Gaziantep (Turkish pronunciation: [ɡaːˈziantep]), historically and still informally called Aintab or Antep (pronounced [anˈtep]), is a major city and capital of the Gaziantep Province, in the westernmost part of Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia Region and partially in the Mediterranean Region, approximately 185 km (115 mi) east of Adana and 97 km (60 mi) north of Aleppo, Syria. It is thought to be located on the site of ancient Antiochia ad Taurum, and is near ancient Zeugma.
|• Mayor||Fatma Şahin (AKP)|
|• Metropolitan municipality||6,819 km2 (2,633 sq mi)|
|• Urban||2,960 km2 (1,140 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,250 km2 (870 sq mi)|
|• Metropolitan municipality||2,130,432|
|• Density||310/km2 (810/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||610/km2 (1,600/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||790/km2 (2,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (TRT)|
|Area code||342 & 343|
As of 2021 census, the Metropolitan Province was home to 2,130,432 inhabitants, of whom 1,775,904 lived in the metropolitan area made of two (out of three) urban districts of Şahinbey and Şehitkamil, as Oğuzeli is not conurbated. It is the sixth-most populous city in Turkey.
Due to the city's contact with many ethnic groups and cultures throughout its history, the name of the city has many variants and alternatives, such as:
- Hantab, Hamtab, or Hatab as known by the Crusaders.
- Antab and its variants in vulgar Turkish and Armenian since 17th century the latest,
- Aīntāb (عين تاب) in Ottoman Turkish,
- Gazi Ayıntap in official Turkish after February 1921, when the Turkish parliament honored the city as غازى عينتاب Ghazi Aīntāb to commemorate its resistance to the French Siege of Aintab during the Franco-Turkish War,
- Gaziantep in official Turkish after 1928,
- 'Aīntāb (عينتاب) in Arabic,
- Êntab or Dîlok in Kurdish,
- Aïntab or Verdun turc in French.
The several theories for the origin of the current name include:
- Aïntap may be derived from khantap, meaning "king's land" in the Hittite language.
- Aïn, an Arabic and Aramaic word meaning "spring", and tab as a word of praise.
- Antep could be a corruption of the Arabic 'aīn ṭayyib meaning "good spring". However, the Arabic name for the city is spelled with t (ت), not ṭ (ط).
- Ayin dab or Ayin debo in Aramaic, meaning "spring of the wolf"
Early Bronze AgeEdit
Traces of settlement go back to the fourth millennium BC.
In the center of the city stands the Gaziantep fortress and the citadel, which were restored by the Byzantines in the sixth century.
Although it was controlled by the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia only between 1155–1157 and 1204–1206, for most of the last two millennia, Gaziantep hosted a large Armenian community. Armenians played a significant role in the city's history, culture, welfare, and prosperity. These communities no longer exist in the city due to the Hamidian massacres in 1895 and the Armenian genocide in 1915.
Gaziantep served a significant trade route within the Ottoman Empire. Armenians were active in manufacturing, agriculture production, and most notably, trade, and became the wealthiest ethnic group in the city, until their wealth was confiscated during the Armenian genocide.
Following the Muslim conquest of the Levant, the city passed to the Umayyads in 661 AD and the Abbasids in 750. It was ravaged several times during the Arab–Byzantine wars. After the disintegration of the Abbasid dynasty, the city was ruled successively by the Tulunids, the Ikhshidids, and the Hamdanids. In 962, it was recaptured by the Byzantines. The Anatolian Seljuks took Aintab in 1067. They gave way to the Syrian Seljuks in 1086. Tutush I appointed Thoros of Edessa as governor of the region.
It reverted to the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in 1150, was controlled by the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia between 1155–1157 and 1204–1206 and captured by the Zengids in 1172 and the Ayyubids in 1181. It was retaken by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in 1218. It was ruled by the Ilkhanate between 1260 and 1261, 1271–1272, 1280–1281 and 1299–1317 and by the Mamluks between 1261 and 1271, 1272–1280, 1281–1299, 1317–1341, 1353–1378, 1381–1389 and 1395–1516. It was also governed by the Dulkadirids, which was a Turkish vassal state of the Mamluks.
