The 1150s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1150, and ended on December 31, 1159.
- Battle of Tara: The Byzantines defeat the Serbian-Hungarian army under Grdeša, count (župan) of Travunija, near the snow-covered Tara River. The Serbs are overpowered, and Grand Prince Uroš II is forced to accept the peace agreement made by Emperor Manuel I (Komnenos). Uroš is succeeded by his brother Desa, who becomes co-ruler of the Principality of Serbia (until 1153).
- Spring – Joscelin II, count of Edessa, on his way to Antioch is separated from his escort and falls into the hands of some Turcoman free-booters. Nur al-Din, ruler (atabeg) of Aleppo, heard of Joscelin's capture and sends a squadron of cavalry to take him from his captors. Joscelin is led before a hostile crowd and publicly blinded. Nur al-Din puts him in prison in the Citadel of Aleppo.
- Battle of Aintab: A Crusader army led by King Baldwin III repels the attacks of Nur al-Din near Aintab. Baldwin safely evacuates the Christian residents of the County of Edessa, which is captured by the Zangids.
- The city of Ashkelon is fortified with 53 towers by order of the 17-year-old Caliph Al-Zafir, as it is the most strategic frontier fortress of the Fatimid Caliphate.
- February 8 – Battle of Flochberg: German forces under Henry VI defeat the army of the House of Welf at Bopfingen. At the same time, King Conrad III besieges Welf forces at Braunschweig in Saxony, but he lifts the siege when confronted by Henry the Lion.
- The University of Paris (known as the Sorbonne) is founded. The first doctorate degree is awarded in Paris.
- The city of Rinteln is founded on the northern bank of the Weser River in Lower Saxony (modern Germany).
- November 10 – Dryburgh Abbey located in the Scottish Borders is founded by Lord Hugh de Morville.
- Cubbie Roo's Castle is built on Wyre (Orkney Islands) and is first mentioned in the Orkneyinga Saga.
- Christchurch Priory located in Dorset is founded by Earl Baldwin de Redvers.
- The Irish Chronology (Chronicon Scotorum) is written (approximate date).
- King Suryavarman II dies after a reign of more than 40 years in which he has re-united his realm. During his reign he expands his territories into the Chao Phraya River valley and other regions in Khmer Empire.
- The 15-year-old King Inge I (the Hunchback) of Norway calls for a meeting at Bergen of all religious leaders in anticipation that the English cardinal Nicholas Breakspear will found a archbishopric at Trondheim.
- Peter Lombard, a French scholastic theologian, publishes the Four Books of Sentences, which becomes the standard textbook of theology at the medieval universities.
- The temple at Angkor Wat ("Capital of Temples") is completed in the Khmer Empire (modern Cambodia).
- September 7 – Geoffrey of Anjou dies, and is succeeded by his son Henry, aged 18.
- After the Battle of Ghazni, the city is burned by the Prince of Ghur.
- The first plague and fire insurance policy is issued in Iceland.
- Bolton Abbey is founded in North Yorkshire, England.
- Anping Bridge is completed in China's Fujian province. Its total length will not be exceeded until 1846.
- Confronted with internal strife, the commune of Bologna is the first Italian republic to turn to the rule of a podestà, Guido di Ranieri da Sasso (it ends in 1155).
- Spring – King Baldwin III and his mother, Queen Melisende, are called to intervene in a dispute between Baldwin's aunt Hodierna and her husband Raymond II, count of Tripoli. Hodierna decides to take a long holiday, and travels to Jerusalem, while Raymond escorts her out on the road southwards. On the way back to Tripoli, a group of Assassins stabs him to death at the southern gate of the city. The garrison rushes to arms and pours into the streets, slaying every Muslim in their way, but the Assassins manage to escape; the motive of their act is never known.
- Baldwin III demands more authority and blames Manasses, ruler of Ramla, for interfering with his legal succession as ruler of Jerusalem. He demands a second coronation from Patriarch Fulcher separated from Melisende. Fulcher refuses, and as a kind of self-coronation Baldwin parades through the city streets with laurel wreaths on his head. Before the High Court (Haute Cour) the decision is made to divide the kingdom into two districts.
- Baldwin III begins a civil war against Melisende and launches an invasion in the south. He captures the castle of Mirabel, which is defended by Manasses. Baldwin spares his life and is exiled, Nablus thereupon surrenders soon after. Melisende seeks refuge in the Tower of David with her younger son, the 16-year-old Amalric. Baldwin enters Jerusalem, he allows his mother to retain Nablus and the neighbourhood as her dower.
- Summer – Nur al-Din, Seljuk ruler (atabeg) of Aleppo, re-captures most of Crusader territory in the Orontes Valley – reducing the Principality of Antioch to little more than a narrow coastal strip along the Mediterranean. The County of Tripoli remains unchanged and Jerusalem remains a potential threat with ambitions to expand eastward, while also striving to dominate the Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt.
- February 15 – King Conrad III dies after a 14-year reign at Bamberg. He is succeeded by his 29-year-old nephew Frederick I (Barbarossa), duke of Swabia, who is crowned as King of the Germans at Aachen several days later, on March 9. Frederick becomes sole ruler of Germany and receives the royal insignia, despite the fact that Conrad has a 6-year-old son, Frederick IV, who becomes duke of Swabia.
- March 21 – King Louis VII repudiates his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine and has it annulled on grounds of misconduct and consanguinity – returning her lands and titles. Eleanor re-marries within 6 weeks Henry of Anjou, who had claimed the counties of Anjou and Maine, and the province of Touraine upon the death of his father Geoffrey Plantagenet (the Fair), the previous year. With the addition of Eleanor's lands, he now controls territory stretching unbroken, from Cherbourg to Bayonne.
- The town of Gorodets, located on the banks of the Volga River, is founded by Yuri Dolgorukiy, Grand Prince of Kiev.
- April 6 – King Stephen has his nobles swear fealty to his son Eustace, as the rightful heir of the English throne. Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, and other bishops refuse to crown Eustace favouring Henry of Anjou to claim the throne instead. Stephen confiscates their property and Theobald is forced into exile in Flanders.
- Stephen besieges Newbury Castle and holds the young William as a hostage to ensure that his father, John Marshal, keeps his promise to surrender the castle. When John refuses to comply, Stephen threatened to nave the young boy catapulted over the walls. After this, William remains a crown hostage for many months.
- The Almohad Caliphate conquers the Maghrib al-Awsat (modern Algeria). The city of Béjaïa becomes one of the main naval bases of the Almohads.
- Matlacohuatl becomes ruler of the city-state Azcapotzalco located in the Valley of Mexico (until 1222).
- Synod of Kells-Mellifont: The present diocesan system of Ireland is established (with later modifications), and the primacy of Armagh is recognized.
- The Archbishopric of Nidaros in the city of Nidaros (modern-day Trondheim) in Norway is established.
