king which become the inspiration for the Panji cycle tales, which spread across Southeast Asia.[1]
  • 1116: The Byzantine army defeats the Turks at Philomelion.
  • 1116: Death of doña Jimena Díaz, governor of Valencia since 1099 to 1102.
  • c. 1119: The Knights Templar are founded to protect Christian pilgrims in Jerusalem.

1120s edit

A Black and White Photo of the 12th century Cuenca Cathedral (built from 1182 to 1270) in Cuenca, Spain

1130s edit

The temple complex of Angkor Wat, built during the reign of Suryavarman II in Cambodia of the Khmer Era.

1140s edit

Averroes in a 14th-century painting by Andrea di Bonaiuto

1150s edit

1160s edit

The Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou, China, 1165

1170s edit

The defense of the Carroccio during the battle of Legnano (1176) by Amos Cassioli (1832–1891)

1180s edit

Saladin Ayyubi and Guy of Lusignan after Battle of Hattin.

1190–1200 edit

Richard I of England, or Richard the Lionheart.

Undated edit

Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 12th century

Inventions, discoveries, and introductions by year edit

References edit

  1. ^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 p.57
  2. ^ Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (1998, July 20). Kaḍiri. Encyclopedia Britannica.
  3. ^ Enn Tarvel (2007). Sigtuna hukkumine. Archived 2017-10-11 at the Wayback Machine Haridus, 2007 (7-8), p 38–41
  4. ^ Notice sur les Arabes hilaliens. Ismaël Hamet. p. 248.
  5. ^ Francine Weiss and Mark R. Barnes (May 3, 1989). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Grand Village of the Natchez Site / Fatherland Plantation Site (22-Ad-501)" (pdf). National Park Service. and Accompanying 3 photos, from 1989. (680 KB)
  6. ^ Warren 1961, p. 129.
  7. ^ Warren 1961, p. 159.
  8. ^ Warren 1961, p. 60-61.
  9. ^ Le Goff, Jacques (1986). The Birth of Purgatory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226470822.

Bibliography edit