The Ottoman Empire captured Gaziantep after the Battle of Marj Dabiq in 1516, under the reign of Sultan Selim I. In the Ottoman period, Aintab was a sanjak centered initially in the Dulkadir Eyalet (1516–1818), and later in the Aleppo vilayet (1908–1918). It was also a kaza in the Aleppo vilayet (1818–1908). The city established itself as a centre for commerce due to its location straddling trade routes.
By the end of the 19th century, Aintab had a population of about 45,000, two-thirds of whom were Muslim—largely Turkish, but also partially Arab. A large community of Christians lived in the Armenian community. In the 19th century, considerable American Protestant Christian missionary activity occurred in Aintab. In particular, Central Turkey College was founded in 1874 by the American Mission Board and largely served the Armenian community. The Armenians were systemically slaughtered during the Hamidian massacres in 1895 and later the Armenian genocide in 1915. Consequently, the Central Turkey College was transferred to Aleppo in 1916.
After the First World War and Armistice of Mudros, Gaziantep was occupied by United Kingdom on 17 December 1918, and it was transferred to France on 5 November 1919. French Armenian Legion was also involved in occupation. In April 1920 irregular Turkish troops known as Kuva-yi Milliye sieged the city, but the 10 month long battle resulted in French victory. Around 6,000 Turkish civilians were murdered in progress. On 25 December 1921, Treaty of Ankara was signed and as a result French evacuated the city.
The French made the last attempt to revive the Armenian community in the city during the Siege of Aintab, where the Armenians who fled the genocide were promised their homes back in their native lands. However, on 25 December 1921, the Treaty of Ankara was signed, and as a result, the French evacuated the city.
According to Ümit Kurt, born in modern-day Gaziantep and an academic at Harvard's Center for Middle East Studies, "The famous battle of Aintab against the French … seems to have been as much the organized struggle of a group of genocide profiteers seeking to hold onto their loot as it was a fight against an occupying force. The resistance … sought to make it impossible for the Armenian repatriates to remain in their native towns, terrorizing them [again] to make them flee. In short, not only did the local … landowners, industrialists, and civil-military bureaucratic elites lead to the resistance movement, but they also financed it to cleanse Aintab of Armenians." The same Turkish families who made their wealth through the expropriation of Armenians in 1915 and 1921/1922 continued to dominate the city's politics through the one-party period of the Republic of Turkey.
In 2013, Turkey, a member state of NATO, requested deployment of MIM-104 Patriot missiles to Gaziantep to be able to respond faster in a case of military operation against Turkish soil in the Syrian Civil War, which was accepted.
|Mayors of Gaziantep|
|Mayor||Years of service|
Gaziantep is famous for its regional specialities: Copperware and "Yemeni" sandals, specific to the region, are two examples. The city is an economic center for Southeastern and Eastern Turkey. The number of large industrial businesses established in Gaziantep comprise four percent of Turkish industry in general, while small industries comprise six percent. Also, Gaziantep has the largest organized industrial area in Turkey and holds first position in exports and imports. The city is centre of the Green olive oil-based Nizip Soap industry.
Traditionally, commerce in Gaziantep was centre in covered markets known as 'Bedesten' or 'Hans', the best known of which are the Zincirli Bedesten, Hüseyin Pasha Bedesten and Kemikli Bedesten.
Gaziantep also has a developing tourist industry. Development around the base of the castle upgrades the beauty and accessibility to the castle and to the surrounding copper workshops. New restaurants and tourist-friendly businesses are moving into the area. In comparison with some other regions of Turkey, tourists are still a novelty in Gaziantep and the locals make them very welcome. Many students studying the English language are willing to be guides for tourists.
