Year 1194 (MCXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1194 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1194
Ab urbe condita1947
Armenian calendar643
Assyrian calendar5944
Balinese saka calendar1115–1116
Bengali calendar601
Berber calendar2144
English Regnal yearRic. 1 – 6 Ric. 1
Buddhist calendar1738
Burmese calendar556
Byzantine calendar6702–6703
Chinese calendar癸丑年 (Water Ox)
3891 or 3684
    — to —
甲寅年 (Wood Tiger)
3892 or 3685
Coptic calendar910–911
Discordian calendar2360
Ethiopian calendar1186–1187
Hebrew calendar4954–4955
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1250–1251
 - Shaka Samvat1115–1116
 - Kali Yuga4294–4295
Holocene calendar11194
Igbo calendar194–195
Iranian calendar572–573
Islamic calendar590–591
Japanese calendarKenkyū 5
Javanese calendar1101–1102
Julian calendar1194
Korean calendar3527
Minguo calendar718 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−274
Seleucid era1505/1506 AG
Thai solar calendar1736–1737
Tibetan calendar阴水牛年
(female Water-Ox)
1320 or 939 or 167
    — to —
(male Wood-Tiger)
1321 or 940 or 168
A coin of Frederick II (1194–1250)

Events edit

By place edit

England edit

Europe edit

  • Spring – Casimir II the Just, High Duke of Poland, organizes an expedition against the Baltic Yotvingians. The expedition ends with full success, and Casimir has a triumphant return in Kraków. On May 5, after a banquet, which is held to celebrate his return, Casimir dies unexpectedly (possibly poisoned). He is succeeded by his eldest surviving son Leszek the White, who has to face strong opposition from his uncle Mieszko III the Old.
  • July 3Battle of Fréteval: English forces under Richard I defeat Philip II, and capture the French baggage train. It contains the royal archives – including a list of the treasure of the French kingdom (transported in a wagon behind the army). Philip withdraws across the River Epte, where the bridge collapses under the weight of the retreating army. Meanwhile, Richard sacks the town of Évreux, which is a possession of Philip's ally, John.[4]
  • November 20 – Emperor Henry VI enforces the inheritance claims by his wife, Constance I, against her illegitimate nephew, King Tancred of Lecce (who died on February 20). He takes Palermo (supported by the navy of Pisa and Genoa) and gains control of all of Sicily – ending Norman rule in Italy after 90 years.[5]
  • December 25 – Henry VI deposes the 8-year-old William III (son of Tancred de Lecce) and is crowned king of Sicily. The next day, Constance I, who stays in the town of Iesi, gives birth to Frederick II, the future emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.[6]

Levant edit

Seljuk Empire edit

China edit

Mesoamerica edit

By topic edit

Commerce edit

  • May 2 – Richard I grants Portsmouth market-town status with a royal charter. He orders the construction of docks on The Solent – having seen that the harbour is a perfect base for trade and the English fleet.[10]

Economy and society edit

  • Hubert Walter, vice-regent in the absence of Richard I, institutes the office of coroner to keep records of crown pleas. He also presides over the feudal judgment of John and makes an inquiry into land tenure.[11]

Religion edit

Births edit

Deaths edit

References edit

  1. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 129–131. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  2. ^ Palmer, Alan; Palmer, Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 73–75. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  3. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History, p. 131. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  4. ^ John Gillingham (2002). Richard I, p. 285. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-09404-6.
  5. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History, p. 131. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  6. ^ Horst Fuhrmann (1986). Germany in the High Middle Ages: c. 1050–1200, p. 181. Cambridge University Press.ISBN 978-0-521-31980-5.
  7. ^ Burgtorf, Jochen (2016). The Antiochene War of Succession, p. 199. In Boas, Adrian J. (ed.). The Crusader World. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-415-82494-1.
  8. ^ Grousset, René (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
  9. ^ Grousset, René (1959). The Rise and Splendour of the Chinese Empire. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 303.
  10. ^ Quail, Sarah (1994). The Origins of Portsmouth and the First Charter, pp. 14–18. City of Portsmouth. ISBN 0-901559-92-X.
  11. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History, p. 131. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  12. ^ Sutton, Ian (1999). Architecture, from Ancient Greece to the Present. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-20316-3.
  13. ^ "Carthusian Monastery of Escaladei". Monuments de Catalunya. Generalitat de Catalunya. Retrieved November 26, 2023.
  14. ^ "Frederick II | Biography, Accomplishments, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved September 29, 2020.