Church of Ireland
The Church of Ireland (Irish: Eaglais na hÉireann, pronounced [ˈaɡlˠəʃ n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ]; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion. It is organised on an all-Ireland basis and is the second largest Christian church on the island after the Roman Catholic Church. Like other Anglican churches, it has retained elements of pre-Reformation practice, notably its episcopal polity, while rejecting the primacy of the Pope.
|Church of Ireland|
|Eaglais na hÉireann (Irish)|
Kirk o Airlann (Scots)
|Classification||Protestant (with various theological and doctrinal identities, including Anglo-Catholic, Liberal and Evangelical)|
|Primates||Archbishop of Armagh – John McDowell,
Michael Jackson, |
Archbishop of Dublin
|Headquarters||Church of Ireland House |
|Origin||Circa 433 AD|
|Separated from||Roman Catholic Church in 1534|
In theological and liturgical matters, it incorporates many principles of the Reformation, particularly those of the English Reformation, but self-identifies as being both Reformed and Catholic, in that it sees itself as the inheritor of a continuous tradition going back to the founding of Christianity in Ireland. As with other members of the global Anglican communion, individual parishes accommodate different approaches to the level of ritual and formality, variously referred to as High and Low Church.
The Church of Ireland sees itself as that 'part of the Irish Church which was influenced by the Reformation, and has its origins in the early Celtic Church of St Patrick'.[incomplete short citation] This makes it both "Catholic", as the inheritor of a continuous tradition of faith and practice, and Protestant, since it rejects the authority of Rome and accepts changes in doctrine and liturgy caused by the Reformation.
Following the Synod of Ráth Breasail (also known as Rathbreasail) in 1111, Irish Catholicism transitioned from a monastic to a diocesan and parish-based mode of organisation and governance. Many Irish present-day dioceses trace their boundaries to decisions made at the synod. The work of organizing the Church was completed by the Synod of Kells which took place in 1152, under the presidency of Giovanni Cardinal Paparoni. Diocesan reform continued and the number of archbishoprics was increased from two to four. The synod granted the Primacy of Ireland to the Archdiocese of Armagh.
Some modern scholarship argues that early Irish Christianity was functionally separate from Rome but shared much of its liturgy and practice, and that this allowed both the Church of Ireland and Irish Catholicism to claim descent from Saint Patrick.[page needed] It is also said that the Catholic Church in Ireland was jurisdictionally independent until 1155, when Pope Adrian IV purported to declare it a papal fief and granted Henry II of England the Lordship of Ireland in return for paying tithes; his right to do so has been disputed ever since.
In 1534, Henry VIII broke with the Papacy and became head of the Church of England; two years later, the Irish Parliament followed suit by appointing him head of the Irish church. Although many bishops and most of the clergy refused to conform, the new Church of Ireland retained possession of diocesan buildings and lands, since under the feudal system bishops held that property as vassals of the Crown.[incomplete short citation] Despite the political and economic advantages of membership in the new church, a large majority of the Irish remained Catholic, while in Ulster the church was outnumbered by Presbyterians. However, it remained the official state church until disestablished by the First Gladstone ministry on 1 January 1871.
The modern Church of Ireland is the second largest religious organisation in the Republic of Ireland, and the third largest in Northern Ireland, after the Roman Catholic and Presbyterian churches.[failed verification]
Christianity in Ireland is generally dated to the mid to late fifth century CE, when the Romano-British cleric Saint Patrick began his conversion mission, although the exact dates are disputed. Prior to the 12th century, the Irish church was independent of Papal control, and governed by powerful monasteries, rather than bishops. While the Kingdom of Dublin looked to the English Diocese of Canterbury for guidance, in 1005 CE Brian Ború made a large donation to the Monastery of Armagh and recognised its Archbishop as Primate of all Ireland in an attempt to secure his position as High King of Ireland.
At the 1152 Synod of Kells, Pope Anastasius IV claimed Ireland as a papal fief, and imposed a system bringing it more into line with Rome. Under the Laudabiliter in 1155, English-born Pope Adrian IV granted Henry II of England the Lordship of Ireland in return for paying tithes to Rome. His claim was based on the 4th century Donation of Constantine, which allegedly gave the Papacy religious control over all Christian territories in the western Roman Empire. Its legality was disputed at the time, since Ireland was never part of the empire, while the Donation itself was later exposed as a forgery.
The Irish church was divided into Dioceses, headed by bishops, while adopting English liturgy and saints, such as Edward the Confessor, and Thomas Becket. In 1536, the Irish Parliament followed their English colleagues by accepting Henry VIII of England as head of the church, rather than the Pope. This marks the founding of the reformed Church of Ireland, confirmed when Henry became King of Ireland in 1541. Largely restricted to Dublin, led by Archbishop George Browne, it expanded under Edward VI, until Catholicism was restored by his sister Mary I in 1553.
When Elizabeth I of England became queen in 1558, only five bishops accepted her Religious Settlement, and most of the Irish clergy had to be replaced. This was hampered by the church's relative poverty, while adapting to the changes of regime damaged the reputation of those who remained. Hugh Curwen was Dean of Hereford until 1555, when Mary made him Catholic Archbishop of Dublin, before returning to the reformed church in 1558. Despite accusations of 'moral delinquency', he remained Archbishop and Lord Chancellor until 1567, when he was appointed Bishop of Oxford.
