The 1190s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1190, and ended on December 31, 1199.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
Categories:

Events

1190

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • Spring – A German expeditionary force (some 15,000 men) led by Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) marches towards Constantinople, on the way to the Holy Land. Emperor Isaac II (Angelos), suspicious that Frederick is planning to conquer Constantinople, attempts to stop him by attacking the Crusaders. The German forces are too strong and they capture Adrianople. A peace treaty is signed by both Isaac and Frederick, that ensures the Germans are given supplies, and free passage through to Palestina.[1]
  • Isaac II starts a campaign against the Bulgarians, who claim their independence. After passing the Balkan Mountains, Isaac marches westward to besiege Tarnovo, the new Bulgarian capital. Meanwhile, the Byzantine fleet reaches the Danube River in order to block the way of Cuman reinforcements from the North. The defense of Tarnovo is led by Ivan Asen I, emperor (Tsar) of Bulgaria. After spreading rumors of the arrival of a Cuman army to relieve the city, Isaac orders to retreat to Stara Zagora.
  • Battle of Tryavna: Byzantine forces under Isaac II are ambushed and defeated by the Bulgarians in a mountain pass, near Tryavna. In panic, the Byzantines break up and begin a disorganized retreat. Isaac barely escapes, his Varangian Guard has to cut a path through their own soldiers, enabling their emperor's flight from the rout. The Bulgarians capture the imperial treasure, including the golden helmet of Isaac, his crown, and the Imperial Cross which contains a wooden piece of the Holy Cross.
Third CrusadeEdit
  • March – Frederick I leaves Adrianople to Gallipoli at the Dardanelles to embark, with the help of Byzantine transports, to cross into Asia Minor. On April 25, he enters territory of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum under the rule of Sultan Kilij Arslan II. Although promised to let the German Crusaders pass peaceably through his domains, Kilij Arslan harasses Frederick's forces with hit-and-run attacks. On May 7, an Turkish army (some 10,000 men) is defeated at the Battle of Philomelion, by 2,000 Crusaders.[2]
  • March 25Conrad of Montferrat sails south with a Crusader fleet (some 50 ships) from Tyre. As Conrad's fleet approaches the harbour of Acre, an equally sized Muslim fleet sorties out to meet the Crusaders in open battle. Eventually, the Ayyubid fleet is blockaded (supported by Danish and Pisan ships) in the port. Acre is again cut off from reinforcements; the city's supplies are exhausted, and the Muslim garrison has to resort to eating their own beasts. In the event, troops are driven to cannibalism.[3]
  • April – Muslim forces under Saladin capture Beaufort Castle after a long siege from Reginald of Sidon who has offered to hand over the castle to Saladin on the condition that he has three months to remove his family to a place of safety. At the end of the three months, Saladin expects the castle to be handed over but finds that Reginald has used the time to strengthen the castle against a siege. He is imprisoned at Damascus – the castle's garrison finally surrenders in return for Reginald's release.[4]
  • May 5Siege of Acre: A Crusader force under King Guy of Lusignan attacks the city with three siege engines, but all are destroyed by the Muslim defenders with Greek fire, a highly flammable liquid. An Egyptian flotilla is able to avoid the Pisan fleet (some 50 ships) and resupply the city with new provisions. Saladin launches a massive eight-day attack on the Crusaders two weeks later. Meanwhile, in the Crusader camp the conditions are deteriorating by disease and famine, among the soldiers.[5]
  • May 18Battle of Iconium: German forces under Frederick I defeat the Seljuk army (40,000 men) in a pitched battle. They are routed, leaving the city at the mercy of the German Crusaders. Frederick does not pursue the Seljuks, because his forces have been weakened by food shortage for the previous weeks. His 23-year-old son, Frederick VI, takes Iconium (modern-day Konya) and proceeds to massacre the citizens. The Germans take booty amounting to 100,000 marks in the Turkish capital.[6]
  • June 10 – Frederick I drowns while crossing (or bathing in) the Göksu River near Selucia (modern-day Silifke) in Armenian Cilicia. The German Crusaders are demoralized and exhausted by the summer heat, Frederick VI takes over the command of his father, carrying with him the emperor's body preserved in a barrel of vinegar. Some of the German nobles decide to return home with their followers; Frederick continues with his army (some 5,000 men) and eventually reaches Antioch, on June 21.[7]
  • September 24 – A Crusader fleet attempts to destroy the Tower of Flies at Acre, which guards the city's harbour, by ramming vessels loaded with combustibles into it. At a critical moment, the ships collide with one another and are badly damaged. A specially built Pisan vessel resembles a floating castle and outfitted with mangonels, is set afire during a sortie from the harbour by a Muslim flotilla.[8]
  • November 24 – The 18-year-old Isabella I, half-sister of Sibylla of Jerusalem, marries Conrad of Montferrat at Acre making him de facto king of Jerusalem (as Conrad I). He has the support of her mother Maria Comnena and stepfather Balian of Ibelin, as well as Reginald of Sidon and other major nobles in the Crusader States.
  • The Teutonic Order is founded at Acre by German knights of Lübeck and Bremen. The Order is formed to aid Christians on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land and to establish hospitals (approximate date).
EuropeEdit
  • July 4 – King Richard I (the Lion Heart) and Philip II (Augustus), meet at Vézelay and agree to divide the spoils of the Crusade equally between themselves. They march to the coast and then make their way across the Mediterranean, taking different routes. Richard travels with an expeditionary force (some 17,000 men) via Marseille and Philip travels with a smaller contingent (some 15,000 men) via Genoa. Richard has some 100 ships at his disposal, several of which are from Norman ports, others from Shoreham and Southampton.[9]
  • September – Richard I arrives in Sicily at the head of a Crusader army and demands the release of his sister Joan of England, queen of Sicily, who is held hostage by the usurper Tancred of Lecce. He also demands that Tancred fulfills the financial commitments made by the late King William II (the Good) to the Crusade. Tancred refuses the financial demand but he agrees to release Joan, on September 28.[10]
  • October 4 – Richard I captures Messina, after looting and burning the city he establishes his base there. Richard insists that his own banner be erected over the city, but this creates tension between Richard and Philip II, who has joined him with his forces. Tancred accepts a peace agreement, and pays Richard 20,000 ounces of gold. Friendly relations are restored, Richard agrees to split the gold with Philip.[11]
  • King Henry VI, eldest son of Frederick I, grants Henry I (the Brave) the title of Duke of Duke of Brabant. Henry tries to expand his power and soon quarrels with Count Baldwin V, duke of Hainaut.
  • December – Richard I and Philip II stay in Sicily over the winter months waiting for the weather to improve before continuing their journey to the Holy Land.
  • The Almohad caliph, Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur, fails to reconquer Silves, Portugal.[12]
EnglandEdit
  • London adopts the Cross of St. George, the red cross on a white background. The flag is also used by the fleet of Genoa, and allows the ships from London to use the flag for protection when they enter the Mediterranean on trading missions.
  • March 18 – A massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews in York, results in the deaths of 150–500 Jews in Clifford's Tower.

