|• Total||19,801 km2 (7,645 sq mi)|
|• Density||140/km2 (380/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC±0 (WET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+1 (IST)|
|Eircode routing keys|
Beginning with A, C, D, K, N, R, W, Y (primarily)
|Telephone area codes||01, 04x, 05x, 090 (primarily)|
|ISO 3166 code||IE-L|
|Patron Saint: Brigid a. ^ Leinster contains the entirety of the Dublin constituency and parts of the South and Midlands–North-West constituencies; Leinster contains 44.4% of the population of the Midlands–North-West constituency and 32.3% of the population of the South constituency.|
The modern province comprises the ancient Kingdoms of Meath, Leinster and Osraige, which existed during Gaelic Ireland. Following the 12th-century Norman invasion of Ireland, the historic "fifths" of Leinster and Meath gradually merged, mainly due to the impact of the Pale, which straddled both, thereby forming the present-day province of Leinster. The ancient kingdoms were shired into a number of counties for administrative and judicial purposes. In later centuries, local government legislation has prompted further sub-division of the historic counties.
Leinster has no official function for local-government purposes. However, it is an officially recognised subdivision of Ireland and is listed on ISO 3166-2 as one of the four provinces of Ireland. "IE-L" is attributed to Leinster as its country sub-division code. Leinster had a population of 2,858,501 according to the preliminary results of the 2022 census, making it the most populous province in the country. The traditional flag of Leinster features a golden harp on a green background.
Early history edit
The Gaelic Kingdom of Leinster before 1171, considerably smaller than the present-day province, usually did not include certain territories such as Meath, Osraige or the Viking cities of Wexford and Dublin.
The first part of the name Leinster derives from Laigin, the name of a major tribe that once inhabited the area. The latter part of the name derives either from the Irish tír or from the Old Norse staðr, both of which translate as 'land' or 'territory'.
Úgaine Mór (Hugony the Great), who supposedly built the hill fort of Dún Ailinne, near Kilcullen in County Kildare, united the tribes of Leinster. He is a likely, but uncertain, candidate as the first historical king of Laigin (Leinster) in the 7th century BC. Circa 175/185 AD, following a period of civil wars in Ireland, the legendary Cathair Mor re-founded the kingdom of Laigin. The legendary Finn Mac Cool, or Fionn mac Cumhaill, reputedly built a stronghold at the Hill of Allen, on the edge of the Bog of Allen.
In the 4th and 5th centuries AD, after Magnus Maximus had left Britain in 383 AD with his legions, leaving a power vacuum, colonists from Laigin settled in North Wales, specifically in Anglesey, Carnarvonshire and Denbighshire. In Wales some of the Leinster-Irish colonists left their name on the Llŷn Peninsula (in Gwynedd), which derives its name from Laigin.
In the 5th century, the emerging Uí Néill dynasties from Connacht conquered areas of Westmeath, Meath and Offaly from the Uí Enechglaiss and Uí Failge of the Laigin. Uí Néill Ard Rígh attempted to exact the Boroimhe Laighean (cattle-tribute) from the Laigin from that time, in the process becoming their traditional enemies.
By the 8th century the rulers of Laigin had split into two dynasties:
- Northern Leinster dynasty: Murchad mac Brain (d. 727), King of Uí Dúnlainge, and joint leader of the Laigin
- Southern Leinster dynasty: Áed mac Colggen (d. 738), King of Uí Cheinnselaig, and joint leader of the Laigin
After the death of the last Kildare-based King of Laigin, Murchad Mac Dunlainge in 1042, the kingship of Leinster reverted to the Uí Cheinnselaig sept based in the southeast in present-day County Wexford. This southern dynasty provided all the later Kings of Leinster.
Kingdom of Ireland period edit
Leinster includes the extended "English Pale", counties controlled directly from Dublin, at the beginning of the 1600s. The other three provinces had their own regional "Presidency" systems, based on a Welsh model of administration, in theory if not in fact, from the 1570s and 1580s up to the 1670s, and were considered separate entities. Gradually "Leinster" subsumed the term "The Pale", as the kingdom was pacified and the difference between the old Pale area and the wider province, now also under English administration, grew less distinct.