The absence of Gaelic-speaking ministers led to the adoption of a gradualist policy, similar to that used in Catholic areas of Northern England. 'Occasional conformity' allowed the use of pre-Reformation rites, combined with acceptance of the established Church; this practice persisted in both England and Ireland well into the mid-18th century.
Lack of Irish Gaelic literature was another restriction; shortly before his death in 1585, Nicholas Walsh began translation of the New Testament. Continued by John Kearny and Nehemiah Donnellan, it was finally printed in 1602 by William Daniel, who also translated the Book of Common Prayer, or BCP, in 1606. An Irish version of the Old Testament was published in 1685 by Narcissus Marsh, but the revised BCP was not available until 1712.
At the beginning of the 17th century, most native Irish were Catholic, with Protestant settlers in Ulster establishing an independent Presbyterian church. Largely confined to an English-speaking minority in The Pale, the most important figure of the Church's development was Dublin-born theologian and historian, James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh from 1625 to 1656. In 1615, the Church of Ireland drew up its own confession of faith, similar to the English version, but more detailed, less ambiguous and often explicitly Calvinist. When the Thirty-Nine Articles were formally adopted by the Irish church in 1634, Ussher ensured they were in addition to the Irish Articles; however, they were soon superseded by the Thirty Nine Articles, which remain in use to the present day.
Under Charles I, the Church of Ireland claimed to be the original and universal church, while the Papacy was an innovation, thus vesting it with the supremacy of Apostolic succession. This argument was supported by Ussher, and Charles' former personal chaplain, John Leslie, a key supporter of Caroline reforms in Scotland, appointed bishop of Derry & Raphoe in 1633.
During the 1641–1653 Irish Confederate Wars, nearly two-thirds of Ireland was controlled by the largely Catholic Confederacy, and in 1644, Giovanni Battista Rinuccini became Papal Nuncio to Ireland. Irish Catholicism had developed greater tolerance for Protestants, while sharing their hostility to elaborate ritual. Rinuccini's insistence on following Roman liturgy, and attempts to re-introduce ceremonies such as foot washing divided the Confederacy, and contributed to its rapid collapse in the 1649–1652 Cromwell's re-conquest of Ireland.
The church was re-established after the 1660 Restoration of Charles II and in January 1661, meetings by 'Papists, Presbyterians, Independents or separatists' were made illegal. In practice, the penal laws were loosely enforced and after 1666, Protestant Dissenters and Catholics were allowed to resume their seats in the Parliament of Ireland. In 1685, the Catholic James II became king with considerable backing in all three kingdoms; this changed when his policies seemed to go beyond tolerance for Catholicism and into an attack on the established church. His prosecution of the Seven Bishops in England for seditious libel in June 1688 destroyed his support base, while many felt James lost his right to govern by ignoring his coronation Oath to maintain the primacy of the Protestant religion.
This made oaths a high-profile issue, since ministers of the national churches of England, Scotland and Ireland were required to swear allegiance to the ruling monarch. When the 1688 Glorious Revolution replaced James with his Protestant daughter and son-in-law, Mary II and William III, a minority felt bound by their previous oath and refused to swear another. This led to the Non-Juring schism, although for the vast majority, this was a matter of personal conscience, rather than political support for James.
The Irish church was less affected by this controversy, although the Bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh became a Non-Juror, as did a handful of the clergy, including Jacobite propagandist Charles Leslie. The Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland is traditionally viewed as beginning in 1691 when the Treaty of Limerick ended the 1689–1691 Williamite War. The Church re-established control and the 1697 Bishop's Banishment Act expelled Catholic bishops and regular clergy from Ireland, leaving only the so-called secular clergy.
In 1704, the Test Act was extended to Ireland; this effectively restricted public office to members of the Church of Ireland and officially remained in place until the 1829 Catholic Relief Act. However, the practice of occasional conformity continued, while many Catholic gentry by-passed these restrictions by educating their sons as Protestants, their daughters as Catholics; Edmund Burke is one example.
It is estimated fewer than 15 – 20% of the Irish population were nominally members of the church, which remained a minority under pressure from both Catholics and Protestant Nonconformists. The 1719 Toleration Act allowed Nonconformists freedom of worship, while the Irish Parliament paid their ministers a small subsidy known as the 'regium donum.'
Although willing to permit a degree of flexibility, like their English counterparts, Irish bishops viewed their status as the national church to be non-negotiable and used their seats in the Irish House of Lords to enforce this. However, in 1725 Parliament passed the first in a series of 'temporary' Indemnity Acts, which allowed office holders to 'postpone' taking the oaths; the bishops were willing to approve these, since they could be repealed at any point.
In the 17th century, religious and political beliefs were often assumed to be the same; thus Catholics were considered political subversives, simply because of their religion. During the 18th century, sectarian divisions were replaced by a growing sense of Irish autonomy; in 1749, Bishop Berkeley issued an address to the Catholic clergy, urging them to work together with the church in the (Irish) national interest. After 1750, the government increasingly viewed Catholic emancipation as a way to reduce the power of Protestant nationalists like the United Irishmen; this had potential implications for the church since the requirement non-church members pay tithes was deeply resented. The movement ended after the 1798 Rebellion and Ireland's incorporation with Britain.