By topicEdit

Art and ScienceEdit
EducationEdit
ReligionEdit

1191

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • April 10 – King Richard I (the Lionheart) leaves Messina for Palestina, but a storm drives his fleet apart. Richard is forced to seek shelter at a Cretan port – from which he has a tempestuous passage to Rhodes, where he stays for ten days (from April 22 to May 1), recovering from his sea-sickness. After some searching, he discovers that the ship carrying his sister Joan of England and his new fiancée, Berengaria of Navarre, is anchored on the south coast of Cyprus, along with the wrecks of several other vessels, including Richard's treasure ship. The survivors of the wrecks have been taken prisoner by Isaac Komnenos, the self-styled emperor of Cyprus.[13]
  • May 8 – Richard I and his main fleet arrive in the Byzantine port of Limassol on Cyprus. He orders Isaac Komnenos to release the prisoners and his treasure. Isaac refuses, Richard embarks his forces, and takes Limassol. The Byzantine population and also the Latin merchants in their dislike of Isaac, show themselves friendly to the English invaders. Various leading Crusaders of the Holy Land arrive in Limassol, on May 11. Among them are King Guy of Lusignan of Jerusalem, Bohemond III of Antioch, Humphrey IV of Toron, and Leo I of Armenia. They declare their support for Richard in return that he supports them against their rival, Conrad of Montferrat.[14]
  • May 12 – Richard I marries the 19-year-old Berengaria of Navarre, daughter of King Sancho VI (the Wise), in the Chapel of St. George at Limassol. On the same day, she is crowned Queen of England, by John, bishop of Évreux, in the presence of the archbishop of Bordeaux, and many other clergies. After this, hearing that the daughter of Isaac Komnenos has taken refuge in Kyrenia Castle, Richard goes there with his army and receives her submission. On the orders of Richard, she is entrusted to the care of Joan and Berengaria. By the end of May, Richard with his ships sail around the island and seizing all the Cypriot towns and ports on the coast.[15]
  • June 1 – A Crusader force led by Richard I defeats the Byzantine army near the village of Tremithus. Isaac Komnenos flees from the battlefield to Kantara. Richard captures Isaac's banner and hunts down the remnants of his army. At Nicosia Richard becomes ill; Guy of Lusignan in command of Richard's forces, marches on Kyrenia and captures it, taking the empress and her child prisoner. Isaac is taken before Richard (in chains of silver) and accepts an unconditional surrender. Richard places garrisons in the towns and castles, and appoints Richard de Camville as governor of Cyprus, jointly with Robert of Thornham.[16]
  • Autumn – Emperor Isaac II (Angelos) leads a punitive expedition against Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja. The Serbians are defeated at the South Morava and retreat into the mountains. The Byzantine forces raid all lands around the bank of the river and burn down Stefan's court in Kuršumlija. But Nemanja does not surrender and starts an irregular warfare, Isaac negotiates a peace treaty. The Serbians are forced to give up a large part of their conquests, east of the Velika Morava, and recognize Byzantine rule. Isaac recognizes Nemanja as Grand Prince of Serbia.
Third CrusadeEdit
  • February 13 – Muslim forces attack and succeed in breaking the siege lines around Acre. Though the Crusaders seal the breach, Saladin is able to replenish the garrison, by sending reinforcements. For the defenders, this is a temporary respite – and Saladin is having difficulty keeping his army together. Taqi al-Din, Saladin's nephew and one of his most effective commanders, fails to rejoin the siege. He divides his army for his own territorial ambitions in modern south-eastern Turkey. Later in the spring, Taqi al-Din brings his forces to support the double-siege at Acre.[17]
  • April 20 – King Philip II (Augustus) arrives with a Genoese flotilla (six ships) filled with French nobles and his cousin Conrad of Montferrat at Acre. He begins the construction of seven immense stone-throwers – which are used to bombard the city, on May 30. One of the siege-machines is called by the French soldiers the "Evil Neighbour" and "God's Own Sling", and a grappling ladder is known as the "Cat". Meanwhile, the walls of Acre are pounded relentlessly. The Crusaders built earthworks, ramparts, and ditches to protect themselves against Muslim attacks.[18]
