Wexford (Irish: Loch Garman) is the county town of County Wexford, Ireland. Wexford lies on the south side of Wexford Harbour, the estuary of the River Slaney near the southeastern corner of the island of Ireland. The town is linked to Dublin by the M11/N11 National Primary Route; and to Rosslare Europort, Cork and Waterford by the N25. The national rail network connects it to Dublin and Rosslare Europort. It had a population of 21,524 according to the 2022 census.
Loch Garman (Irish)
Per Aquam et Ignem
'Through Water and Fire'
|• Dáil constituency||Wexford|
|• EP constituency||South|
|Elevation||1 m (3 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC±0 (WET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+1 (IST)|
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|Telephone area code||+353(0)53|
|Irish Grid Reference|
The town was founded by the Vikings in about 800 AD. They named it Veisafjǫrðr, meaning "inlet of the mudflats", and the name has changed only slightly into its present form. According to a story recorded in the Dindsenchas, the name "Loch Garman" comes from a man named Garman mac Bomma Licce who was chased to the river mouth and drowned as a consequence of stealing the queen's crown from Temair during the feast of Samhain.
For about three hundred years it was a Viking town, a city-state, largely independent and owing only token dues to the Irish kings of Leinster. However, in May 1169 Dermot MacMurrough, King of Leinster and his Norman ally Robert Fitz-Stephen besieged Wexford. The Norse inhabitants resisted fiercely until the Bishop of Ferns persuaded them to accept a settlement with Dermot.
Wexford was an Old English settlement in the Medieval Period. An Anglic language, known as Yola, was commonly spoken in south Wexford until it began declining in the mid-19th century. However, Yola was not officially extinct until the 1998 death of the last speaker, a local fisherman from Kilmore Quay named Jack Devereux. The Yola name for Wexford was Weiseforthe.
Following the Crusades, the Knights Templar had a presence in Wexford. Up to the present, their name is perpetuated in the old Knights' Templars' chapel yard of St. John's Cemetery, on Wexford's Upper St. John's Street. Wexford received its first charter in 1318.
County Wexford produced strong support for Confederate Ireland during the 1640s. A fleet of Confederate privateers was based in Wexford town, consisting of sailors from Flanders and Spain as well as local men. Their vessels raided English Parliamentarian shipping, giving some of the proceeds to the Confederate government in Kilkenny. As a result, the town was sacked by the English Parliamentarians during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649. Many of its inhabitants were killed and much of the town was burned. In 1659 Solomon Richards was appointed Governor, but he was dismissed and imprisoned following the Restoration the next year.
Wexford's early- and mid- 18th-century history is less frequently remembered than later periods, however, the impact of this period is evident from the architectural fabric of the town such as the gabled Dutch Billy houses such as on Main Street.
County Wexford was the centre of the 1798 rebellion against British rule. Wexford town was held by the United Irishmen throughout the Wexford Rebellion and was the scene of a notorious massacre of local loyalists by the United Irishmen, who executed them with pikes on Wexford bridge.
Redmond Square, near the railway station, commemorates the elder John Edward Redmond (1806–1865) who sat in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom as a Liberal Member of Parliament (MP) for the city of Wexford. The inscription reads: "My heart is with the city of Wexford. Nothing can extinguish that love but the cold soil of the grave." His nephew William Archer Redmond (1825–1880) sat as an MP in Isaac Butt's Home Rule Party from 1872 until 1880. Willie Redmond sat as an MP for Wexford from 1883 until 1885. The younger John Redmond, was a devoted follower of Charles Stewart Parnell and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party until his death in April 1918. He is interred in the Redmond family vault, at the old Knights' Templars' chapel yard of St. John's Cemetery, Upper St. John's Street.
Redmond Park was formally opened in May 1931 as a memorial to Willie Redmond, who died in 1917 while serving with the 16th (Irish) Division during the Messines offensive and was buried on the Western Front.
Wexford hosts the Wexford Opera Festival every October. Started by Dr Tom Walsh in 1951, the festival has since grown and a fireworks display is sometimes held in conjunction with the annual festival.
Wexford has a number of music and drama venues including:
- The National Opera House (formerly the Wexford Opera House), developed on the site of the historic Theatre Royal opera house;
- the Dun Mhuire Theatre, which holds community theatre events including music events and hosting shows by Oyster Lane Theatre Group and Wexford Pantomime Society;
- the Wexford Arts Centre, which hosts exhibitions, theatre, music and dance events;
- St. Iberius's Church (Church of Ireland), various concerts are held here.