19th to 20th centuriesEdit
Following the legal union of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain by the Act of Union 1800, the Church of Ireland was also united with the Church of England to form the United Church of England and Ireland. At the same time, one archbishop and three bishops from Ireland (selected by rotation) were given seats in the House of Lords at Westminster, joining the two archbishops and twenty-four bishops from the Church of England.
The Irish Church was over-staffed, with 22 bishops, including 4 archbishops, for an official membership of 852,000, less than that of the Church of England's Diocese of Durham. The Church Temporalities (Ireland) Act 1833 reduced these to 12, as well as making financial changes. Part of a series of reforms by the 1830–1834 Whig government that included the Reform Act 1832, it caused deep political splits. The implications of government legislating church governance was a contributory factor in the Oxford Movement and had wide repercussions for the Anglican Communion.
Another source of resentment was the funding of the Church by tithes imposed on all Irish subjects, even though the majority were not members. This led to anomalies like the incumbent of a living near Bessborough, who in 1833 was receiving £1,000 per year, despite the fact the parish had no Protestants or even a church. The "Tithe War" of 1831–36 led to their replacement by the tithe rent charge but they did not entirely disappear until the Irish Church Act 1869.
The Act ended the Church's status as a state organisation; its bishops were removed from the House of Lords and its property transferred to the government. Compensation was paid but in the immediate aftermath, parishes faced great difficulty in local financing after the loss of rent-generating lands and buildings.
The head of the Church of Ireland is, ex officio, the Archbishop of Armagh. In 1870, immediately prior to its disestablishment, the Church provided for its internal government, led by a General Synod, and with financial and administrative support by a Representative Church Body. Like other Irish churches, the Church of Ireland did not divide when Ireland was partitioned in the 1920s and it continues to be governed on an all-Ireland basis.
The polity of the Church of Ireland is episcopal church governance, as in other Anglican churches. The church maintains the traditional structure dating to pre-Reformation times, a system of geographical parishes organised into dioceses. There were more than 30 of these historically, grouped into four provinces; today, after consolidation over the centuries, there are 12 Church of Ireland dioceses or united dioceses, each headed by a bishop and belonging to one of two surviving provinces. In May 2019 the Church of Ireland Synod agreed to the merger of the dioceses of Tuam, Killala and Achonry with Limerick and Killaloe. Full merger will come into effect on the resignation or retirement of either of the current bishops. The new diocese will be known as Tuam, Limerick and Killaloe and will be part of the province of Dublin. At that point there will be 11 Church of Ireland dioceses.
The leader of the southern province is the Archbishop of Dublin, at present Michael Jackson; that of the northern province is the Archbishop of Armagh, at present Francis John McDowell. These two archbishops are styled Primate of Ireland and Primate of All Ireland respectively, suggesting the ultimate seniority of the latter. Although he has relatively little absolute authority, the Archbishop of Armagh is respected as the church's general leader and spokesman, and is elected in a process different from those for all other bishops.
General synod and policy-makingEdit
Doctrine, canon law, church governance, church policy, and liturgical matters are decided by the church's general synod. The general synod comprises two houses, the House of Bishops and the House of Representatives. The House of Bishops includes the 10 diocesan bishops and two archbishops, forming one order. The House of Representatives is made up of two orders, clergy and laity. The order of clergy holds one third of the seats while the laity holds two-thirds of the seats. As of 2017, there are 216 clergy members and 432 lay members in the House of Representatives. The membership of the House of Representatives is made up of delegates from the dioceses, with seats allocated to each diocese's clergy and laity in specific numbers; these delegates are elected every three years. The general synod meets annually, and special meetings can be called by the leading bishop or one third of any of its orders.
Changes in policy must be passed by a simple majority of both the House of Bishops and the House of Representatives. Changes to doctrine, for example the decision to ordain women as priests, must be passed by a two-thirds majority of both Houses. The two sit together for general deliberations but separate for some discussions and voting. While the House of Representatives always votes publicly, often by orders, the House of Bishops has tended to vote in private, coming to a decision before matters reach the floor of the synod. This practice has been broken only once when, in 1999, the House of Bishops voted unanimously in public to endorse the efforts of the Archbishop of Armagh, the Diocese of Armagh and the Standing Committee of the General Synod in their attempts to resolve the crisis at the Church of the Ascension at Drumcree near Portadown.
Statutes and constitutionEdit
The church's internal laws are formulated as bills proposed to the Houses of the general synod, which when passed become Statutes. The church's governing document, its constitution, is modified, consolidated and published by way of statute also, the most recent edition, the 13th, being published in 2003.
The representative body of the Church of Ireland, often called the "Representative Church Body" (RCB), is the corporate trustee of the church, as established by law, and much of the church's property is vested in it. The members of the RCB are the bishops plus diocesan delegates and twelve co-opted members, and it meets at least four times a year. The staff of the representative body are analogous to clerical civil servants, and among other duties they oversee property, including church buildings, cemeteries and investments, administer some salaries and pensions, and manage the church library. While parishes, dioceses, and other parts of the church structure care for their particular properties, this is often subject to RCB rules.
Orders of ministry and positionsEdit
Each diocese or united diocese is led by its Ordinary, one of the ten bishops and two archbishops, and the Ordinary may have one or more Archdeacons to support them, along with a Rural Dean for each group of parishes. There is a diocesan synod for each diocese; there may be separate synods for historic dioceses now in unions. These synods comprise the bishop along with clergy and lay representatives from the parishes, and subject to the laws of the church, and the work of the general synod and its committees and the representative body and its committees, oversee the operation of the diocese. Each diocesan synod in turn appoints a diocesan council to which it can delegate powers.