- Spring – Andronikos Komnenos, son of Isaac Komnenos, is imprisoned in the imperial palace for conspiring against his uncle, Emperor Manuel I (Komenenos) at Constantinople.
- August 19 – Siege of Ascalon: King Baldwin III of Jerusalem captures Ascalon, the last Fatimid fortress in Palestine. The citizens are allowed to leave in peace and return to Egypt.
- Raynald of Châtillon, a French nobleman, marries Constance of Antioch (after given permission by Baldwin III) and becomes Prince of Antioch.
- Spring – The 19-year-old Henry of Anjou lands with a Norman fleet (some 40 ships) on the south coast of England. He defeats King Stephen (a cousin of his mother, Queen Matilda) with a small army at Malmesbury. Henry travels north through the Midlands, while a temporary truce is accepted. Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester, announces his support for the cause. Hoping to dethrone Stephen and replace him with Matilda.
- May 24 – King David I dies after a 29-year reign at Carlisle Castle. He is succeeded by his grandson, the 12-year-old Malcolm IV (Virgo). Malcolm is the eldest son of Henry, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon, who is crowned as ruler of Scotland at Scone Priory on May 27. Because of his young age, Donnchad (or Duncan) becomes Malcolm's regent and royal adviser.
- August – Stephen assemble troops to renew the siege of Wallingford Castle in a final attempt to take the stronghold. Henry of Anjou marches south to relieve the siege, arriving with a small army of mercenaries. He places Stephen's besieging troops under siege themselves. Stephen agrees to make a truce and accepts Henry as heir to the English throne.
- November 6 – The Treaty of Wallingford: Henry of Anjou and Stephen ratifies the terms of a permanent peace under the direction of Archbishop Theobald of Bec. Ending the civil war (The Anarchy) – between England and Normandy after 18-years. The treaty grants the throne to Stephen for the duration of his life, but makes Henry the heir apparent.
- Confronted with important financial difficulty due to the expenses of the Spanish crusade, the Republic of Genoa has to sell a third of the city of Tortosa (which they had conquered in 1148 during an expedition against the Almoravids) to Ramon Berenguer IV, count of Barcelona.
- February 10 – Taira no Tadamori dies after a career in which he has used his military and diplomatic skills to subdue the pirates menacing commerce in the Seto Inland Sea. He expands trade with China and becomes the first samurai to serve Emperor Konoe as personal bodyguard. He is succeeded by his son Taira no Kiyomori, who assumes control of the Taira Clan. He establishes the first samurai-dominated government in Japan.
- King Roger II sends a Sicilian expedition under Admiral Philip of Mahdia to conquer Ifriqiya. With the support of Muslim troops, the Siculo-Normans suppress a rebellion on Djerba and invade the Kerkennah Islands.
- Estimation: Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Merv in the Seljuk Empire.
- July 8 – Pope Eugene III dies after a 8-year pontificate at Tivoli. He is succeeded by Anastasius IV as the 168th pope of the Catholic Church.
- Dhovemi, ruler of the Maldives, converts to Islam and adopts the Muslim title of Sultan Muhammad ibn Abdullah.
- April 18 – Nur al-Din, Seljuk ruler (atabeg) of Aleppo, encamps before Damascus and overthrows Mujir al-Din by force with support of the Jewish citizens, who open the eastern gate to the bulk of his army. Mujir flees to the citadel, but capitulates after only a few hours. He is offered his life and the Emirate of Homs. A few weeks later Mujir is suspected of plotting with old friends in Damascus and is exiled to Baghdad. Damascus is annexed to Zangid territory and all of Syria is unified under the authority of Nur al-Din, from Edessa in the north to the Hauran to the south.
- Nur al-Din establishes the Al-Nuri Hospital in Damascus. The hospital has outpatient consulting rooms, a conference room, prayer hall, vestibules and bathrooms.
- February 26 – King Roger II dies at Palermo after a 24-year reign. He is succeeded by his fourth son William I (the Bad) as ruler of Sicily. William appoints Maio of Bari, a man of low birth, to chancellor and his adviser. He pursues his father's policy of strengthening authority over the towns and the Italian nobles, who rally around his cousin Robert III, count of Loritello, in Apulia and Calabria.
- Autumn – King Frederick I (Barbarossa) leads a expedition into Italy for his imperial coronation. He wants to impose his will upon the towns and cities of Lombardy, a region long accustomed to interference from Germany. Frederick encounters stiff resistance to his authority, the Lombard nobles are unwilling to acknowledge his rule and the rights to raise taxes.
- The Almohad army conquers the last independent Muslim stronghold at Granada (modern Spain), after a six year siege.
- The Banate of Bosnia becomes an autonomous duchy as part of the Lands of the Hungarian Crown.
- Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, is first marked on the world map by Muhammad al-Idrisi.
- Normans conduct a series of raids in North Africa, including Annaba (modern Algeria) and the Nile Delta.
- October 25 – King Stephen dies after a short illness at Dover. He is succeeded by Henry of Anjou, the son of Queen Matilda.
- December 19 – The 21-year-old Henry II is crowned as sole ruler of England along with his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine.
- The Bull Ring, a commercial market centre, is founded by Peter de Bermingham at Birmingham.
Art and CultureEdit
- January 15 – Muhammad al-Idrisi, Arab geographer and cartographer, completes his atlas of the world, the Tabula Rogeriana, which will remain one of the most accurate maps until the Age of Discovery.
- December 3 – Pope Anastasius IV dies after a 17-month pontificate. He is succeeded by Adrian IV (the only English pope in history) as the 169th pope of the Catholic Church.
- Siege of Tortona: German forces capture the citadel of Tortona (after a two-month siege). The city is razed to the ground, including the graves.
- June 18 – King Frederick I (Barbarossa) is crowned as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Adrian IV at St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
- Arnold of Brescia is exiled by Adrian IV and forced to flee. He is arrested by imperial forces; hanged and his body burned at the stake in Rome.
- The city of Bari rebels against King William I (the Bad) of Sicily and recognizes the Byzantine emperor, Manuel I (Komnenos), as its overlord.
- The Virgin of Vladimir (or Our Lady of Vladimir) is taken by Grand Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky to Vladimir from Suzdal.
- Spring – King Henry II has the Palace of Westminster (which is badly damaged by Stephen's supporters during The Anarchy) repaired. Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, is given the task of repairing the buildings.
- Henry II subdues the English nobles who have become too powerful during the civil war. He takes Bridgnorth Castle and Scarborough Castle.
- Henry II grants the city of Bristol (Brycgstow) a Royal charter, and is divided between Gloucestershire and Somerset (until 1373).
- New Year's Day is changed from January 1 to March 25.
- August 22 – The 16-year-old Emperor Konoe dies after a 14-year reign. He is succeeded by his brother Go-Shirakawa as the 77th emperor of Japan.
- Jaisalmer Fort, located in the Indian state Rajasthan, is constructed by the Rajput ruler Rawal Jaisal (approximate date).