Wexford is the home of several youth and senior theatre groups, including the Buí Bolg Street Theatre Company, Oyster Lane Theatre Group, Wexford Pantomime Society, Wexford Light Opera Society and Wexford Drama Group.
Until the mid-nineteenth century, the Yola language could be heard in Wexford, and some words, phrases and place names are still used in the locality, particularly in the baronies of southern Wexford.
Notable churches within the town include the "twin churches", Bride Street and Rowe Street with their distinctive spires; St. Iberius Church of Ireland, which dates from the 18th Century; Saint Peter's College, with a chapel designed by Augustus Welby Pugin; and Ann Street Presbyterian church. A former Quaker meeting hall is now a band room in High Street. The twin churches can be seen from any part of Wexford and in 2008, their 150th anniversary was celebrated. The larger twin, on Rowe Street, contains a peal of ten change-ringing bells, cast by Gillett & Johnston in 1930.
In the early 21st century, Wexford saw the redevelopment of its quay front, and residential development at Clonard village. Also, the relocated offices of the Department of Environment were constructed near Wexford General Hospital on Newtown Road and opened in 2010.
Wexford's success as a seaport declined in the first half of the 20th century because of the constantly changing sands of Wexford Harbour. By 1968 it had become unprofitable to keep dredging a channel from the harbour mouth to the quays in order to accommodate the larger ships of the era, so the port closed. The port had been extremely important to the local economy, with coal being a major import and agricultural machinery and grain being exported. The woodworks which fronted the quays and which were synonymous with Wexford were removed in the 1990s as part of a plan to claim the quay as an amenity for the town as well as retaining it as a commercially viable waterfront.
In the early 20th century, a new port was built about 20 kilometres (12 mi) to the south at Rosslare Harbour, now known as Rosslare Europort. This is a deepwater harbour, unaffected by tides and currents. All major shipping now uses this port and Wexford Port is used only by fishing boats and leisure vessels.
Major private-sector employers in and around the town include Wexford Creamery, Celtic Linen, Wexford Viking Glass, Parker Hannifin IPDE, Waters Technology, Kent Stainless, Equifax and BNY Mellon. Coca-Cola operates a research plant employing up to 160. Eishtec, which was acquired by Infosys in 2019, operates a call center in Wexford. Pamela Scott, A-wear and other retailers operate in the town. Public sector employers include Wexford County Council and Wexford General Hospital.
Places of interest Edit
The Irish National Heritage Park at Ferrycarrig includes various exhibits spanning 9000 years of Irish history, allowing the visitor to wander around re-creations of historic Irish dwellings including crannogs, Viking houses and Norman forts. The grounds also feature the archaeological site of Newtown, considered the first Norman fortification in Ireland.
The Wexford Wildfowl Reserve is a Ramsar site based on mudflats, (known locally as slobland), just outside Wexford. It is a migratory stop-off point for thousands of ducks, geese, swans and waders. Up to 12,000 (50% of the world's population) of Greenland white-fronted geese spend the winter on the Wexford slobs. There is a visitor centre with exhibitions and an audio-visual show.
Wexford O'Hanrahan railway station opened on 17 August 1872. On 10 April 1966, the station was named after Michael O'Hanrahan, one of the executed leaders of the 1916 Easter Rising. The railway line from Dublin to Rosslare Harbour runs along the quayside on the northeastern edge of the town. In 2010 the Rosslare Strand-Waterford rail services were suspended, due to budget cuts at Irish Rail.
Wexford is also served by local and national bus networks, primarily Bus Éireann, Wexford Bus and Ardcavan Bus. There are direct bus routes to Dublin, Carlow and Waterford. There are also many local taxi and hackney providers. Wexford Bus also operates a shuttle bus service which has stops at the town's main facilities.
Rosslare Europort is 19 kilometres south of Wexford. Car ferries run between Fishguard and Pembroke in Wales and Cherbourg and Roscoff in France. The ferry companies operating on these routes are Stena Line and Irish Ferries. Foot passengers can use the SailRail tickets from Wexford O'Hanrahan station via Rosslare Europort and Fishguard Harbour to reach Swansea, Cardiff Central and onwards including London Paddington.
The closest airport to Wexford is Waterford Airport which is approximately one hour away (70 km), but is not served by commercial flights. Dublin Airport is the closest airport to Wexford which operates commercial flights, which is approximately two hours away.