Each parish has a presiding member of the clergy, assisted by two churchwardens and often also two glebewardens, one of each type of warden being appointed by the clerical incumbent, and one by popular vote. All qualified adult members of the parish comprise the general vestry, which meets annually, within 20 days each side of Easter, as the Easter Vestry. There is also a select vestry for the parish, or sometimes for each active church in a parish, comprising the presiding cleric and any curate assistants, along with relevant churchwardens and glebewardens and a number of members elected at the Easter Vestry meeting. The select vestry assists in the care and operation of the parish and one or more church buildings.
Special provisions apply to the management and operation of five key cathedrals, in Dublin (which contains two Church of Ireland cathedrals), Armagh, Down, and Belfast.
The church has disciplinary and appeals tribunals, and diocesan courts, and a court of the general synod.
The Church of Ireland experienced a major decline in membership during the 20th century, both in Northern Ireland, where around 65% of its members live, and in the Republic of Ireland. The church is still the second-largest in the Republic of Ireland, with 126,414 members in 2016 (minus 2% compared to the 2011 census results) and the third-largest in Northern Ireland, with around 260,000 members. In 2016, a peer-reviewed study published in the Journal of Anglican Studies by Cambridge University Press found that the Church of Ireland has approximately 384,176 total members and 58,000 active baptised members.
The Church of Ireland has two cathedrals in Dublin: within the line of the walls of the old city is Christ Church Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishop of Dublin, and just outside the old walls is St. Patrick's Cathedral, which the church designated as the National Cathedral for Ireland in 1870. Cathedrals also exist in the other dioceses.
Offices, training of priests and teachersEdit
The church's central offices are in Rathmines, adjacent to the former Church of Ireland College of Education, and the church's library is in Churchtown. Teacher training now occurs within the Dublin City University Institute of Education, overseen by the Church of Ireland Centre, based at the former All Hallows College. The church operates a seminary, the Church of Ireland Theological Institute, in Rathgar, in the south inner suburbs of Dublin.
The churches of the Anglican Communion are linked by affection and common loyalty. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury and thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, in his person, is a unique focus of Anglican unity. He calls the once-a-decade Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of Primates, and is President of the Anglican Consultative Council. The contemporary Church of Ireland, despite having a number of High Church (often described as Anglo-Catholic) parishes, is generally on the Low Church end of the spectrum of world Anglicanism. Historically, it had little of the difference in churchmanship between parishes characteristic of other Anglican provinces, although a number of markedly liberal, High Church or Evangelical parishes have developed in recent decades. It was the second province of the Anglican Communion after the Anglican Church of New Zealand (1857) to adopt, on its 1871 disestablishment, synodical government. It was also one of the first provinces to begin ordaining women to the priesthood (1991).
Relation with the GAFCON movementEdit
GAFCON Ireland was launched on 21 April 2018, in Belfast, with 320 attendees from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. International speakers included Archbishops Peter Jensen (retired Archbishop of Sydney) and Gregory Venables (Primate of the Anglican Church of South America). The Church of Ireland was represented at GAFCON III, held on 17–22 June 2018 in Jerusalem, by a six-member delegation which included two bishops; Ferran Glenfield of Kilmore, Elphin and Ardagh and Harold Miller of Down and Dromore. Their participation was criticised by some members of the Church of Ireland. The Church of Ireland is not a member of GAFCON and the church communicated that attendance by clergy was unofficial in "a personal capacity" and he General Synod has voted against GAFCON's statement on the Lambeth Conference. GAFCON supporters refuted their critics claims, saying that they endorse Lambeth 1.10 resolution on human sexuality, which is still the official stance of the Church of Ireland, but has been rejected by the liberal provinces of the Anglican Communion. The Rev. Charles Raven stated: "the charge that GAFCON is a breakaway or separatist group is not supported by the evidence. It is a movement of reform and revitalisation which has enabled faithful Anglicans to remain within the Communion, especially in North America and Brazil. While being clear that participation in its common life is based upon fidelity to the biblical gospel, not merely upon historic ties, the Jerusalem Statement and Declaration of 2008 says quite unequivocally that 'Our fellowship is not breaking away from the Anglican Communion'."
Like many other Anglican churches, the Church of Ireland is a member of many ecumenical bodies, including the World Council of Churches, the Conference of European Churches, Churches Together in Britain and Ireland and the Irish Council of Churches. It is also a member of the Porvoo Communion.
In 1999, the church voted to prohibit the flying of flags other than St Patrick's flag and the Flag of the Anglican Communion. However, the Union Flag continues to fly on many churches in Northern Ireland.
The church has an official website. Its journal is The Church of Ireland Gazette, which is editorially independent, but the governing body of which is appointed by the church. Many parishes and other internal organizations also produce newsletters or other publications, as well as maintaining websites.
Doctrine and practiceEdit
The centre of the Church of Ireland's teaching is the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The basic teachings of the church include:
- Chalcedonian Christology; Jesus Christ is fully human and fully God in one person. He died and was resurrected from the dead.
- Jesus provides the way of eternal life for those who believe.