Gaziantep is one of the leading producers of machined carpets in the world. It exported approximately US$700 million of machine-made carpets in 2006. There are over 100 carpet facilities in the Gaziantep Organized Industrial Zone.
Gaziantep is the center of pistachio cultivation in Turkey, producing 60,000 metric tons (59,000 long tons; 66,000 short tons) in 2007, and lends its name to the Turkish word for pistachio, Antep fıstığı, meaning "Antep nut".
Gaziantep is the main center for pistachio processing in Turkey, with some 80% of the country's pistachio processing (such as shelling, packaging, exporting, and storage) being done in the city. "Antep fıstığı" is a protected geographical indication in Turkey; it was registered under this status in 2000.
Ties between Turkey and Syria have severely deteriorated since the beginning of the Syrian civil war in 2011.
In early 14th century, Arab geographer Dimashki noted that the people of Aintab were Turkomans. Aintab continued to be Turkish or Turkoman majority through 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Armenians inhabited Aintab from at least 10th century until the Armenian genocide. Having abandoned Armenian in favor of Turkish as early as the 16th century, the Armenians of Aintab predominantly spoke Turkish, while the usage of Armenian increased after 1850. The city also housed a smaller Jewish minority predominantly of Sephardic origin. The Jewish population quickly decreased in mid-20th century, reaching zero people by 1980s. Unlike most Southeastern Anatolian cities, the city of Gaziantep didn't have a significant Kurdish minority until the 20th century, when it saw an increase in its Kurdish population through economically-motivated migration from Turkish Kurdistan. Up until the late 2010s, the Kurdish population increased to a quarter of the city and the province with 400 thousand to 450 thousand Kurds. In late Ottoman era, the city included a few Europeans and Americans. Aintab also had a sizable Uzbek minority dating back to the Ottoman rule.
|Mother tongue composition of the city proper of Gaziantep in 1927 according to Turkish census|
Places of interestEdit
Museums in GaziantepEdit
The Gaziantep Museum of Archaeology has collections of ceramic pieces from the Neolithic Age; various objects, figures and seals from the Chalcolithic and Bronze Ages; stone and bronze objects, jewellery, ceramics, coins, glass objects, mosaics and statues from the Hittite, Urartu, Greek Persian, Roman, Commagene, and Byzantine periods.
The Hasan Süzer Ethnography Museum, a restored late-Ottoman stone building, has the old life style decoration and collections of various weapons, documents, instruments used in the defense of the city as well as the photographs of local resistance heroes. It was originally built in 1906 as the home of Garouj Karamanoukian.
Yesemek Quarry and Sculpture Workshop is an open-air museum located in the village known by the same name, 30 km (19 mi) south of the town of Islahiye. It is the largest open-air sculpture workshop in the Near East and the ruins in the area date back to the Hittites.
The Gaziantep Defence Museum: Before you enter the Panorama Museum located within the Gaziantep Castle, you encounter the statues of three local heroes Molla Mehmet Karayılan, Şehit Mehmet Kâmil and Şahin Bey at the entrance. As you enter the museum, you hear the echoes: "I am from Antep. I am a hawk (Şahin)." The Gaziantep War Museum, in a historic Antep house (also known as the Nakıpoğlu House) is dedicated to the memory of the 6,317 who died defending the city, becoming symbols of Turkey's national unity and resolve for maintaining independence. The story of how the Battle of Antep is narrated with audio devices and chronological panels.
Gaziantep Mevlevi Lodge Foundation Museum The dervish lodge is part of the mosque's külliye (Islamic-Ottoman social complex centered around a mosque). It was built in the 17th century. The Mevlevi Lodge Monastery is entered via a courtyard which opens off the courtyard of the mosque.
Emine Göğüş Cuisine Museum Gaziantep is known for its cuisine and food culture. A historical stone house built in 1904 has been restored and turned into the Emine Göğüş Cuisine Museum. The museum opened as part of the celebrations for the 87th anniversary of Gaziantep's liberation from French occupation.
