Year 1203 (MCCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. It was also the first year to have all digits different from each other since 1098.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1203 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1203
MCCIII
Ab urbe condita1956
Armenian calendar652
ԹՎ ՈԾԲ
Assyrian calendar5953
Balinese saka calendar1124–1125
Bengali calendar610
Berber calendar2153
English Regnal yearJoh. 1 – 5 Joh. 1
Buddhist calendar1747
Burmese calendar565
Byzantine calendar6711–6712
Chinese calendar壬戌年 (Water Dog)
3899 or 3839
    — to —
癸亥年 (Water Pig)
3900 or 3840
Coptic calendar919–920
Discordian calendar2369
Ethiopian calendar1195–1196
Hebrew calendar4963–4964
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1259–1260
 - Shaka Samvat1124–1125
 - Kali Yuga4303–4304
Holocene calendar11203
Igbo calendar203–204
Iranian calendar581–582
Islamic calendar599–600
Japanese calendarKennin 3
(建仁3年)
Javanese calendar1111–1112
Julian calendar1203
MCCIII
Korean calendar3536
Minguo calendar709 before ROC
民前709年
Nanakshahi calendar−265
Thai solar calendar1745–1746
Tibetan calendar阳水狗年
(male Water-Dog)
1329 or 948 or 176
    — to —
阴水猪年
(female Water-Pig)
1330 or 949 or 177
Portrait of Alexios IV (c. 1182–1204)

EventsEdit

By placeEdit

Fourth CrusadeEdit

  • April 20 – The Crusader army evacuates Zadar, and sets sail to Corfu; Boniface of Montferrat and Doge Enrico Dandolo stay behind to await Prince Alexios Angelos. After a brief pause at Durrës (modern Albania), the fleet reaches Corfu. Meanwhile, news of its approach (through spies) have reached Emperor Alexios III (Angelos) at Constantinople. He gives order to strengthen the city walls and the fortifications.[1]
  • MayJune – The Crusader fleet rounds Greece and stops at Negroponte (modern-day Halkis), where the local authorities submit to Alexios Angelos. Encouraged by this, the Crusader leaders send him and several ships to extend his authority over the neighboring island of Andros. Mid-June, the Crusader fleet sails from Greece to Abydos, where it enters the Dardanelles.[2]
  • June 23 – The Crusader fleet comes within sight of Constantinople, and enters the Bosporus. The Byzantine capital is defended by a garrison of 15,000 soldiers (including 5,000 men of the Varangian Guard), and a fleet of 20 galleys. On June 26, the Byzantine troops skirmish with the Crusader forces, who attack, without success, the cities of Chalcedon and Chrysopolis.[3][4]
  • July 2 – Crusader leaders sail close to the city's walls in order to display the young Alexios Angelos, where they call upon the Byzantines to rise up in his favour. After rowing back and forth for a while, receiving insults and missiles, the attempt is abandoned. The Crusader leadership decided to land an invasion force north of Galata – using prevailing currents and winds.[5]
  • July 5 – The Crusader fleet disembarks their horse transports, and barrels down upon the Byzantine defenders in a full cavalry charge. The Byzantines flee after brief combat, and retreat to the Tower of Galata, where they fortify themselves. After a bitter struggle, the Crusaders capture the tower and break the floating chain, and allow their fleet to enter the Golden Horn.[6]
  • Siege of Constantinople: The Crusaders, led by Boniface of Montferrat, capture Constantinople, in support of the deposed Emperor Isaac II and his son Alexios Angelos. This marks the main outcome of the Fourth Crusade.
    • July 11 – The Crusaders take positions opposite the Palace of Blachernae on the northwest corner of the city. Their first attempts are repulsed, but on July 17 the Venetians take a section of the wall of about 25 towers, while the Varangian Guard holds off the Crusaders on the land wall, inflicting heavy casualties. The Venetians set fire to the buildings inside the Golden Horn walls, and then abandon the occupied fortifications.[7]
    • July 1718 – Alexios III tries to counterattack from the Gate of St. Romanus but retreats without a fight. Embarrassed, he preferred to escape and abandon his subjects, fleeing with the imperial treasure to Develtos (a fortified town on the Gulf of Burgas) in Thrace. Meanwhile, the Byzantine aristocracy restores the ex-emperor Isaac II to the imperial throne. On August 1, Alexios Angelos is crowned co-emperor as Alexios IV.[8]
  • August – Alexios IV announces new taxes and enraged the Orthodox Church by confiscating large quantities of Byzantine icons, many centuries old, and melt them down to produce enough silver to pay the massive debt to the Venetians. A riot breaks out in Constantinople – during which the Byzantine populace loots and burns the homes of Italian residents in the city.[9]
  • August 31 – The Venetians rally a rabble of soldiers and storm through the walls, attacking the Mitation Mosque which results in extensive fires in Constantinople. Finally, they are fought off by the Byzantines and Muslims standing side by side. It becomes one of the most extensive urban conflagrations in European History and renders some 100,000 people homeless.[10]
  • August–October – Alexios IV leads a Crusader expedition (some 6,000 men) to extend his central-government control, against the fugitive Alexios III in Thrace. Meanwhile, a Crusader fleet operates in the Sea of Marmara in support of the Thracian campaign. The Crusaders seize several towns, including Adrianople, while Alexios escapes and withdraws to Macedonia.[11]