- A plan to conquer Ireland is approved by Adrian IV in a Papal Bull (a formal proclamation issued by the pope) called Laudabiliter. It gives Henry II lordship over Ireland, but the Irish kings resist to English rule.
- Summer – Robert of Chichester becomes bishop of Exeter (until 1160).
- Spring – Raynald of Châtillon, prince of Antioch, makes an alliance with Thoros II (the Great), ruler of Armenian Cilicia. He invades Cyprus and conducts a widespread plundering of the Byzantine island. The Crusaders and the Armenian forces march up and down the island robbing and pillaging every building, church and convent as well as shops and private houses. The crops are burnt; the herds are rounded up – together with all the population – and driven down to the coast. The massacre lasts about three weeks, on the rumor of a Byzantine fleet in the offing, Raynald gives the order for embarkation. The Crusader ships are loaded with booty, and every Cypriot is forced to ransom himself.
- January 20 – Freeholder Lalli slays the English missionary-bishop Henry with an axe, on the ice of Lake Köyliönjärvi in Finland (according to legend).
- February – Domenico Morosini, doge of Venice (House of Morosini), dies after a 8-year reign. He is succeeded by Vitale II Michiel as ruler of Venice.
- May 28 – King William I (the Bad) lands with a Sicilian expeditionary force in Apulia. He defeats the Byzantine army at Brindisi and recaptures Bari.
- June 9 – Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) marries Beatrice I, daughter of Reginald III, adding the County of Burgundy to the Holy Roman Empire.
- June 18 – Pope Adrian IV comes to terms, and signs the Treaty of Benevento. He recognises the suzerainty of William I as ruler of Sicily and Italy.
- September 17 – Frederick I makes the Margraviate of Austria a duchy and gives the Babenberg Dynasty special privileges (the Privilegium Minus).
- Yuri Dolgorukiy, Grand Prince of Kiev, founds and fortifies the town of Moscow and erects wooden Kremlin within the settlement (approximate date).
- December 25 – King Sverker I (the Elder) is murdered on his way to church. He is succeeded by his rival, Eric IX (the Holy), as ruler of Sweden.
- The independent city-state Sfax revolts against Norman occupation. Almohad forces conquer the city and massacre the Christian citizens.
- July 28 – The Hōgen rebellion, a dispute between Emperor Go-Shirakawa and his half-brother retired-Emperor Sutoku, erupts in Japan.
Art and ScienceEdit
- Mosan artists create the Stavelot Triptych, a masterpiece of Goldsmithing, as a reliquary to house purported pieces of the True Cross.
- January 12 – March 16 – Caliph Al-Muqtafi successfully defends Baghdad against the coalition forces of Sultan Muhammad of Hamadan, and Atabeg Qutb-adin of Mosul.
- Albert I of Brandenburg begins his ruthless program to pacify the Slavic region.
- June 11 – Albert I of Brandenburg, also called The Bear (Ger: Albrecht der Bär), becomes the founder of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, Germany and the first Margrave.
- August 12 - The 1157 Hama earthquake takes place after a year of foreshocks. Its name is taken from the city of Hama, in west-central Syria (then under Seljuk rule), where the most casualties are sustained.
- August 21 – Sancho III and Ferdinand II, the sons of King Alfonso VII of Castile, divide his kingdom between them upon his death.
- October 23 – Battle of Grathe Heath: A civil war in Denmark ends with the death of King Sweyn III. Valdemar I of Denmark becomes king of all Denmark, and restores and rebuilds the country.
- Henry II of England grants a charter to the merchants of Lincoln (approximate date).
- Battle of Ewloe: Henry II of England invades Wales, and is defeated by Owain Gwynedd.
- Autumn – Emperor Manuel I (Komnenos) sets out from Constantinople at the head of a expeditionary army. He marches to Cillicia; and while the main army follows the coast road eastwards – Manuel hurries ahead with a force of only 500 cavalry. He manages to surprise King Thoros II (the Great), who has participated in the attack on Cyprus (see 1156). Thoros flees into the mountains and Cilicia is occupied by the Byzantines.
- January 11 – Vladislav II becomes king of Bohemia. He is crowned by Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) with a diadem (called by the chroniclers a diadema or circulus). Vladislaus is also invested with Upper Lusatia, and accompanies Frederick to Milan to suppress the rebellion in Lombardy (Northern Italy).
- The Diet of Roncaglia is convoked by Frederick I. He mobilises an army of 100,000 men and leaves in June for a second Italian expedition – accompanied by Henry the Lion and his Saxon forces. He crosses the Alps and lays siege to Milan. German forces capture the city from the rebels after a short siege. However Milan soon rebels again, with Empress Beatrice taken captive and forced into parading on a donkey.
- Raymond of Fitero, Spanish monk and abbot, pledges to defend the fortress of Calatrava (guarding the roads to Córdoba and Toledo) from incoming Muslim raiders. It is the founding moment of the Order of Calatrava, the spearhead of the Iberian armies during the Reconquista.
- August 31 – King Sancho III (the Desired) dies after a 1-year reign. He is succeeded by his 2-year-old son Alfonso VIII (the Noble) as ruler of Castile. The noble houses of Lara and Castro claim the regency, as the boy's uncle, Ferdinand II (ruler of León and Galicia).
- Portuguese forces, led by King Afonso I (the Great), conquer Pamela, Alcácer do Sal and Sesimbra from the diminished Almoravids.
- Summer – King Henry II travels to France to meet King Louis VII and propose a marriage between his three-year-old son Henry and Louis' daughter Margaret (less than a year old). She is shipped to England, as the future wife and queen. The Vexin region is promised to Margaret as dowry and is put under the care of the Knights Templar, until her future husband is old enough to take control of it.
- The 12-year-old William Marshal is sent to the Château de Tancarville in Normandy to be brought up in the household of William the Tancarville, a cousin of William's mother. He begins his training as a knight, this includes also academic studies, practical lessons in chivalry and courtly life, and warfare and combat (using wooden swords and spears).
- Welsh forces under Ifor Bach (Ivor the Short) attack Cardiff Castle and kidnap William Fitz Robert, Norman lord of Glamorgan, along with his family.
- September 5 – Emperor Go-Shirakawa abdicates the throne after a 3-year reign. He is succeeded by his 15-year-old son Nijō as the 77th emperor of Japan. Go-Shirakawa retains power, and gives Kiyomori Taira a higher position to lead a samurai-dominated government.
- September 7 – Pope Alexander III succeeds Pope Adrian IV, as the 170th pope.
- The Heiji Rebellion breaks out in Japan.
- Tunis is reconquered from the Normans, by the Almohad caliphs.
- (Approximate date): Churchman Richard FitzNeal is appointed Lord High Treasurer in England, in charge of Henry II of England's Exchequer, an office he will hold for almost 40 years.