Gaziantep Historical PlacesEdit
Zeugma is an ancient city which was established at the shallowest passable part of the river Euphrates, within the boundaries of the present-day Belkıs village in Gaziantep Province. Due to the strategic character of the region in terms of military and commerce since antiquity (Zeugma was the headquarters of an important Roman legion, the Legio IV Scythica, near the border with Parthia) the city has maintained its importance for centuries, also during the Byzantine period.
Gaziantep Castle, also known as the Kale, located in the centre of the city displays the historic past and architectural style of the city. Although the history of castle is incomplete, as a result of the excavations conducted there, Bronze Age settlement layers are thought to exist under the section existing on the surface of the soil.
Liberation Mosque, the former Armenian Cathedral of the Holy Mother of God (Surp Asdvadzadzin), was converted into a mosque after the liberation of the city from the occupying French forces following the Franco-Turkish War (1918–1921). The French forces which occupied the city between 1918 and 1921 included the French Armenian Legion.
Boyacı Mosque, a historic mosque in the Şahinbey district, was built by Kadı Kemalettin in 1211 and completed in 1357. It has one of the world's oldest wooden minbars which is elaborately adorned with Koranic verses, stars and geometric patterns. Its minaret is considered one of the symbols of the city.
Şirvani Mosque (Şirvani Mehmet Efendi Mosque), also called İki Şerefeli Cami, is one of the oldest mosques of Gaziantep, located in the Seferpaşa district. It was built by Şirvani Mehmet Efendi.
Ömeriye Mosque, a mosque in the Düğmeci district. Tradition states that it was first built during the period of the Islamic Caliphate under the second Caliph, Omar (hence its name), which would make it the oldest known mosque in Gaziantep. The modern mosque was restored at the site in 1850. It is known for its black and red marble mihrab.
Şeyh Fethullah Mosque, a historic mosque built in 1563 and located in Kepenek. It has adjoining Turkish baths and a medrese.
Nuri Mehmet Pasha Mosque, a mosque in Çukur built in 1786 by nobleman Nuri Mehmet Pasha. Between 1958 and 1968, it was changed into museum but was reinstated as a mosque after an extensive restoration.
Ahmet Çelebi Mosque, a mosque in Ulucanlar that was built by Hacı Osman, in 1672. It is noted for its elaborate wooden interior.
Tahtani Mosque, a wooden mosque located in Şahinbey, that was built in 1557. The mosque has a unique red marble mihrab.
Alaüddevle Mosque (Ali Dola Mosque), built by Dulkadir bey Alaüddevle Bozkurt. Its construction started in 1479 and was completed in 1515. It has been restored recently with the addition of a new entrance.
Ali Nacar Mosque, a mosque in Yaprak, Şehitkamil, is one of the biggest mosques in Gaziantep, originally built by Ali Nacar. It was enlarged in 1816.
Eyüpoğlu Mosque, a mosque built by the local Islamic saint Eyüboğlu Ahmet during the 14th century. There has been a major restoration, so much so that the present structure hardly resembles the original building.
Kendirli Church, a church that was built in 1860 by means of the assistance of French missionaries and Napoleon III. It is a Catholic Armenian church. It has a rectangular plan and was built through white cut stones on a foundation of black cut stone within a large garden.
Pişirici Kastel, a "kastel" (fountain) which used to be a part of a bigger group of buildings, is thought to have been built in 1282. "Kastels" are water fountains built below ground, and they are structures peculiar to Gaziantep. They are places for ablution, prayer, washing and relaxation.
Old houses of Gaziantep, the traditional houses that are located in the old city: Eyüboğlu, Türktepe, Tepebaşı, Bostancı, Kozluca, Şehreküstü and Kale. They are made of locally found keymik rock and have an inner courtyard called the hayat, which is the focal point of the house.
Tahmis Coffee House, a coffee house that was built by Mustafa Ağa Bin Yusuf, a Turkmen ağa and flag officer, in 1635–1638, in order to provide an income for the dervish lodge. The building suffered two big fires in 1901 and 1903.