The expansion of the province took in the territory of the ancient Kingdom of Mide encompassing much of present-day counties Meath, Westmeath and Longford with five west County Offaly baronies. Local lordships were incorporated during the Tudor conquest of Ireland and subsequent plantation schemes.
Other boundary changes included County Louth, officially removed from Ulster in 1596, the baronies of Ballybritt and Clonlisk (formerly Éile Uí Chearbhaill in the county palatine of Tipperary) in Munster becoming part of Leinster in 1606, and the 'Lands of Ballymascanlon' transferred from Armagh to Louth c. 1630. The provincial borders were redrawn by Cromwell for administration and military reasons, and the Offaly parishes of Annally and Lusmagh, formerly part of Connacht, were transferred in 1660.
The last major boundary changes within Leinster occurred with the formation of County Wicklow (1603–1606), from lands in the north of Carlow (which previously extended to the sea) and most of southern Dublin. Later minor changes dealt with "islands" of one county in another. By the late 1700s, Leinster looked as shown in the above map of 1784.
Geography and subdivisions edit
The province is divided into twelve traditional counties: Carlow, Dublin, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Longford, Louth, Meath, Offaly, Westmeath, Wexford and Wicklow. Leinster has the most counties of any province, but is the second smallest of the four Irish provinces by land area. With a population of 2,870,354 as of 2022, it is the island's most populous province. Dublin is the only official city in the province, and is by far its largest settlement.
|Carlow (Ceatharlach)||61,968||897 km2 (346 sq mi)|
|Dublin (Baile Átha Cliath)||1,458,154||922 km2 (356 sq mi)|
|Kildare (Cill Dara)||247,774||1,695 km2 (654 sq mi)|
|Kilkenny (Cill Chainnigh)||104,160||2,073 km2 (800 sq mi)|
|Laois (Laois)||91,877||1,720 km2 (660 sq mi)|
|Longford (An Longfort)||46,751||1,091 km2 (421 sq mi)|
|Louth (Lú)||139,703||826 km2 (319 sq mi)|
|Meath (An Mhí)||220,826||2,342 km2 (904 sq mi)|
|Offaly (Uíbh Fhailí)||83,150||2,001 km2 (773 sq mi)|
|Westmeath (An Iarmhí)||96,221||1,840 km2 (710 sq mi)|
|Wexford (Loch Garman)||163,919||2,367 km2 (914 sq mi)|
|Wicklow (Cill Mhantáin)||155,851||2,027 km2 (783 sq mi)|
|Total||2,870,354||19,801 km2 (7,645 sq mi)|
Large settlements edit
As of the 2016 census, the larger settlements in Leinster included:
|#||Settlement||County||Municipal District Pop.||Settlement Pop.||Former Legal Town Pop.|
|1||Dublin City||County Dublin||1,347,359||1,173,179||554,554|
As is the norm for language in Ireland, English is the primary spoken language, but there is an active Irish-speaking minority in the province. According to the Census of Ireland of 2011, there were 18,947 daily speakers of Irish in Leinster outside the education system, including 1,299 native speakers in the small Gaeltacht of Ráth Chairn. As of 2011, there were 19,348 students attending the 66 Gaelscoils (Irish-language primary schools) and 15 Gaelcholáistí (Irish-language secondary schools) in the province, primarily in the Dublin area.
A number of sporting and cultural organisations organise themselves on provincial lines, including Leinster Rugby, the Leinster Cricket Union, Leinster Hockey Association and Leinster GAA. While Leinster GAA is made up primarily of the traditional counties of the province, GAA teams from Galway, Kerry and Antrim have played in the Leinster Senior Hurling Championship, as has a team from London; Galway won the title in 2012. Participation of these counties is based on their performances in the Christy Ring Cup.