EuropeEdit

LevantEdit

  • Summer – On orders of Al-Adil I, sultan of Egypt, Muslim ships attack Crusader vessels off Cyprus. Ships from Acre retaliate this action, by capturing six Muslim ships off Acre. King Aimery of Jerusalem declares the truce void between Al-Aldil and the Crusaders, and raids Muslim territory in northern Palestine. Al-Adil responds by taking his army to the outskirts of Acre – but does not launch an assault and retires afterward. A plague breaks out in Acre and half the newly arrived Crusader army dies.[12]

JapanEdit

By topicEdit

EconomyEdit

  • First evidence that the Temple in London is extending loans to John (Lackland). The sums remain small, but are often used for critical operations, such as the ransoming of the king’s soldiers captured by the French.[13]

ReligionEdit

BirthsEdit

DeathsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ David Nicolle (2011). Osprey: Campaign - Nr. 237. The Fourth Crusade 1202–04. The betrayal of Byzantium, p. 49. ISBN 978-1-84908-319-5.
  2. ^ David Nicolle (2011). Osprey: Campaign - Nr. 237. The Fourth Crusade 1202–04. The betrayal of Byzantium, p. 51. ISBN 978-1-84908-319-5.
  3. ^ David Nicolle (2011). Osprey: Campaign - Nr. 237. The Fourth Crusade 1202–04. The betrayal of Byzantium, p. 51. ISBN 978-1-84908-319-5.
  4. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 100. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  5. ^ David Nicolle (2011). Osprey: Campaign - Nr. 237. The Fourth Crusade 1202–04. The betrayal of Byzantium, pp. 51–52. ISBN 978-1-84908-319-5.
  6. ^ David Nicolle (2011). Osprey: Campaign - Nr. 237. The Fourth Crusade 1202–04. The betrayal of Byzantium, pp. 53–57. ISBN 978-1-84908-319-5.
  7. ^ David Nicolle (2011). Osprey: Campaign - Nr. 237. The Fourth Crusade 1202–04. The betrayal of Byzantium, pp. 57–61. ISBN 978-1-84908-319-5.
  8. ^ David Nicolle (2011). Osprey: Campaign - Nr. 237. The Fourth Crusade 1202–04. The betrayal of Byzantium, p. 63. ISBN 978-1-84908-319-5.
  9. ^ David Nicolle (2011). Osprey: Campaign - Nr. 237. The Fourth Crusade 1202–04. The betrayal of Byzantium, p. 64. ISBN 978-1-84908-319-5.
  10. ^ David Nicolle (2011). Osprey: Campaign - Nr. 237. The Fourth Crusade 1202–04. The betrayal of Byzantium, p. 64. ISBN 978-1-84908-319-5.
  11. ^ Philips, Jonathan (2004). The Fourth Crusade and the sack of Constantinople, p. 209. ISBN 978-0-14-303590-9.
  12. ^ David Nicolle (2011). Osprey: Campaign - Nr. 237. The Fourth Crusade 1202–04. The betrayal of Byzantium, p. 19. ISBN 978-1-84908-319-5.
  13. ^ Ferris, Eleanor (1902). "The Financial Relations of the Knights Templars to the English Crown". American Historical Review. 8 (1). doi:10.2307/1832571. JSTOR 1832571.