  • June 8 – Richard I arrives with 25 ships and a strong advanced guard at Acre. Upon reaching the city, he is greeted by Philip II and then set up his camp. Richard becomes almost immediately seriously ill (called Arnaldia) and is confined to his tent. Nevertheless, he leaps into action and secretly initiates negotiations with Saladin. After having been refused a personal meeting, Richard sends a Moroccan prisoner to Saladin's camp as a sign of goodwill. Finally, Saladin accepts a three-day truce and allows his younger brother, Al-Adil, to negotiate with Richard.[19]
  • June 25 – The Crusader armies (now totaling some 25,000 men) who are deployed around Acre, implementing a unified strategy of assault-based siege. Teams of sappers and, increasingly massive use of advanced and new stone-throwing catapults, brought by Philip II and Richard I, are used to hammer Acre's walls continuously with giant, accurately loosed stones. By late June, the assault is beginning to undermine the walls, which are tottering. Because of troop shortages and disease, the Muslim defenders can not any longer strengthen their walls.[20]
  • July 3 – The Crusaders change their strategy from battering the Acre fortifications to exploiting the breaches. After only the first day of these all-out attacks to seize the city, Saladin's governor sends a message stating he would surrender unless he is relieved. Both French sappers and English catapults manage to make significant breaches in the walls – but the assault is repulsed. Meanwhile, Richard I still unable to walk due to illness, is carried on a regal stretcher near the front lines, from where he picks off Muslim troops on the walls using his crossbow.[21]
  • July 12Siege of Acre: The Muslim garrison surrenders to Philip II, which includes an agreement to give up the 70 Muslim ships in the harbour without Saladin's consent, and by the time that he learned of this intention, the city has already capitulated. Conrad of Montferrat, who has negotiated the surrender, raises the banners of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and of the Crusader leaders Philip II, Richard I, and Leopold V of Austria, on the city's walls and towers. The siege of Acre has taken nearly two years and has cost some 100,000 Christian casualties.[22]
  • July 31 – Philip II, accompanied by Conrad of Montferrat, departs to Tyre and returns to France. He leaves behind a French army (some 10,000 men) under the command of Hugh III, duke of Burgundy. Richard I is left in sole command of the Crusader forces in the Levant. Back in France, Philip schemes with Richard's brother, John of England, to dispossess Richard of his French lands while he is still away, but the intervention of John's mother, Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine, foils the plan. Meanwhile, Richard rebuilds and strengthens the walls of Acre.[23]
  • August 20Massacre of Ayyadieh: Richard I orders the execution of some 3,000 Muslim prisoners (captured after the siege of Acre), including women and children. The bound prisoners are mercilessly beheaded or cut down using swords and lances. A small group of Saladin's forces (located on Mount Tabor) tries to intervene in order to stop the massacre – but they are repelled. In response, Saladin executes all the Latin prisoners he himself has taken. In the Ayyubid Sultanate, Latin prisoners are tortured and murdered in reprisal for their infamy.[24]
  • August 22 – Richard I leads the Crusader forces (some 15,000 men) out of Acre and marches south along the coast, being closely supported by the Crusader fleet, carrying most of the supplies. Meanwhile, Saladin has given his son Al-Afdal orders to remain close to the Crusader rearguard under Hugh III, and strengthens the Muslim garrison both in Jerusalem and Ascalon with 20,000 men each. Richard advances at an unexpectedly slow pace and decides to make camp near Haifa – which Saladin has dismantled shortly before the fall of Acre.[25]
  • August 2526 – Richard I leads a fast-moving advance-guard and establishes a strong position at the fortress near Merle before Saladin arrives. He then hurries back to support the rearguard, to regain contact with the Crusader forces. Richard reorganizes his marching column. The elite Templar and Hospitaller knights hold the van and rearguard, while Richard and a central mass of knights are screened on their landward left side by dense ranks of well-armoured infantry, whose panoply makes them almost immune to Muslim missile attacks.[26]
  • August 30 – Richard I advances in three divisions towards Caesarea, with the Crusader fleet accompanying him off-shore. The rearguard becomes engaged, and the French forces under Hugh III are nearly annihilated. Saladin has selected this part of the road for a major assault, but the Muslim attacks have little effect. The main effort to harass the Crusaders from a distance fails. Richard makes camp at the mouth of the Zarqa River, despite the intense heat, thirst, and the loss of many lives. Both armies rest and watch each other the rest of the day.[27]