Association football Edit
Wexford Football Club was admitted to the League of Ireland in 2007, and was the first Wexford-based club to take part in the competition. The club was the brainchild of former property developer and politician Mick Wallace, who funded the construction of a complex for the new team's home at Newcastle, Ferrycarrig. In 2015, the team won the League of Ireland First Division. The club launched Wexford Youths WFC, a Women's National League team, in 2011. A new team, Yola FC, was proposed in 2020 but was refused a license by the FAI.
Gaelic football Edit
Wexford is also home to several Gaelic Athletic Association clubs. Though the town was traditionally associated with Gaelic football, with six teams providing ample outlets for its youngsters, it was not until 1960 that hurling took its foothold, with much due to local man Oliver "Hopper" McGrath's contribution to the county's All-Ireland Hurling Final triumph over the then-champions Tipperary. Having scored an early second-half goal to effectively kill off the opposition, McGrath went on to be the first man from the town of Wexford to receive an All-Ireland Hurling winner's medal.
Although the team has not achieved county senior football success since 1956, Volunteers ("the Vols") of Wexford Town hold a record eleven county senior titles, as well as six minor titles. Other notable Gaelic football clubs in the town are Sarsfields, St. Mary's of Maudlintown, Clonard and St. Joseph's.
One of the town's local hurling clubs, Faythe Harriers, holds a record fifteen county minor championships, having dominated the minor hurling scene in the 1950s, late 1960s and early 1970s. The senior side has also won five Wexford Senior Hurling Championships.
Other sports Edit
Wexford Golf Club's clubhouse and course were finished in 2006 and 2007 respectively.
Wexford has one rugby club, called the Wexford Wanderers RFC.
Ireland's former boxing head coach and Olympian Billy Walsh is a native of Wexford town and has been involved in the training of underage level boxers with local club St. Ibars/Joseph's.
There are five secondary schools serving the population of the town. These are Wexford CBS, Loreto Secondary School (girls' school); St Peter's College (boys' school); Presentation Secondary School (girls' school); and The Vocational College/Selskar College (mixed school).
The historic borough of Wexford was abolished under the Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840. However, by petition, it was re-established in 1846. Under the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, the area became an urban district, while retaining the style of a borough corporation. Wexford Borough Corporation became a borough council in 2002. The boundary of the town was extended in 2008.
On 1 June 2014, the borough council was dissolved and the administration of the town was amalgamated with Wexford County Council. The local electoral area of Wexford forms the borough district of Wexford, as the town retains the right to be described as a borough. The chair of the borough district uses the title of mayor, rather than Cathaoirleach.
The parliamentary borough of Wexford returned two MPs to the Irish House of Commons until 1801. Under the Act of Union, the parliamentary borough returned one MP to the United Kingdom House of Commons, until its abolition under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885. It was thereafter represented by the South Wexford from 1885 to 1922, and by the Dáil constituency of Wexford from 1921 to the present.
- John Banville, writer
- Clementina Rowe Butler, missionary
- Eoin Colfer, writer
- Robert McClure, Arctic Explorer
- Brendan Corish, politician
- Mary Frances Crowley, educator and nurse
- Thomas D'Arcy McGee, Canadian politician
- Kevin Doyle, footballer
- Jane Elgee 'Speranza', mother of Oscar Wilde
- Mary Fitzgerald (trade unionist)
- Gerald Fleming, meteorologist
- Brendan Howlin, politician
- Rianna Jarrett, footballer
- William Kehoe, iron founder
- William Kenealy, recipient of the Victoria Cross
- Larry Kirwan, writer and musician
- William Lamport, Irish soldier upon whom Zorro is said to be based
- Michael Londra, singer
- Declan Lowney, director
- Dan O'Herlihy, Oscar-nominated actor
- Chris O'Neill (Oney), animator and internet personality
- Billy Roche, playwright
- Dick Roche, politician
- Jem Roche, boxer
- Declan Sinnott, musician
- John Sinnott, recipient of the Victoria Cross
- Pierce Turner, singer-songwriter
- Billy Walsh, boxer/coach
- Dean Walsh, European boxing medallist
- John Welsh, writer
- Cry Before Dawn, 1980s rock band from Wexford
Wexford is twinned with the following places:
See also Edit
- "Census 2022 - F1015 Population". Central Statistics Office Census 2022 Reports. Central Statistics Office Ireland. August 2023. Retrieved 16 September 2023.
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- Shiels, Damian (14 July 2013). "Column: Yola and Fingalian – the forgotten ancient English dialects of Ireland". Archived from the original on 8 May 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Lewis, Samuel (1837). "Wexford Town Charter". A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland. Dublin: Lewis.