Gaziantep Zoo is one of the largest zoos in Turkey. Especially interesting are the bird pavilion and the aquarium. Gaziantep Zoo offers a large variety of animals, attractive picnic grounds, and a cafeteria. The facility is established on 1,000,000-square-metre (11,000,000 sq ft) field. There are 264 species and 6,814 animals.
Gaziantep Historical BazaarsEdit
Zincirli Bedesten is the Ottoman-era covered bazaar of Gaziantep and was built in 1781 by Hüseyin Pasha of Darende. From records, it is known that there was formerly an epigraph on the south gate written by Kusuri; however, this inscription is not in place today. This bazaar was used as a wholesale market hall for meat, fruit and vegetables.
Bakırcılar çarşısi is the coppersmith bazaar of Gaziantep. This trade has existed in the region for over 500 years. The bazaar is part of the official culture route designed to help visitors discover traditions and culture of the city.
Gaziantep Historical InnsEdit
Anatolia Inn The exact date of the inn's (caravanserai) construction is unknown, but it is estimated to have been built in the early 19th century. It is a two-storey building with two courtyards. It is said to have been built by Muhsinzade Hadji Mehmet Bey in 1892. The inn was repaired in 1985 and parts of the top floor were rebuilt.
Kürkçü Inn Classic Ottoman Inn in Boyacı built in 1890.
Old Wheat Inn The original building was constructed by Mustafa Ağa in 1640 to provide an income for the dervish lodge, but was completely destroyed in a fire. The exact construction date of the present building is unknown; however the architectural style suggests the 19th century.
Şire Inn The building is built on rectangular plan and contains many motifs of classical Ottoman inn architecture. It was built with evenly cut stones and the pitched roof is covered by tiles.
Tobacco Inn This inn has no epigraph showing the dates of construction or renovation, but according to historical data, the estimated date of construction is the late 17th century. Ownership was passed to Hüseyin Ağa, son of Nur Ali Ağa, in the early 19th century.
Yüzükçü Inn The construction date of this inn is unknown. The epigraph on the main gate of the inn is dated 1800, but the building apparently had been built earlier and was repaired at this date. The first owners of the inn were Asiye, the daughter of Battal Bey and Emine Hatun, the daughter of Hadji Osman Bey.
Gaziantep is largely regarded as the city with the richest cuisine in Turkey. It was the first city in Turkey to be designated as a City of Gastronomy by UNESCO in 2015. In 2013, Gaziantep baklava became the first Turkish product with a European protected designation of origin and geographical indication.
The cuisine of Aintab was attested to be "rich" by many travellers throughout the centuries. 19th-century British traveler noted:
"The padishah himself would do well to visit Aintab, just to taste the rich food to be found there."
Types of kofta (Gaziantep dialect of Turkish: küfde; Turkish: köfte) include içli küfde (lit. 'stuffed kofta'), sini küfde, yoğurtlu küfde, yağlı küfde (lit. 'greasy kofta'), tahinli küfde, pendir ekmekli küfde (lit. 'kofta with bread and cheese'), and more. Some koftas do not include any meat such as yapma.
Pilafs in the Aintab cuisine often accompany the main dish and aren't the main course alone. Traditionally, bulgur is used for the pilafs. The bulgur pilafs can include orzo (Turkish: Şehriyeli bulgur pilavı) or ground beef (Turkish: Kıymalı aş or Meyhane pilavı, lit. 'tavern pilaf').
Local Turkish dialectEdit
The local Turkish dialect of Gaziantep is classified as a part of the Western Turkish dialects based on phonetic and grammatical similarities. The dialect carries influences mainly from Armenian and Arabic. The local Turkish dialect of Gaziantep is an integral part of the native identity of the city and is being preserved through often humorous plays by theatrical troupes, such as Çeled Uşaglar (lit. naughty children).