- The Old and New Testaments of the Bible ("God's Word written") were written by people "under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit". The Apocrypha are additional books that are to be read, but not to determine doctrine. The Apocrypha of the King James version of the Bible constitutes the books of the Vulgate version that are present neither in the Hebrew Old Testament nor the Greek New Testament.
- The "two great and necessary" sacraments are Baptism and the Eucharist (also called Holy Communion and the Lord's Supper).
- Those "commonly called Sacraments that are not to be counted for Sacraments of the Gospel" are confirmation, ordination, marriage, reconciliation of a penitent and unction.
- Belief in heaven, hell and Jesus's return in glory.
The 16th-century apologist, Richard Hooker, posits that there are three sources of authority in Anglicanism: scripture, tradition and reason. It is not known how widely accepted this idea is within Anglicanism. It is further posited that the three sources uphold and critique each other in a dynamic way. In Hooker's model, scripture is the primary means of arriving at doctrine; things stated plainly in scripture are accepted as true. Issues that are ambiguous are determined by tradition, which is checked by reason.
Modern doctrinal debatesEdit
Ordination of womenEdit
In recent decades, the church has ordained women to all offices. In 1984, the General Synod approved the ordination of women to the diaconate and, in 1987, the first woman, Katherine Poulton, was ordained as a deacon. In 1990 the church began ordaining women to the priesthood. The first two women ordained were Kathleen Margaret Brown and Irene Templeton. In 2013, the church appointed its first female bishop, Pat Storey.
Same-sex unions and LGBT clergyEdit
The church has been divided over aspects of human sexuality. In 2002, the issue became pertinent as a vicar provided a blessing for a lesbian couple. The denomination announced a period of discernment to allocate time to the perspectives within the discussion. In 2010, a congregation was recognised by the church for receiving an LGBTI award for offering services for LGBTI people. The Church of Ireland canon defines marriage as a union between one man and one woman, and does not perform same-sex marriages, but the church also supported the legal right of same-sex couples to register a civil marriage.
Civil partnerships have been allowed since 2005. The church has no official position on civil unions. In 2008, "the Church of Ireland Pensions Board ha[d] confirmed that it will treat civil partners the same as spouses." The General Synod adopted the Pensions Board's policy in 2008. In 2011, a cleric in the Church of Ireland entered into a same-sex civil partnership with his bishop's permission. Assurances of sexual abstinence were not required from the cleric. In 2012, the church's Clergy Pension Fund continued to recognise that "the pension entitlement of a member's registered civil partner will be the same as that of a surviving spouse." Regarding cohabitation, the church said that "any view of cohabitation has to be the intention of the couple to lifelong loyalty and faithfulness within their relationship." In 2004, then Archbishop John Neill said that the "Church would support the extension of legal rights on issues such as tax, welfare benefits, inheritance and hospital visits to cohabiting couples, both same gender and others." The church recognises four general viewpoints within the denomination ranging from opposition to acceptance toward same-gender relationships.
Prior to the referendum on same-sex marriage, the church remained neutral on the issue. In 2015, the Bishop of Cork, the Rt. Rev. Paul Colton, Bishop Michael Burrows of Cashel, and two retired archbishops of Dublin endorsed same-sex marriage. While voting "no" on gay marriage, Bishop Pat Storey endorsed civil unions. Also, 55 clergy signed a letter supporting the blessing of same-sex couples. In its pastoral letter, the church reiterated that, presently, church marriages are only for heterosexual couples, but that clergy may offer prayers for same-sex couples. When asked about clergy entering into civil same-sex marriages, the letter stated that "all are free to exercise their democratic entitlements once they are enshrined in legislation. However, members of the clergy, are further bound by the Ordinal and by the authority of the General Synod of the Church of Ireland." Services of Thanksgiving for same-sex marriage have taken place in congregations; for example, St. Audoen's Church hosted "a service of thanksgiving" for same-sex marriage. LGBTI services are also allowed by the Diocese of Cork, Cloyne and Ross.
REFORM Ireland, a conservative lobby, has criticised the official letter as "a dangerous departure from confessing Anglicanism" and continues to oppose same-sex marriage recognition. Reflecting division, the church deferred its report on same-sex marriage to listen to all voices. The Church of Ireland Gazette, although "editorially independent", endorsed a blessing rite for same-sex couples. Many congregations, including cathedrals, have become publicly affirming of LGBTI rights. A church report has determined that "the moral logic underpinning the negative portrayal of same-sex eroticism in Scripture does not directly address committed, loving, consecrated same-sex relationships today". In 2017, the General Synod considered a proposal to request for public services of thanksgiving for same-sex couples, but the proposal was not passed; the church's select committee on human sexuality recommended that the bishops continue to study the issues. There were 176 votes against the motion to request public services, 146 in favour, and 24 abstentions. The Bishop of Cork, Paul Colton, declared his support for same-sex marriage ceremonies in the Church of Ireland.
The first translation of the Book of Common Prayer into Irish was published in 1606. An Irish translation of the revised prayer book of 1662 was published in 1712.
The Church of Ireland has its own Irish language body, Cumann Gaelach na hEaglaise ("Irish Guild of the Church"). This was founded in 1914 to bring together members of the Church of Ireland interested in the Irish language and Gaelic culture and to promote the Irish language within the Church of Ireland. The guild aims to link its programmes with the Irish language initiatives which have been centred round Christ Church Cathedral. It holds services twice a month in Irish.