  • September 2 – Richard I leads the Crusader army past Caesarea and is forced to turn inland, where he is separated from his supply ships. Saladin personally attacks the massed Crusader infantry, by bombarding them with arrows before charging their line with cavalry. During this brief but indecisive engagement, Richard is struck in the side by a crossbow bolt – though his armour absorbs much of the blow. By the end of the day, only 25 miles from Jaffa, Richard allows his men to rest (while recovering from his wounds) and re-assembles his forces.[28]
  • September 5 – Richard I dispatches envoys to request for peace talks and meets Al-Adil under a flag of truce. Saladin allows the Crusaders to forage in the Forrest of Arsuf. But Richard is in no mood for actual negotiations and demands nothing less than the cession of Palestina. Al-Adil at once breaks off the negotiations. Richard orders his forces to march quietly through the woods, and the Crusaders manage to reach the limits of the forest unhindered and unharmed. The Crusaders pitch their tents in the "Rochetaille" and rest for the night.[29]
  • September 7Battle of Arsuf: Richard I fights a pitched battle – while waiting for the ideal moment to mount a counterattack. However, the Hospitaller knights led by Garnier de Nablus break formation and launch a charge. Richard restores order in the turmoil and is forced to commit his entire army to support the attack. The Muslim forces flee in panic, but Saladin rallies them in time to defend his camp, and even to lead a counter-charge. By evening, Richard has defeated the Muslim forces, and Saladin retreats in good order to Ramallah.[30]
  • September 910 – Richard I and his Crusader forces march on to Jaffa and set about rebuilding its fortifications, which Saladin has destroyed by his scorched-earth policy. Mid-September, a large number of French nobles begin to resist – such as Hugh III. They argue about the refortification of Jaffa, instead of a direct strike inland on Jerusalem. Meanwhile, Saladin evacuates and demolishes most of the fortresses of southern Palestina.[31]
  • October 29 – Richard I marches with the Crusader forces onto the plains east of Jaffa and begins the slow, steady work of rebuilding a string of sites through which to advance on Jerusalem. During this period, the Third Crusade degenerates into a series of skirmishes. Richard uses diplomacy alongside military threats, hoping to bring Saladin to the point of submission before he has to make the siege of Jerusalem itself.[32]
  • December – Richard I and his Crusader forces occupy Latrun, while the advance-guard takes Bayt Nuba. He is warned by his nobles to take no further risks – due to winter conditions, and for being cut off if he presses on. Amongst those keenest on continuing are the French Crusaders under Hugh III. On December 25, Richard is now just 12 miles from Jerusalem.[33]
EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
  • Spring – William de Longchamp, Chief Justiciar and regent, besieges Lincoln Castle accusing the castellan Gerard de Canville of corruption. In response, Prince John captures Nottingham and Tickhill castles from William. News of the dispute reaches Richard I, who sends Walter de Coutances, archbishop of Rouen, with orders to lead negotiations, for a peace between John and William.[39]
  • April – John and William de Longchamp meet at Winchester to discuss their differences. Several senior bishops are appointed as arbitrators. At the end of the meeting, both John and William agree to follow the recommendations. William is to return Lincoln Castle to Gerard de Canville and accepts limits to his powers. In return, John is to surrender Nottingham and Tickhill castles.
  • September – Geoffrey, illegitimate son of the late King Henry II and half-brother to Richard I and John, lands secretly at Dover. He has been consecrated as the new archbishop of York while in Tours, and on his return is arrested by William de Longchamp. Citing the Winchester treaty, John seeks a meeting with William. Geoffrey is freed, William flees and heads to Dover Castle.[40]
  • October – William de Longchamp tries to hold the Tower of London against John's supporters for three days. He surrenders the Tower and escapes to continue his support for Richard I. On October 29, William is captured when disguised as a female merchant. John orders that he is expelled from the country.[41]
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