The city is served by Oğuzeli Airport, which has commercial flights to domestic and regional international destinations. The city is served by Turkish State Railways which operates the Gaziantep Railway Station in the City Center.
Gaziantep has a three line light rail system called the Gaziantep Tram. The Gaziantep Tram consists of three lines, is 35 km long and carries 75,000 daily passengers. The system opened in 2011 and was extended in 2012 and 2014.
Gaziray is a commuter rail line serving Gaziantep, Turkey. Being 25 km (16 mi) long, the line is the fourth commuter rail system in the country. The system is also a part of major upgrades along the Mersin-Adana-Osmaniye-Gaziantep railway corridor. There are a total of sixteen stations on the 25,532 kilometers (15,865 mi) long Gaziray line, two of which are underground, all of which are suitable for disabled access. 
|1||Baspinar||Level||Gaziantep Organized Industrial Zone|
|2||OSB-3||Level||Gaziantep Organized Industrial Zone|
|3||OSB-4||Level||Gaziantep Organized Industrial Zone|
|4||Dolice||Level||Dolice (Dülük) Ancient City|
|7||Fistiklik||Gaziantep Intercity Bus Terminal||Level|
|9||Adliye||Underground||Gaziantep Courthouse, Şehitkamil State Hospital, TEDAŞ|
|11||Mucahitler||Level||Dr. Ersin Arslan Training and Research Hospital, SANKO University Hospital, NCR International Hospital|
|12||Gaziantep||Gaziantep Central Railway Station - T1 - T3||Level||Zeugma Mosaic Museum|
|13||Golluce||Level||İnayet Topçuoğlu Hospital|
|14||Seyrantepe||Level||Küsget Industrial Zone|
|15||Mustafa Yavuz||Level||Küsget Industrial Zone|
|16||Taslica||Level||Oduncular Industrial Zone|
|Climate data for Gaziantep (1991–2020, extremes 1940–2020)|
|Record high °C (°F)||19.0
|Average high °C (°F)||8.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.9
|Average low °C (°F)||0.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−17.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||98.1
|Average precipitation days||13.17||12.20||12.20||10.67||8.00||2.47||0.77||0.70||2.23||6.93||8.57||12.73||90.6|
|Average relative humidity (%)||80||75||70||63||54||43||39||40||46||57||71||79||60|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||111.6||124.3||164.3||192.0||220.1||261.0||275.9||269.7||234.0||198.4||153.0||105.4||2,309.7|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||3.6||4.4||5.3||6.4||7.1||8.7||8.9||8.7||7.8||6.4||5.1||3.4||6.3|
|Source 1: Turkish State Meteorological Service|
|Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (humidity 1926–1960)|
Gaziantep Anatolian High School (founded in 1976) is a public school focusing on English language education.
Gaziantep Science High School is a public boarding high school in Gaziantep, Turkey with a curriculum concentrating on natural sciences and mathematics, and with teaching in Turkish.
There are also variety of high schools consisting of both private and public schools, including Gaziantep Fen Lisesi. Gaziantep College Foundation is one of the oldest colleges in Gaziantep. Gaziantep College Foundation's (abbv. GKV) science high school is the most successful high school in Gaziantep.
Sanko College is younger but also successful school in Gaziantep. Its facility is one of the most qualified school facilities in Turkey. Sanko's newest science and technology high school is also a very good school.
The main campus of Gaziantep University is located 10 km (6 mi) away from the city center. The institution acquired state university status in 1987, but had already offered higher education since 1973 as an extension campus of the Middle East Technical University. It is one of the largest universities in Turkey, boasting 27,000 students.
Zirve University (Zirve Üniversitesi) was a private university established in 2009. As of 2016, the university had five faculties. The university was closed by the government in 2016 and its facilities transferred to Gaziantep University.