From 1926 to 1995, the church had its own Irish-language teacher training college, Coláiste Moibhí. Today, there are a number of interdenominational Gaelscoileanna (schools where Irish-medium education is applied).
- "The Church of Ireland – About Us". ireland.anglican.org. The Church of Ireland. Archived from the original on 9 August 2019. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- 2001 Northern Irish census leaflet, Ulster-Scots NI Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- ""About Us", Church of Ireland website". Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- Church of Ireland Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Church of Ireland.
- Diarmuid Ó Murchadha,Placename Material from Foras Feasa Ar Éirinn; ÉIGSE (2005) p. 93: http://www.nui.ie/eigse/pdf/vol35/eigse35.pdf Archived 3 June 2021 at the Wayback Machine
- Thomas O'Loughlin, Journeys on the edges: the Celtic tradition,(London, 2000), Caitlin Corning, The Celtic and Roman traditions: conflict and consensus in the early medieval church (Basingstoke, 2006), Alan Ford, 'Shaping history: James Ussher and the Church of Ireland', The Church of Ireland and its past: history, interpretation and identity, ed. Mark Empey, Alan Ford and Miriam Moffitt (Dublin, 2017).
- Sheehy 1961, pp. 45–48.
- O’Mahony 2010.
- Flechner 2019, pp. 34–35.
- Llywelyn 2020, p. 97.
- Young 2020, pp. 18–19.
- Sheehy 1961, pp. 45–70.
- Young 2020, p. 19.
- Walshe 1989, p. 358.
- Walshe 1989, p. 60.
- Murray 2009, pp. 242–245.
- Muldoon 2000, pp. 248–250.
- Flaningam 1977, pp. 39–41.
- "The Book of Common Prayer of the Church of Ireland (1666)". Justus.anglican.org. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
- Wallace 1949, pp. 1–15.
- "Creeds of Christendom, with a History and Critical notes. Volume I. The History of Creeds. | Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Archived from the original on 22 September 2006. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
- Richardson 2000, p. 55.
- Diamond 2009.
- Yates, Nigel (24 February 2013). "Catholic Reformation in Ireland: The Mission of Rinuccini 1645–1649". History Ireland. Archived from the original on 12 September 2018. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
- Harris 2006, p. 88.
- Harris 2007, pp. 179–181.
- Overton 2018, p. 14.
- Higgins 2014, p. 78.
- Simms 1970, pp. 185–186.
- O'Brian 2015, p. 10.
- James 1979, p. 433.
- James 1979, p. 444.
- James 1979, p. 451.
- Barlett 1993, p. 2.
- Condon 1964, pp. 120–142.
- Pearce 2005, p. 119.
- "Cross Denominational Mission "The Irish Church Disestablishment Act 1869 came into effect in 1871 and the Church of Ireland ceased to be the state church. This terminated both state support and parliamentary authority over its governance, and took into public ownership much church property. Compensation was provided to clergy, but many parishes faced great difficulty after the loss of rent-generating land, property and buildings."". Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2021.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Dublin, Ireland, 2003: Constitution of the Church of Ireland, 1.1 The General Synod of the Church of Ireland shall consist of three distinct orders, namely, the bishops, the clergy, and the laity. / 1.2 The General Synod shall consist of two Houses, namely, the House of Bishops and the House of Representatives... / 1.3 The House of Bishops shall consist of all the archbishops and bishops of the Church of Ireland for the time being.: 1.1
- Dublin, Ireland, 2003: Constitution of the Church of Ireland, 1.4(i) The House of Representatives shall consist of 216 representatives of the clergy and 432 representatives of the laity...: 1.1
- Dublin, Ireland, 2003: Constitution of the Church of Ireland, 1.4–5: 1.1
- Dublin, Ireland, 2003: Constitution of the Church of Ireland, 1.14–15 There shall be an ordinary meeting of the General Synod in every year, at such time and place as shall from time to time be prescribed in that behalf by the General Synod....: 1.3
- Sectarianism Report Motions Archived 22 November 2005 at the Wayback Machine. Ireland.anglican.org. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- Church of Ireland overview (Parish Handbook) Archived 17 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine: 4
- Census 2016 Results Archived 13 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Census 2011: Key Statistics for Northern Ireland" (PDF). nisra.gov.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "2011 Census, Key Statistics for Northern Ireland, December 2012, p. 19" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- Muñoz, Daniel (26 October 2015). "North to South: A Reappraisal of Anglican Communion Membership Figures". Journal of Anglican Studies. 14 (1): 71–95. doi:10.1017/s1740355315000212. ISSN 1740-3553. Archived from the original on 26 September 2021. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
- "Anglican Communion Official Website". Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
- "Bringing the true Gospel of Jesus Christ to Ireland, GAFCON official website, 26 April 2018". Archived from the original on 19 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "GAFCON III largest pan-Anglican gathering since Toronto Congress of 1963, Anglican Ink, 20 June 2018". Archived from the original on 19 August 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
- ""Bishop Harold reflects on his experience of the recent GAFCON conference", Diocese of Down and Dromore official website, 25 June 2018". Archived from the original on 19 August 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
- McGaNry, Patsy. "Bishops' presence at Gafcon an 'absolute disgrace'". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 20 February 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
- Ryan, Gregg (29 June 2018). "Irish GAFCON participants are 'out of touch with laity'". Church Times. Archived from the original on 1 October 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
- "Authentic Anglicanism and False Fears" Archived 11 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine, GAFCON official website, 28 January 2020.