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- January 26 – Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Persian polymath (d. 1210)
- October 8 – Narapatisithu, ruler of the Pagan Kingdom (d. 1211)
- Agnes of Loon, German duchess and regent (d. 1191)
- Albert de Rethel, Flemish clergyman and priest (d. 1195)
- Alix of France, French countess and regent (d. 1197)
- André de Chauvigny, French nobleman (d. 1202)
- Azalaïs of Montferrat, Italian noblewoman (d. 1232)
- Baldwin V, count of Hainaut and Flanders (d. 1195)
- Geoffrey of Villehardouin, French knight (d. 1213)
- Gerald FitzMaurice, Norman nobleman (d. 1204)
- Gruffydd Vychan ap Iowerth, Welsh knight (d. 1221)
- Henry de Longchamp, English High Sheriff (d. 1212)
- Henryk Kietlicz, archbishop of Gniezno (d. 1219)
- Hermann Joseph, German priest and mystic (d. 1241)
- Honorius III, pope of the Catholic Church (d. 1227)
- Hugh II of Saint Omer, prince of Galilee (d. 1204)
- John Comyn, archbishop of Dublin (approximate date)
- John de Courcy (or Courci), Norman knight (d. 1219)
- Judah ben Samuel, German Jewish rabbi (d. 1217)
- Leo I (or Levon), king of Armenian Cilicia (d. 1219)
- Minamoto no Noriyori, Japanese general (d. 1193)
- Otto I, count of Guelders and Zutphen (d. 1207)
- Qutb al-Din Aibak, ruler of the Delhi Sultanate (d. 1210)
- Ramon I, Catalonian nobleman (approximate date)
- Robert IV, French nobleman and Grand Master (d. 1193)
- Rosamund Clifford, English noblewoman (d. 1176)
- Stephen Langton, English archbishop (d. 1228)
- Theodore Apsevdis, Byzantine painter (d. 1215)
- Umadevi, Indian queen and general (d. 1218)
- William de Braose, English nobleman (d. 1211)
- Wincenty Kadłubek, bishop of Kraków (d. 1223)
- Ye Shi, Chinese scholar and philosopher (d. 1223)
- April 3 – Igor Svyatoslavich, Russian prince (d. 1202)
- Unkei, Japanese sculptor (d. 1223)
- May 4 – Peter of Aragon, Spanish nobleman (d. 1164)
- May 10 – Gangjong, Korean ruler of Goryeo (d. 1213)
- David of Scotland, Scottish prince (d. 1219)
- Diego López II, Spanish nobleman (d. 1214)
- Geoffrey, illegitimate son of Henry II (d. 1212)
- Han Tuozhou, Chinese statesman (d. 1207)
- Imai Kanehira, Japanese general (d. 1184)
- James of Avesnes, French nobleman (d. 1191)
- Maria Komnene, Byzantine princess (d. 1182)
- Patrick I, Scottish nobleman (approximate date)
- Roger IV, duke of Apulia and Calabria (d. 1161)
- Roman Mstislavich, Kievan prince (d. 1205)
- Taira no Tomomori, Japanese nobleman (d. 1185)
- August 17 – William IX, count of Poitiers (d. 1156)
- Abu Mohammed Salih, Almohad Sufi leader (d. 1234)
- Aimery of Cyprus (or Amaury), king of Jerusalem (d. 1205)
- Alexios III (Angelos), Byzantine emperor (d. 1211)
- Cathal Crobhdearg Ua Conchobair, Irish king (d. 1224)
- Fujiwara no Kanefusa, Japanese nobleman (d. 1217)
- Harvey I of Léon, Breton nobleman and knight (d. 1203)
- Ibn Hammad, Hammadid historian and writer (d. 1230)
- Kamo no Chōmei, Japanese author and poet (d. 1216)
- Marco I Sanudo, duke of the Archipelago (d. 1227)
- Nerses of Lambron, Armenian archbishop (d. 1198)
- Richard de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford (d. 1217)
- Sibylla of Acerra, queen and regent of Sicily (d. 1205)
- Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick (d. 1204)
- William II (the Good), king of Sicily (d. 1189)
- November 2 – Constance I, queen of Sicily (d. 1198)
- November 11 – Sancho I, king of Portugal (d. 1211)
- Agnes of Austria, queen of Hungary (d. 1182)
- Benoît de Sainte-Maure, French poet (d. 1173)
- Gyeong Dae-seung, Korean military leader (d. 1183)
- Minamoto no Yoshinaka, Japanese general (d. 1184)
- Muzaffar al-Din Gökböri, Ayyubid general (d. 1233)
- Robert II, count of Dreux and Braine (d. 1218)
- Sohrevardi, Persian philosopher (d. 1191)
- Vsevolod III, Grand Prince of Kiev (d. 1212)
- February 28 – Henry the Young King, son of Henry II (d. 1183)
- May 17 – Jien, Japanese poet and historian (d. 1225)
- November 11 – Alfonso VIII, king of Castile (d. 1214)
- Benkei, Japanese warrior monk (Sōhei) (d. 1189)
- Bernard d'Armagnac, French nobleman (d. 1202)
- Fujiwara no Ariie, Japanese nobleman (d. 1216)
- Fujiwara no Yasuhira, Japanese nobleman (d. 1189)
- Geoffrey de Saye, English nobleman (d. 1230)
- Kamo no Chōmei, Japanese waka poet (d. 1216)
- Maud de Braose, English noblewoman (d. 1210)
- Ottokar I, duke of Bohemia (approximate date)
- Sicard of Cremona, Italian prelate (d. 1215)
- Taira no Tokuko, Japanese empress (d. 1214)
- January 6 – Matilda of England, daughter of Henry II (d. 1189)
- October 27 – Raymond VI, French nobleman (d. 1222)
- Abu Said al-Baji, Almohad Sufi scholar (d. 1231)
- Gaucelm Faidit, French troubadour (d. 1209)
- Hōjō Masako, Japanese noblewoman (d. 1225)
- Isaac II (Angelos), Byzantine emperor (d. 1204)
- Magnus V (Erlingsson), king of Norway (d. 1184)
- Robert of Auxerre, French chronicler (d. 1212)
- Sayf al-Din al-Amidi, Ayyubid jurist (d. 1233)
- September 8 – King Richard I of England (d. 1199)
- Alexander Neckham, English scholar, teacher, theologian and abbot of Cirencester Abbey (d. 1217)
- Leopold V of Austria, Duke of Austria from 1177 and Duke of Styria from 1192 until his death (d. 1194)
- Margaret of France, Queen of England and Hungary, Queen of England by marriage to Henry the Young King and queen of Hungary and Croatia by marriage to Béla III of Hungary (d. 1197)
- Tomoe Gozen, female Samurai warrior and military leader (d. 1247)
- August 6 – Al-Nasir li-Din Allah, Abbasid caliph (d. 1225)
- September 23 – Geoffrey II, duke of Brittany (d. 1186)
- Albert I (the Proud), margrave of Meissen (d. 1195)
- Baldwin of Bethune, French nobleman (d. 1212)
- Ermengol VIII (or Armengol), count of Urgell (d. 1208)
- Fujiwara no Ietaka, Japanese (waka) poet (d. 1237)
- Giordano Forzatè, Italian religious leader (d. 1248)
- Henry I, French nobleman and knight (d. 1190)
- Henry I (the Elder), German nobleman (d. 1223)
- Jinul (or Chinul), Korean Zen Master (d. 1210)
- Margaret of France, daughter of Louis VII (d. 1197)
- Philip of Dreux, bishop of Beauvais (d. 1217)