The youngest university in Gaziantep is Sanko University (Sanko Üniversitesi). Established in 2013, Sanko University is the first "thematic university" in Turkey.
|ALG Spor||Women's football||1998||Women's First League||Batur Stadium|
|Gaziantepspor||Football||1969||Bölgesel Amatör Lig||New Gaziantep Stadium|
|Gazişehir Gaziantep F.K.||Football||1988||Süper Lig||New Gaziantep Stadium|
|Gazikentspor||Women's football||2006||Women's Second League||Gazikent Stadium|
|Gaziantep Büyükşehir Belediyespor (Played with sponsporship of Royal Halı since 2012)||Basketball||2007||Turkish Basketball League||Kamil Ocak Sports Hall|
|Gaziantep Polis Gücü SK Men's Hockey||Hockey||2003||Turkish Hockey Super League|
Beslenspor has played in the Turkish Basketball League between 1986 and 1992 and presented Gaziantep at basketball once.
Twin towns — sister citiesEdit
Notable people from GaziantepEdit
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- Peirce, Leslie (16 June 2003). Morality Tales: Law and Gender in the Ottoman Court of Aintab. University of California Press. pp. 75, 342.
- Sarafean, Georg Avedis (1957). A Briefer History of Aintab A Concise History of the Cultural, Religious, Educational, Political, Industrial and Commercial Life of the Armenians of Aintab. Boston: Union of the Armenians of Aintab. p. 11. Retrieved 4 September 2022.
The population of Aintab in 1914, before the Armenian deportations started, was about 80,000;. The Armenians constituted a minority-30,000. These were divided as follows: Armenian protestants—4000; Catholics—400; and the rest, i.e., the bulk of Armenians belonging to the Armenian national apostolic church. Apostolic is a designation, chiefly because the Armenian church was founded by the apostles Thaddeus and Bartholemew. There were 2000 Kurds and a few hundred Cherkesse immigrants from the Caucasus regions, and the remainder of the 80,000; population consisted of Turks, who formed a majority group in the city.
- ibn al-Qalanisi, H.A.R. Gibb, editor and translator, The Damascus chronicle of the Crusades, London 1932, p. 367.
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Aintab, Gazi Antep in Turkish, about 80 km north-northeast from Aleppo and about 40 km from the Syrian-Turkish border, is commonly held to be the site of Antiochia ad Taurum
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- American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, The Missionary Herald, January 1900, passim
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- Ümit Kurt, Destruction of Aintab Armenians and Emergence of the New Wealthy Class: Plunder of Armenian Wealth in Aintab (1890s-1920s), Ph.D. Dissertation, Clark University, Worcester, MA, Strassler Center of Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 19 April 2016, quoted in Robert Fisk, "A beautiful mosque and the dark period of the Armenian genocide", The Independent, 15 October 2016
- Kurt, Ümit (2019). "From Aintab to Gaziantep: The Reconstitution of an Elite on the Ottoman Periphery". The End of the Ottomans: The Genocide of 1915 and the Politics of Turkish Nationalism. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 318–319. ISBN 978-1-78831-241-7. "Official Turkish historiography claims that the Turkish–French war in Aintab was a heroic struggle for national independence, which earned the city glory and its grand title, ghazi (conqueror). Gaziantep's 'heroic epic' was in fact a struggle whose incentive was to wipe out the Armenian presence in the city for good. Its main motive was to ensure that the Armenians of Aintab would never be able to return to the city. Whether forcibly removed or through various administrative measures, the outcome of all of these 'struggles' rendered it impossible for Armenian repatriates to remain in their native cities, towns or villages. Hoping to make these people flee their homeland again, the brave national warriors continued to terrorize them. When the Armenians left Aintab for good in 1921–2, their left - over houses, fields, estates and other properties were sold at bargain prices."
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Dimashki writes in the early part of the fourteenth century, 'lies north-east of Halab. It is a place with a strong castle. The people are Turkomans. There is a small river here, and gardens.' (Dim., 205.)
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Alle Christen, die gegen Norden von Haleb wohnen, sind Armenier. Fast in allen Dörfern und Flecken zwischen Haleb und Aintab wird türkisch, aber kein arabisch gesprochen. In der Gegend von Aintab halten sich die turkomanischen Stämme(...)