- "Journal of the General Synod of the Church of Ireland 1999" (PDF). 1999: 69. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 September 2021. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
- Flags of the World: St. Patrick's Flag as flag of Church of Ireland Archived 18 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine: "The General Synod of the Church of Ireland recognises that from time to time confusion and controversy have attended the flying of flags on church buildings or within the grounds of church buildings. This Synod therefore resolves that the only flags specifically authorised to be flown on church buildings or within the church grounds of the Church of Ireland are the cross of St Patrick or, alternatively, the flag of the Anglican Communion bearing the emblem of the Compassrose. Such flags are authorised to be flown only on Holy Days and during the Octaves of Christmas, Easter, the Ascension of Our Lord, Pentecost, and on any other such day as may be recognised locally as the Dedication Day of the particular church building. Any other flag flown at any other time is not specifically authorised by this Church ..."
- Anglican Listening Archived 5 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine Detail on how scripture, tradition and reason work to "uphold and critique each other in a dynamic way".
- McCready, David (2006). "The ordination of women in the Church of Ireland". Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Section C: Archaeology, Celtic Studies, History, Linguistics, Literature. 106C: 367–394. doi:10.3318/PRIC.2006.106.1.367. ISSN 0035-8991. JSTOR 40657882. Archived from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
- "Church of Ireland Ordains First Two Women Priests". Tulsa World. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- Staff and agencies (20 September 2013). "Anglicans appoint first female bishop in UK and Ireland". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 July 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- Tierney, Ciaran. "Lesbian couple get church blessing.(News)". The Mirror. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- Synod, Central Communications Board of the General. "Church of Ireland – A Member of the Anglican Communion". ireland.anglican.org. Archived from the original on 31 May 2016. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
- "Same-sex marriage: Church of Ireland body declares gay people should be able to wed". www.newsletter.co.uk. Archived from the original on 26 June 2021. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
- "Church of Ireland body's pro-gay marriage stance hailed by same-sex campaign group". www.newsletter.co.uk. Archived from the original on 26 June 2021. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
- AM, Staff writer 02 March 2020 | 10:41. "Church of Ireland clarifies position on same-sex marriage after confusion". www.christiantoday.com. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
- "Listening process vital to bring gay, lesbian clergy in from margins". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
- "Guide to the Conversation on Human Sexuality in the Context of Christian Belief" (PDF). Church of Ireland. 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 July 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
- "Minister Rev Tom Gordon civil partnership 'welcomed'". BBC News. BBC. 5 September 2011. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "Top Church of Ireland minister reveals his same sex marriage". IrishCentral.com. 5 September 2011. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
- "Bishop under fire over cleric's gay marriage". BelfastTelegraph.co.uk. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
- "Church of Ireland: Clergy Pensions Fund Explanatory Booklet" (PDF). ireland.anglican.org. Church of Ireland. April 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 November 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- "Marriage". Church of Ireland. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "Bishops to discuss rights for cohabiting couples". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 26 September 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- Synod), Central Communications Board of the General. "Church of Ireland – A Member of the Anglican Communion". ireland.anglican.org. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
- Ryan, Órla. "Church of Ireland won't be campaigning for same-sex marriage vote". TheJournal.ie. Archived from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
- "Same-sex marriage backed by Church of Ireland bishop – BBC News". 18 May 2014. Archived from the original on 25 March 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- "Gay row could 'cause Church of Ireland schism'". www.newsletter.co.uk. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- "Archbishops and leading theologian call for Yes vote". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 27 April 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
- "Ireland set to approve gay marriage in public vote". 10NEWS. Retrieved 12 April 2016.[dead link]
- "Letter from Church of Ireland clergy in support of TEC following Primates gathering". episcopalcafe.com. Episcopal Cafe. February 2016. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
- "House of Bishops in the Church of Ireland develop a pastoral letter regarding same gender marriage in the Republic". Episcopal Cafe. 2 January 2016. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- "Church News Ireland: Service of Thanksgiving for referendum decision" (PDF). 2 July 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016 – via churchnewsireland.org.
- News, Latest; Irel, Photos from the Church of; Cork, Diocese of; Cloyne; Ross (16 May 2015). "St Anne's, Shandon, Cork Will Host Service for IDAHOT Day". Latest News from the Church of Ireland Diocese of Cork, Cloyne and Ross. Archived from the original on 26 September 2021. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
- "Reform Ireland takes their bishops to task over their gay marriage pastoral letter | Anglican Ink 2016". www.anglican.ink. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- "Same-sex marriage: Church of Ireland defers report on 'elephant in the room' – BelfastTelegraph.co.uk". BelfastTelegraph.co.uk. Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- "Church of Ireland Gazette calls for blessings for same-sex marriages". newsletter.co.uk. Newsletter UK. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- "Other Churches supportive of LGBT Christians". changingattitudeireland.org. Changing Attitude Ireland. Archived from the original on 27 April 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
- "Church of Ireland challenged by report on homosexuality | Christian News on Christian Today". www.christiantoday.com. Archived from the original on 25 March 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- "Guide to the Conversation on Human Sexuality in the Context of Christian Belief" (PDF). ireland.anglican.org. General Synod of the Church of Ireland. 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- "Church of Ireland delegates defeat motion on public service for same-sex couples". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
- "Church of Ireland faces north-south divide over gay marriage stance – BelfastTelegraph.co.uk". BelfastTelegraph.co.uk. Archived from the original on 17 May 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
- "Cork bishop calls for same-sex marriages in Church of Ireland". 12 June 2017. Archived from the original on 23 June 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- Church of Ireland Notes, page 2, Irish Times, 10 January 2009.