- Satō Tsugunobu, Japanese warrior (d. 1185)
- Taira no Shigehira, Japanese general (d. 1185)
- Theobald I, French nobleman and knight (d. 1214)
- Valdemar Knudsen, Danish bishop (d. 1236)
- Yvette of Huy, Belgian anchoress (d. 1228)
- January 9 – Xi Zong, Chinese emperor of the Jin Dynasty (b. 1119)
- March 20 – Simon of Worcester, bishop of Worcester
- April 8 – Gertrude of Babenberg, German duchess (b. 1118)
- August 27 – Guarinus of Sitten, French bishop (b. 1065)
- September 16 – Sibylla of Burgundy, queen of Sicily (b. 1126)
- November 12 – Hartbert van Bierum, bishop of Utrecht
- November 21 – García IV (the Restorer), king of Navarre
- December 16 – Raynald of Bar, French abbot
- Barisan of Ibelin (the Old), French nobleman
- Henry VI (Berengar), co-ruler of Germany
- Hervé de Bourg-Dieu, French biblical scholar
- Ibn Masal, Fatimid general, official and vizier
- Jabir ibn Aflah, Andalusian astronomer (b. 1100)
- Kjeld (or Ketil), Danish clergyman and saint
- Reinward, bishop of Meissen (approximate date)
- Renier de Huy, Flemish goldsmith and sculptor
- Robert de Sigello, English bishop and chancellor
- Suryavarman II, ruler of the Khmer Empire
- Teobaldo Roggeri, Italian shoemaker (b. 1100)
- William the Simple, French nobleman (b. 1085)
- January 13 – Abbot Suger, French statesman and historian (b. c. 1081)
- April 23 – Adeliza of Louvain, queen of Henry I of England (b. 1103)
- September 7 – Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou (b. 1113)
- Li Qingzhao, Chinese poet (b. 1084)
- January 8 – Conrad I, German nobleman (b. 1090)
- January 18 – Albero de Montreuil, German archbishop
- February 15 – Conrad III, king of Italy and Germany
- May 3 – Matilda of Boulogne, queen of England
- June 12 – Henry of Scotland, Scottish nobleman
- August 1 – Albrecht I, German bishop of Meissen
- September 13 – Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud, Seljuk sultan
- October 12 – Adolf III, count Berg and Hövel (b. 1080)
- October 14 – Ralph I (or Raoul), French nobleman
- October 24 – Jocelin of Soissons, French theologian
- November 13 – William of St. Barbe, Norman bishop
- Adelard of Bath, English philosopher (b. 1080)
- Gilbert FitzRichard de Clare, 1st Earl of Hertford
- Nicholas IV, patriarch of Constantinople (b. 1070)
- Raymond II (or Raimundus), count of Tripoli
- Robert of Selby, English governor and chancellor
- Theobald II (the Great), French nobleman (b. 1090)
- Theophanes Kerameus, Italian bishop (b. 1129)
- Thethmar (or Theodemar), German missionary
- Volodymyrko Volodarovych, Galician prince (b. 1104)
- January 28 – Pelagius of Oviedo, Spanish bishop
- February 10 – Taira no Tadamori, Japanese samurai (b. 1096)
- April 16 – Piotr Włostowic, Polish nobleman (b. 1080)
- May 22 – Atto of Pistoia, Portuguese bishop (b. 1070)
- May 24 – David I, king of Scotland (b. 1084)
- June 12 – Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick
- June 29 – Óláfr Guðrøðarson, king of the Isles
- July 8 – Eugene III, pope of the Catholic Church
- August 16 – Bernard de Tremelay, French Grand Master
- August 17 – Eustace IV, count of Boulogne (b. 1130)
- August 20 – Bernard of Clairvaux, French abbot (b. 1090)
- September 3 – Henry I, German archbishop (b. 1080)
- October 14 – Henry Murdac, English archbishop
- December 16 – Ranulf de Gernon, Norman nobleman (b. 1099)
- Al-Shahrastani, Persian scholar and historian (b. 1086)
- Anna Komnene, Byzantine princess and historian (b. 1083)
- Gampopa, Tibetan Buddhist monk and teacher (b. 1079)
- Shaykh Tabarsi, Persian Shia scholar and writer (b. 1073)
- Simon II de Senlis, 4th Earl of Huntingdon (b. 1098)
- Walter Espec, Norman nobleman and High Sheriff
- February 2 – Viacheslav I, Grand Prince of Kiev (b. 1083)
- February 20 – Wulfric of Haselbury, English miracle worker
- February 26 – Roger II, king of Sicily (b. 1095)
- March 8 – Stephen of Obazine, French priest (b. 1085)
- April 3 – Al-Adil ibn al-Sallar, Fatimid vizier
- June 8 – William of York, English archbishop
- June 9 – Geoffrey of Canterbury, English abbot
- July 20 – Bernard of Hildesheim, German bishop
- July 21 – Elizabeth of Hungary, Polish duchess
- September 4 – Gilbert de la Porrée, French theologian
- October 25 – Stephen, king of England (b. 1096)
- November 13 – Iziaslav II, Grand Prince of Kiev
- November 18 – Adelaide of Maurienne, French queen (b. 1092)
- December 3 – Anastasius IV, pope of the Catholic Church
- December 12 – Vicelinus, German bishop (b. 1086)
- Abu Mansur Isma'il Al-Zafir, Fatimid caliph (b. 1133)
- Donnchad I (or Duncan), Scottish nobleman (b. 1113)
- Ermengol IV (el de Castilla), count of Urgell (b. 1096)
- Faidiva of Toulouse, countess of Savoy (b. 1133)
- Hiyya al-Daudi, Andalusian rabbi and composer
- Honorius Augustodunensis, French theologian
- Jinadattasuri, Indian Jain poet and writer (b. 1075)
- Lawrence of Durham, English prelate and poet
- Lambert of Bauduen, bishop of Vence (b. 1084)
- Matilda of Anjou, duchess of Normandy (b. 1106)
- Zhang Jun, Chinese general and official (b. 1086)
- June 4 – Baldwin de Redvers, English nobleman
- June 10 – Sigurd II, king of Norway (b. 1133)
- June 11 – Kenkai, Japanese Buddhist monk (b. 1107)
- August 22 – Konoe, emperor of Japan (b. 1139)
- November 18 – Qin Hui, Chinese politician (b. 1090)
- Arnold of Brescia, Italian priest and rebel (b. 1090)
- Fujiwara no Akisuke, Japanese nobleman (b. 1090)
- Geoffrey of Monmouth, English historian (b. 1095)
- Li Qingzhao, Chinese poet and writer (b. 1084)
- Minamoto no Yoshikuni, Japanese samurai (b. 1082)
- William de Mohun, English nobleman (b. 1090)
- January 17 – André de Montbard, French nobleman
- January 20 – Henry, English bishop and missionary
- January 31 – Herman van Horne, bishop of Utrecht
- July 20 – Toba, Japanese emperor (b. 1103)
- August 4 – Otto IV, German nobleman (b. 1083)
- August 12 – Blanca of Navarre, queen of Castile
- November 20 – Henry I, German nobleman (b. 1115)
- December 2 – William IX, count of Poitiers (b. 1153)
- December 25
- Atsiz, Persian ruler of the Khwarazmian Empire