- Aucher-Eloy, Remi (1843). Relations de voyages en Orient de 1830 à 1838 ... revues et annotées par M. le comte Jaubert, Volume 1. Paris: Libraire Encyclopédique de Roret. p. 87. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
Aintab peut avoir 15,000 haibtants: Turcs, Arméniens, schismatiques et quelques Grecs.
- Konversations Lexikon. Leipzig: Bibliographisches Institut. 1885. p. 242.
Aïntab, Stadt im nördlichen Syrien, 104 km nördlich von Aleppo, am Flusse Sadschur, mit Baumwoll Seide und Lederindustrie, reichem Obstbau und etwa 20,000 meist turkmen. Einwohnern (darunter ca. 5000 Armenier und 1200 Brotestanten). A. ist Hauptstation der nordamerikanisch-evangelischen Mission.
- Reclus, Elisée (1895). The Earth And Its Inhabitants. Asia Vol. IV. South-western Asia. New York: D. Appleton and Company. p. 232. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
Aintab, which is chiefly inhabited by Turkomans,
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The populaton amounts to 27,000 souls; of whom 18,000 are Turks, 8,500 Armenians, and 500 Jews. Turkish is the language universally used; the Armenians having completely forgotten ther mother tongue, though in the books which they make use of they employ the Armenian characters, from their superor simplicity to the Arabic. The inhabitants of the country are chiefly Turks, who claim their property in the land as far as back as the time of the old Seljoukian dynasty. (...) Turks residing at Aintab, who form the wealthy portion of its Mussulman population(...)
- Hogarth, David George (1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 1 (11th ed.). p. 441.
- Le Coq de Kerland, Robert (1907). Un chemin de fer en Asie Mineure. Paris. p. 71.
Après avoir suivi la route des caravanes vers Sam, la ligne atteint la ville de Aintab habitée surtout par les Turcomans.
- Çay, Mustafa Murat (13 March 2019). "AN ASSESSMENT OF A. GESAR'S BOOK: 'AINTAB'S STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE AND THE ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR OF ANTEP ARMENIANS DURING THE INVASIONS' -THE ANATOMY OF A PARADOX". International Journal of Eurasia Social Sciences. 10 (35): 282–312. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
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- Pococke, Richard (1745). A DESCRIPTION OF THE EAST, AND Some Other COUNTRIES.: OBSERVATIONS on PALAESTINE or the HOLY LAND, SYRIA, MESOPOTAMIA, CYPRUS, and CANDIA, Volume 2. London: W. Bowyer. p. 155. Retrieved 8 July 2022.
- de La Harpe, Jean François (1801). Abrege de l'histoire generale des voyages. Paris: chez Moutardier. p. 362. Retrieved 2 July 2022.
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- Sevinç, Necdet (1997). Gaziantep'te Türk boyları. p. 135.
Gaziantep yöresinde Özbekler'in varlığını biliyoruz. Hatta yakın zamanlara kadar, bugünkü Ticaret Sarayı'nın yerinde Özbekler'i himâye etmek amacıyla kurulduğu anlaşılan bir Nakşibendî Tekkesi vardı.
- Çağlar, Nafi (21 September 2019). Kızık Boyu. Vol. 2. Yalın Yayıncılık. p. 21.
Şehir içinde de çok miktarda Özbek vardır.
- "Five great synagogues in Turkey – Jewish Cultural Heritage". eSefarad. Retrieved 9 December 2022.
- Altaras, Nesi. "Gaziantep Yahudileri ve Sinagogu Hatırlanmalı". Avlaremoz. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
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- Barkley, Henry C. (1891). A Ride through Asia Minor and Armenia. London: William Clowes and Sons Limited. p. 185.
All the villages ahead of us were full of good things, and the padishah himself would do well to visit Aintab, just to taste the rich food to be found there.
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