See also edit
- "ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-1" (PDF). Iso.org. 19 February 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
which gives Leinster as the official English name of the Province and Laighin as the official Irish name of the Province and cites "Ordnance Survey Office, Dublin 1993"
- "Population and Actual and Percentage Change 2011 to 2016 by Sex, Province County or City". Central Statistics Office. 2016. Archived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2016.[failed verification]
- Koch, John (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781851094400. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
- Census of Ireland 2016
- Sean J Connolly (2007). The Oxford Companion to Irish History. Oxford University Press. p. 308. ISBN 9780199234837.
- R F Foster (1992). The Oxford History of Ireland. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-19-285271-X.
(References to Irish colony in North Wales, Lleyn Peninsula)
- "Kings of Laigin / Leinster (Gaels of Ireland)". HistoryFiles.co.uk. Archived from the original on 18 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- Clinton, Mark (2000). Alfred P. Smyth (ed.). "Settlement patterns in the early historic kingdom of Leinster (seventh-mid twelfth centuries)". Seanchas: Studies in Early and Medieval Irish Archaeology, History and Literature in Honour of Francis John Byrne. Dublin: Four Courts Press: 275–298.
- Duffy, Seán (2005). Medieval Ireland: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. pp. 426, 449. ISBN 9781135948245.
- Smyth, Alfred P. (1982). Celtic Leinster: towards an historical geography of early Irish civilization, A.D. 500–1600. Irish Academic Press. p. 81. ISBN 9780716500971. Archived from the original on 24 September 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
Murchad, that Ui Dunlainge king who founded an unbroken rotational line of Leinster kings which lasted from 715 to 1042
- Bhreathnach, Edel (2000). Alfred P. Smyth (ed.). "Kings, the kingship of Leinster, and the regnal poems of "laidshenchas Laigen": a reflection of dynastic politics in Leinster, 650–1150". Seanchas: Studies in Early and Medieval Irish Archaeology, History and Literature in Honour of Francis J. Byrne. Dublin: Four Courts Press: 299–312.
- Walsh, Paul (2003). "1 (Early Leinster and Meath, province and diocese )". Irish Leaders and Learning Through the Ages. Four Courts Press. p. 33. ISBN 9781851825431.
- O'Byrne, Emmett (2003). War, politics and the Irish of Leinster, 1156–1606. Four Courts Press. ISBN 1851826904. Archived from the original on 21 November 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
Leinster from the death of Toirdhealbhach O'Connor in 1156 to the establishment, in 1606, of County Wicklow – the last Irish and Leinster county to be created
- Smyth, Alfred P. (1994). Ken Hannigan; William F. Nolan (eds.). "Kings, Saints and Sagas". Wicklow History & Society. Geography Publications: 41–111. ISBN 9780906602300.
- "Table B - Population of administrative counties, 2011 and 2016". Central Statistics Office. Archived from the original on 24 September 2021. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
- "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: Settlements Dublin City And Suburbs". census.cso.ie. Archived from the original on 13 November 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: Municipal District Dundalk". census.cso.ie. Archived from the original on 23 December 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: Settlements Dundalk". census.cso.ie. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: Former Legal Town Dundalk Legal Town". census.cso.ie. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: Municipal District Kilkenny City East". census.cso.ie. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: Settlements Kilkenny". census.cso.ie. Archived from the original on 10 August 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: Former Legal Town Kilkenny Legal Town". census.cso.ie. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: Municipal District Drogheda". census.cso.ie. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: Settlements Drogheda". census.cso.ie. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: Former Legal Town Drogheda Legal Town". census.cso.ie. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: Settlements Swords". census.cso.ie. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: Settlements Bray". census.cso.ie. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: Settlements An Uaimh (Navan)". census.cso.ie. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: Settlements Carlow". census.cso.ie. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "Table 32A Irish speakers aged 3 years and over in each Province, County and City, classified by frequency of speaking Irish" (PDF). Census 2006 – Volume 9 – Irish Language. CSO. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "Statisticí – Oideachas Trí Mheán na Gaeilge in Éirinn sa Ghalltacht 2010–2011" (PDF) (in Irish). Gaelscoileanna.ie. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
Further reading edit
- Terence de Vere White, Leinster (Faber & Faber, 1968)