- Domenico Morosini, doge of Venice (House of Morosini)
- Fujiwara no Sadanobu, Japanese calligrapher (b. 1088)
- Fujiwara no Taishi, Japanese empress (b. 1095)
- Fujiwara no Yorinaga, Japanese statesman (b. 1120)
- Gilbert de Gant, English nobleman (b. 1126)
- Li Qingzhao, Chinese female poet (b. 1084)
- Mas'ud I, Seljuk ruler of the Sultanate of Rum
- Minamoto no Tameyoshi, Japanese general (b. 1096)
- Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair, Irish king (b. 1088)
- January 24 or January 25 – Agnes of Babenberg, Politically active High Duchess consort of Poland (b. 1111)
- May 8 – Ahmed Sanjar, Great Seljuk Sultan (b. 1084 or 1086)
- May 15 – Yury Dolgoruky, Russian prince (b. c. 1099)
- August 21 – King Alfonso VII of Castile (b. 1105)
- October 23 – King Sweyn III of Denmark (b.c. 1125) (in battle)
- date unknown – King Eystein II of Norway (b.c. 1125)
- April 26 – Martirius, archbishop of Esztergom
- July 19 – Wibald, German monk and abbot (b. 1098)
- July 27 – Geoffrey VI, count of Nantes (b. 1134)
- August 20 – Rögnvald Kali Kolsson, Earl of Orkney
- August 31 – Sancho III, king of Castile (b. 1134)
- September 22 – Otto I, German bishop (b. 1114)
- December 15 – Frederick II, German archbishop
- Abu Jafar ibn Atiyya, Almohad vizier and writer
- Anselm of Havelberg, German bishop (b. 1100)
- Barthélemy de Jur, French bishop (b. 1080)
- Oda of Brabant, Belgian prioress and saint
- Thorbjorn Thorsteinsson, Norwegian pirate
- May 30 – Wladislaus II, the Exile of Poland (b. 1105)
- August 29 – Bertha of Sulzbach, Byzantine Empress (b. 1110s)
- September 1 – Pope Adrian IV (b. c. 1100)
- October 11 – William of Blois, Count of Boulogne and Earl of Surrey (b. c. 1137)
- Joscelin II, Count of Edessa
- Joannes Cinnamus (1976). Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus, p. 87. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-52155-0.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 267. ISBN 978-0-241-29876-3.
- Smail, R. C. (1956). Crusading Warfare 1097–1193, p. 160. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 1-56619-769-4.
- Gore, Rick (January 2001). "Ancient Ashkelon". National Geographic.
- Knödler, Julia (2010). Germany: Narrative (1125–1250), p. 178. Clifford J. (ed). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, pp. 176–185. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Nobel, Keith Allan (1994). Changing Doctoral Degrees: An International Perspective. Society for Research into Higher Education. ISBN 0335192130.
- Joseph Rickaby (1908). Scholasticism. A. Constable. p. 23.
- Panton, James (2011). Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy. Lanham, MD and Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press. pp. 205–206. ISBN 9780810874978.
- France, John (2001) . Western Warfare in the Age of the Crusades 1000-1300. Warfare and History. London: Routledge. p. 47. ISBN 9781135365073.
- Dutton, Kathryn (2015-12-01). "Crusading and political culture under Geoffrey, count of Anjou and duke of Normandy, 1129–51". French History. 29 (4): 419–444. doi:10.1093/fh/crv014. ISSN 0269-1191.
- Bombaci, Alessio (1959). "Summary report on the Italian Archaeological Mission in Afghanistan. Introduction to the Excavations at Ghazni". East and West. 10 (1/2): 3–22. ISSN 0012-8376. JSTOR 29754076.
- Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Volume 2: F - O. Wesport, CT and London: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 392. ISBN 9780313335389.
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- "Iceland: 10 little-known facts". Daily Telegraph. 2009-08-18. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2019-07-04.
- "Books and Bookmen". Books and Bookmen. 21: ccxliv. 1975 – via Google Books.
- Walbran, John Richard (1851). A Guide to Ripon, Harrogate, Fountains Abbey, Bolton Priory, and Several Places of Interest in Their Vicinity. Ripon and London: W. Harrison. pp. 113–114.
1151 Bolton Abbey.
- F.R.Hist.S., George R. Potter M. A. Ph d F. S. A. (2009-12-15). "A note on the Devonshire papers at Ghatsworth House, Derbyshire". Journal of the Society of Archivists. 4 (2): 124–129. doi:10.1080/00379817009513947.
- Farrer, William; Clay, Charles Travis (2013). Early Yorkshire Charters: Volume 7, The Honour of Skipton. Cambridge Library Collection. Volume 7: The Honour of Skipton. Cambridge, UK and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. xi. ISBN 9781108058308.
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- Chen, Wai-Fah; Duan, Lian (2014). Handbook of International Bridge Engineering. Boca Raton, London and New York: CRC Press. p. 915. ISBN 9781439810309.
- Schottenhammer, Angela (2001). The Emporium of the World: Maritime Quanzhou, 1000-1400. Leiden, Boston, Köln: BRILL. pp. 36–37. ISBN 9789004117730.
- Deng, Yinke (2011). Ancient Chinese Inventions. Cambridge, UK and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 149. ISBN 9780521186926.
- Scott, Tom (2012). The City-State in Europe, 1000-1600: Hinterland, Territory, Region. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 41. ISBN 9780199274604.
- Born, Lester K. (November 1927). "What is the Podestà?". American Political Science Review. 21 (4): 863–871. doi:10.2307/1947600. ISSN 1537-5943. JSTOR 1947600.
The first institution of the office of podestà was at Bologna in 1151
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 271. ISBN 978-0-241-29876-3.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusaders. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, pp. 272–273. ISBN 978-0-241-29876-3.
- David Nicolle (2011). Osprey - Command 12: Saladin, p. 6. ISBN 978-1-84908-317-1.
- King John by Warren. Published by the University of California Press in 1961. p. 21
- Amstrong, Catherine. "John fitz Gilbert; the Marshal". Castles of Wales. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
- Picard, Christophe (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
- Bradbury, Jim (2009). Stephen and Matilda: The Civil War of 1139–53, p. 180. Stroud, UK: The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7509-3793-1.