- Barlett, Thomas (1993). "The Catholic Question in the Eighteenth Century". History Ireland. 1 (1).
- Church of Ireland. "Irish and Universal". Ireland.anglican.com. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
- Clarke, Aidan (1989). "Varieties of Uniformity: The First Century of the Church of Ireland". Studies in Church History. 25: 105–122. doi:10.1017/S0424208400008615.
- Condon, Mary (1964). "The Irish Church and the Reform Ministries". Journal of British Studies. 3 (2): 120–142. doi:10.1086/385484.
- Diamond, Ciaran (2009). "John Leslie; 1571-1671". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/16494. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Flanagan, Marie Therese (2005). Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí (ed.). High-kings with opposition, 1072–1166 in 'A New History of Ireland' Volume I. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-922665-8.
- Flaningam, John (1977). "The Occasional Conformity Controversy: Ideology and Party Politics, 1697-1711". Journal of British Studies. 17 (1): 38–62. doi:10.1086/385711. JSTOR 175691.
- Flechner, Roy (2019). Saint Patrick Retold: The Legend and History of Ireland's Patron Saint. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691184647.
- Harris, Tim (2006). Restoration: Charles II and His Kingdoms, 1660–1685. Penguin. ISBN 978-0140264654.
- Harris, Tim (2007). Revolution; the Great Crisis of the British Monarchy 1685–1720. Penguin. ISBN 978-0141016528.
- James, Francis Godwin (1979). "The Church of Ireland in the Early 18th Century". Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 48 (4).
- Higgins, Ian (2014). MacInnes, Alan; Graham, Lesley; German, Kieran (eds.). Jonathan Swift's Memoirs of a Jacobite in 'Living with Jacobitism, 1690–1788: The Three Kingdoms and Beyond'. Routledge. ISBN 978-1848934702.
- Llywelyn, Morgan (2020). 1014: Brian Boru & the Battle for Ireland. Courier Dover. ISBN 978-0486842004.
- Muldoon, Andrew (2000). "Recusants, Church-Papists, and "Comfortable" Missionaries: Assessing the Post-Reformation English Catholic Community". The Catholic Historical Review. 86 (2): 242–257. doi:10.1353/cat.2000.0188. JSTOR 25025711. S2CID 156408188.
- Murray, James (2009). Enforcing the English Reformation in Ireland: Clerical Resistance and Political Conflict in the Diocese of Dublin, 1534 – 1590. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521770385.
- O'Brian, Conor Cruise (2015). The Great Melody. Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0571325665.
- O’Mahony, Eion (2010). "Religious Practice and Values in Ireland A summary of European Values Study 4th wave data" (PDF). Council for Research & Development.
- Overton, J. H. (2018) . The Nonjurors: Their Lives, Principles, and Writings. Wentworth Press. ISBN 978-0530237336.
- Pearce, Edward (editor) (2005). The Diaries of Charles Greville. Pimlico. ISBN 978-1844134045.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Richardson, Joseph (2000). "Archbishop William King (1650-1729): 'Church Tory and State Whig'?". Eighteenth-Century Ireland / Iris an Dá Chultúr. 15: 54–76. JSTOR 30071442.
- Sheehy, Maurice P (1961). "The Bull 'Laudabiliter': A Problem in Medieval Diplomatique and History". Galway Archaeological and Historical Society. 29 (3/4): 45–70. JSTOR 25535386.
- Simms, J. G. (1970). "The Bishops' Banishment Act of 1697 (9 Will. III, C. 1)". Irish Historical Studies. 17 (66): 185–199. doi:10.1017/S0021121400111381. JSTOR 30005134.
- Wallace, Raymond Leslie (1949). The Articles of the Church of Ireland 1615 (unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Edinburgh.
- Walshe, Helen Coburn (November 1989). "Enforcing the Elizabethan Settlement: The Vicissitudes of Hugh Brady, Bishop of Meath, 1563–84". Irish Historical Studies. 26 (104): 352–376. doi:10.1017/S0021121400010117. JSTOR 30008693.
- Young, Francis (2020). "Making medieval Ireland English". History Today. 70 (3).
- Cross, F. L. (ed.) (1957) The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford: U. P.; pp. 700–701
- Fair, John D. "The Irish disestablishment conference of 1869." Journal of Ecclesiastical History 26.4 (1975): 379–394.
- MacCarthy, Robert Ancient and Modern: a short history of the Church of Ireland. Four Courts Press Ltd., 1995
- McCormack, Christopher F. "The Irish Church Disestablishment Act (1869) and the general synod of the Church of Ireland (1871): the art and structure of educational reform." History of Education 47.3 (2018): 303–320.
- McDowell, Robert Brendan. The Church of Ireland 1869–1969 (Routledge, 2017_.
- Neill, Stephen (1965) Anglicanism. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books
- The Church of Ireland: An illustrated history Booklink. 2013 ISBN 1906886563