- "Dublin's lost buildings: The Dutch Billy". Irish Archaeology. Archived from the original on 12 April 2021. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
- "54-56 Main Street North, Wexford, Wexford". buildingsofireland.ie. National Inventory of Architectural Heritage. Archived from the original on 12 April 2021. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
- "A Guide To Redmond Park". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Wexford Festival Opera to go off with a bang as opening night fireworks returning after three year absence".
- Kane, Conor (21 March 2011). "Pyrotechnic spectacle banishes the gloom". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2015 – via HighBeam Research.
- "Inspector Wexford and the mystery of Irish townlands".
- "Dove Details". dove.cccbr.org.uk.
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- "Press Release – Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government, Wexford". gov.ie. Office of Public Works. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- "Wexford Quay". Archived from the original on 16 March 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Coca-Cola gets green light – WexfordPeople.ie". Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- "Waterford firm Eishtec bought by Infosys BPM". thinkbusiness.ie. 8 October 2019. Retrieved 29 December 2021.
- "Eishtec to create 250 jobs at Wexford Call Centre". eishtec.com. 17 December 2012. Archived from the original on 3 January 2013.
- "Saving Private Ryan". Filmography. The Irish Film and Television Network. Archived from the original on 14 August 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
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- Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840 (3 & 4 Vict., c. 108), Section 13 and Schedule B. pp. 602, 652. ISBN 9780331531558.
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- Clancy, John Joseph (1899). A handbook of local government in Ireland: containing an explanatory introduction to the Local Government (Ireland) Act, 1898: together with the text of the act, the orders in Council, and the rules made thereunder relating to county council, rural district council, and guardian's elections: with an index. Dublin: Sealy, Bryers and Walker. p. 432.
- Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, s. 22: County districts and district councils (61 & 62 Vict., c. 37 of 1898, s. 22). Enacted on 12 August 1898. Act of the UK Parliament. Retrieved from Irish Statute Book on 3 November 2022.
- Local Government Act 2001, 6th Sch.: Local Government Areas (Towns) (No. 37 of 2001, 6th Sch.). Enacted on 21 July 2001. Act of the Oireachtas. Retrieved from Irish Statute Book on 3 August 2022.
- Wexford Borough Boundary Alteration Order 2007 (S.I. No. 818 of 2007). Signed on 18 December 2007 by John Gormley, Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. Statutory Instrument of the Government of Ireland. Retrieved from Irish Statute Book on 28 November 2022.
- Wexford Borough Boundary Alteration (Supplementary) Order 2007 (S.I. No. 819 of 2007). Signed on 18 December 2007 by John Gormley, Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. Statutory Instrument of the Government of Ireland. Retrieved from Irish Statute Book on 28 November 2022.
- Local Government Reform Act 2014, s. 24: Dissolution of town councils and transfer date (No. 1 of 2014, s. 24). Enacted on 27 January 2014. Act of the Oireachtas. Retrieved from Irish Statute Book on 21 May 2022.
- Local Government Reform Act 2014 (Commencement of Certain Provisions) (No. 3) Order 2014 (S.I. No. 214 of 2014). Signed on 22 May 2014 by Phil Hogan, Minister for the Environment, Community and Local Government. Statutory Instrument of the Government of Ireland. Retrieved from Irish Statute Book on 3 November 2022.
- County of Wexford Local Electoral Areas and Municipal Districts Order 2018 (S.I. No. 637 of 2018). Statutory Instrument of the Government of Ireland. Archived from the original on 9 September 2021. Retrieved from Irish Statute Book on 9 September 2021.
- Local Government Reform Act 2014, s. 19: Municipal districts (No. 1 of 2014, s. 19). Enacted on 27 January 2014. Act of the Oireachtas. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved from Irish Statute Book on 5 September 2020.
- Local Government Reform Act 2014, s. 37: Alternative titles to Cathaoirleach and Leas-Chathaoirleach, etc. (No. 1 of 2014, s. 37). Enacted on 27 January 2014. Act of the Oireachtas. Retrieved from Irish Statute Book on 3 November 2022.
- RTE.ie Archived 2 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine, The Weather Team on the RTÉ website
- "Our Town and History". Archived from the original on 21 October 2014.
- "Jumeblages" [Twinnings] (in French). Archived from the original on 13 April 2014.
- "Twinning Pact between the towns of Wexford and Lugo" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "Llegan funcionarios de Irlanda a Yanga" [Irish officials arrive to Yanga] (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 25 February 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2015.