- Duncan, A.A.M. (2002). The Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and Independence, p. 71. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. ISBN 0-7486-1626-8.
- Bradbury, Jim (2009). Stephen and Matilda: The Civil War of 1139–53, p. 183. Stroud, UK: The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7509-3793-1.
- Warren, W. L. (1961). King John. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 21.
- Williams, John B. (1997). "The making of a crusade: the Genoese anti-Muslim attacks in Spain 1146–1148". Journal of Medieval History. 23 (1): 29–53. doi:10.1016/s0304-4181(96)00022-x.
- Abulafia, David (1985). The Norman kingdom of Africa and the Norman expeditions to Majorca and the Muslim Mediterranean. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0-85115-416-9.
- Geography at about.com
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of the Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 278. ISBN 978-0-241-29876-3.
- "Al-Nuri hospital, in Damascus 1154". Archived from the original on November 7, 2011. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
- Andrew Roberts (2008). Great Commanders of the Medieval World (454–1582), p. 130. ISBN 978-0-85738-589-5.
- Gilbert Meynier (2010). L'Algérie cæur du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658–1518). Paris: La Dïcouverte; p. 88.
- Gilbert Meynier (2010). L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658–1518). Paris: La Découverte; p. 71.
- Abels, Richard Philip; Bernard S. Bachrach (2001). The Normans and their adversaries at war. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer. p. 100. ISBN 0-85115-847-1.
- White, Graeme J. (2000). Restoration and Reform, 1153–1165: Recovery From Civil War in England, p. 5. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-55459-6.
- Matthew, Donald (1992). The Norman kingdom of Sicily. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 228. ISBN 0-521-26911-3.
- Kleinhenz, Christopher (2010). Medieval Italy: an encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. p. 95. ISBN 0-415-93930-5.
- Catholic Encyclopedia, General Chronology (Beginning of the Year).
- Ghazarian, Jacob G. (2000). The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1393. Routledge Curzon (Taylor & Francis Group), 2000, Abingdon. ISBN 0-7007-1418-9.
- Runciman, Steven (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 283. ISBN 978-0-241-29876-3.
- Kleinhenz, Christopher (2010). Medieval Italy: an encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-415-93930-0.
- Bresc, Henri (2003). "La Sicile et l'espace libyen au Moyen Age" (PDF). Retrieved 17 January 2012. Cite journal requires
- Syed, Muzaffar Husain; Akhtar, Syed Saud; Usmani, B. D. (2011). Concise History of Islam. New Delhi: Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 56. ISBN 9789382573470.
- Loud, Graham A.; Staub, Martial (2017). The Making of Medieval History. Suffolk and Rochester, NY: Boydell & Brewer. p. 168. ISBN 9781903153703.
- Partenheimer, Luiz (2017). "A Success Story: Brandenburg in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries". In Loud, Graham A.; Schenk, Jochen (eds.). The Origins of the German Principalities, 1100-1350: Essays by German Historians. London and New York: Taylor & Francis. pp. 298–301. ISBN 9781317022008.
- Ambraseys, Nicholas N. (2004). "The 12th century seismic paroxysm in the Middle East: a historical perspective" (PDF). Annals of Geophysics. Istituto Nazionale Geofisica e Vulcanologia. 47 (2–3): 733, 738, 745, 750.
- Reilly, Bernard F. (1998). The Kingdom of León-Castilla Under King Alfonso VII, 1126-1157. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 136. ISBN 9780812234527.
- Kohn, George C. (2007) . Dictionary of Wars. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 154. ISBN 9781438129167.
- Holt, Richard (2000). "Society and Population 600 - 1300". In Palliser, D. M.; Clark, Peter; Daunton, Martin J. (eds.). The Cambridge Urban History of Britain. Volume: 600 - 1540. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 88. ISBN 9780521444613.
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- Venning, Timothy (2013). The Kings & Queens of Wales. Stroud, UK: Amberley Publishing Limited. ISBN 9781445615776.
- Runciman, Steven (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 286. ISBN 978-0-241-29876-3.
- Comyn, Robert (1851). History of the Western Empire, from its Restoration by Charlemagne to the Accession of Charles V, p. 236–38.
- Estow, Clara (1982). "The Economic Development of the Order of Calatrava, 1158–1366". Speculum. 57 (2): 267–291. doi:10.2307/2847457.
- Picard, Christophe (2000). Le Portugal musulman (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. L'Occident d'al-Andalus sous domination islamique. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. p. 110. ISBN 2-7068-1398-9.
- King John by Warren. Published by University of California Press in 1961. p. 27.
- Barlow, Frank (April 1936). "The English, Norman, and French Councils Called to Deal with the Papal Schism of 1159". The English Historical Review. 51 (202): 264–268. doi:10.1093/ehr/LI.CCII.264. ISSN 0013-8266. JSTOR 553521.
In September 1159 Pope Adrian IV died, and a double election was made to the Papacy. The imperialist faction chose Octavian, cardinal-priest of St. Cecilia, who took the title of Victor IV, and the church party Roland, the chancellor, who became known as Alexander III.
- Dolan, Terence (2002) . "Chapter 8: Writing in Ireland". In Wallace, David (ed.). The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 208. ISBN 9780521890465.
- Barnum, Samuel Weed (1876). Romanism as it is: An Exposition of the Roman Catholic System, for the Use of the American People Embracing a Full Account of Its Origin and Development at Rome and from Rome, Its Distinctive Features in Theory and Practice, Its Characteristic Tendencies and Aims, Its Statistical and Moral Position, and Its Special Relations to American Institutions and Liberties; the Whole Drawn from Official and Authentic Sources, and Enriched with Numerous Illustrations, Documentary, Historical, Descriptive, Anecdotical and Pictorial: Together with a Full and Complete Index, and an Appendix of Matters from 1871 to 1876. Hartford, CT: Connecticut Publishing Company. p. 11.
- Febbraro, Flavio; Shwetje, Burkhard (2010). How To Read World History in Art: From the Code of Hammurabit to September 11. New York: Abrams Books. p. 100. ISBN 9780810996830.
- Matsunami, Yoshihiro (1979). "Conflict within the Development of Buddhism". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 6 (1/2): 329–345. doi:10.18874/jjrs.6.1-2.1979.329-345. ISSN 0304-1042. JSTOR 30233204.
Wars, beginning with the Hogen rebellion of 1156 and the Heiji rebellion of 1159, occurred in rapid succession, bringing confusion and chaos to the people.
- Selinger, Vyjayanthi R. (2013). "Chapter 1: Genpei Jōsuiki and the Historical Narration of the Genpei War". Authorizing the Shogunate: Ritual and Material Symbolism in the Literary Construction of Warrior Order. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 1. ISBN 9789004255333.
- Abels, Richard Philip; Bachrach, Bernard S. (2001). The Normans and Their Adversaries at War: Essays in Memory of C. Warren Hollister. Woodbridge, UK, Rochester, NY: Boydell & Brewer. p. 99. ISBN 9780851158471.
- Perkins, Kenneth J. (2016). Historical Dictionary of Tunisia (Third ed.). Lanham, MA, Boulder, CO, New York, London: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 197. ISBN 9781442273184.
- Jacobs, Daniel; Morris, Peter (2001). The Rough Guide to Tunisia. London and New York: Rough Guides. p. 432. ISBN 9781858287485.
- Tout, Thomas Frederick (1920). Chapters in the Administrative History of Mediaeval England: The Wardrobe, the Chamber and the Small Seals. Volume 1. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press. p. 88.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Abbey, Chatteris (1999). The Cartulary of Chatteris Abbey. Woodbridge, UK and Rochester, NY: Boydell Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780851157504.
- Karn, Nicholas (2007). "Nigel, bishop of Ely, and the restoration of the exchequer after the 'anarchy' of King Stephen's reign*". Historical Research. 80 (209): 299–314. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.2006.00392.x. ISSN 1468-2281.
The author of the Liber Eliensis indicates that Richard was appointed in 1159, during the preparations for the Toulouse campaign
- Taruskin, Richard (2016) . Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions, Volume One: A Biography of the Works Through Mavra. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 90. ISBN 9780520293489.
- Romanova, Anna; Yakushenkova, Olesia (August 2012). Ching Chan, Selina (ed.). "Comparative Analysis of the Image of the Stranger in Chinese and Russian Discourse". Proceedings of the 7th Annual Conference of the Asian Studies Association. Hong Kong Shue Yan University - The Contemporary China Research Center: 1160. ISBN 978-988-18445-0-7.
An example of Igor Svyatoslavich the Brave’s life (1151-1202) is a good example of such types of relations with some nomadic tribes that lived close to the borders of Russian Kingdom.
- Vanina, Eugenia (2012). Medieval Indian Mindscapes: Space, Time, Society, Man. Delhi, India: Primus Books. p. 69. ISBN 9789380607191.
- Gheorghe, Alexandra (2012). "Natsume Sōseki's Yume Jūya ("ten Nights of Dream") and the Anarchetype – a Different Approach". Interstudia (Revista Centrului Interdisciplinar de Studiu al Formelor Discursive Contemporane Interstud) (11/1): 122–130. ISSN 2065-3204.
the narrator's unexpected meeting with the ancient wood carver, Unkei (1151 – 1223), famous for his sculptures from the temple Tōdai in Nara
- Wispelwey, Berend (2013). Japanese Biographical Index. Munich, Germany: Walter de Gruyter. p. 983. ISBN 9783110947984.
- Magill, Frank N. (1998). The Middle Ages: Dictionary of World Biography. London and New York: Routledge. p. 924. ISBN 9781136593130.
- Howlett, Richard (2012). Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II, and Richard I. Volume 2. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. xlii. ISBN 9781108052276.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Magill, Frank N. (2012) . Dictionary of World Biography. Volume 2: The Middle Ages. London and New York: Routledge. p. 663. ISBN 9781136593130.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Loud, G. A. (2010). The Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa: The History of the Expedition of the Emperor Frederick and Related Texts. Farnham and Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 35. ISBN 9781472413963.
- Huffman Jr., Domer J. (2016). Direct Ancestors of Domer J. Huffman, Jr: & D.J.'s Odds & Ends. Pittsburgh, PA: Dorrance Publishing. p. 295. ISBN 9781480926899.
- Carter, Steven D. (2014). The Columbia Anthology of Japanese Essays: Zuihitsu from the Tenth to the Twenty-First Century. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 162. ISBN 9780231537551.
- Henshall, K. (2012) . A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower. London and New York: Springer. p. 32. ISBN 9780230369184.
- Miyawaki–okada, Junko (1 January 2006). "The Japanese Origin of the Chinggis Khan Legends". Inner Asia. 8 (1): 123–34. doi:10.1163/146481706793646819. ISSN 2210-5018.
Minamoto no Yoshitsune, or Gen Gikei as his name is in Sino-Japanese pronunciation, was born in 1159 as a half brother of Minamoto no Yoritomo
- Crosby, Sumner McKnight; Hayward, Jane; Little, Charles T.; Wixom, William D. (1981). The Royal Abbey of Saint-Denis in the Time of Abbot Suger (1122-1151). New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 15. ISBN 9780870992612.
- Grant, Lindy; Bates, David (1998). Abbot Suger of St-Denis: Church and State in Early Twelfth-Century France. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 286–287. ISBN 9781317899693.
- Inglis, Erik (2015-09-01). "Remembering and Forgetting Suger at Saint-Denis, 1151–1534: An Abbot's Reputation between Memory and History". Gesta. 54 (2): 219–243. doi:10.1086/681955. ISSN 0016-920X. S2CID 163497330.
- Phillips, Lawrence Barnett (1871). The Dictionary of Biographical Reference: Containing One Hundred Thousand Names, Together with a Classed Index of the Biographical Literature of Europe and America. London: S. Low, Son, & Marston. pp. 11.
1151 Adeliza of Louvain.
- Dalton, Paul (2007). "The Date of Geoffrey Gaimar's "Estoire Des Engleis," the Connections of His Patrons, and the Politics of Stephen's Reign". The Chaucer Review. 42 (1): 23–47. doi:10.1353/cr.2007.0020. ISSN 0009-2002. JSTOR 25094383.
A terminus ante quern of 1151 might appear at first sight to be supported by references to Adeliza of Louvain, who died in 1151
- Panton, James (2011). Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy. Lanham, MD and Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press. p. 18. ISBN 9780810874978.
- Teunis, H. B. (2006). The Appeal to the Original Status: Social Justice in Anjou in the Eleventh Century. Hilversum, Netherlands: Uitgeverij Verloren. p. 128. ISBN 9789065509048.
- Duffus Hardy, Thomas (1865). Rerum Britannicarum Medii Aevi Scriptores: Or Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland During the Middle Ages. Volume II: From A.D. 1066 to A.D. 1200. London: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts. p. 245.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Keefe, Thomas K. (1974). "Geoffrey Plantagenet's Will and the Angevin Succession*". Albion. 6 (3): 266–274. doi:10.2307/4048247. ISSN 0095-1390. JSTOR 4048247.
Count Geoffrey Plantagenet's sudden death in September 1151 came at a most inopportune time for his eighteen-year-old son, Henry.
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1151 Li Qingzhao.
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Within the decade of his birth Henry’s father died, and Henry’s elder half-brother Władysław ii Wygnaniec (the exile [1105-1159]) ascended the Polish throne.
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About the end of the year 1159 the Empress Irene, born Bertha of Sulzbach, had died leaving only a daughter behind her.
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In 1159 William "Longsword", count of Boulogne, earl of Warenne by right of his wife, the son of King Stephen of England and his wife Matilda of Boulogne, died without issue.
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