1192

1193

By placeEdit

LevantEdit
  • March 4Saladin (the Lion) dies of a fever at Damascus. The lands of the Ayyubid Dynasty of Syria and Egypt are split among his relatives. During his reign, he briefly unites the Muslim world, and drives the Crusaders out of Jerusalem to a narrow strip of coast. At the time of his death, Saladin has seventeen sons and one little daughter. Al-Afdal succeeds his father as ruler (emir) of Damascus, and inherits the headship of the Ayyubid family. His younger brother, the 22-year-old Al-Aziz, proclaims himself as independent sultan of Egypt. Al-Zahir receives Aleppo (with lands in northern Syria), and Turan-Shah receives Yemen. The other dominions and fiefs in the Oultrejordain (also called Lordship of Montréal) are divided between his sons and the two remaining brothers of Saladin.[51]
  • May – The Pisan colony at Tyre plots to seize the city and hands it over to Guy of Lusignan – the ruler of Cyprus. King Henry I of Jerusalem arrests the ringleaders, and orders that the colony is reduced to only 30 persons. The Pisans retaliated by raiding the coastal villages between Tyre and Acre.[52]
EuropeEdit
AsiaEdit

1194

By placeEdit

EnglandEdit
EuropeEdit
  • Spring – Casimir II (the Just), High Duke of Poland, organizes an expedition against the Baltic Yotvingians. The expedition ends with full success, and Casimir has a triumphant return in Kraków. On May 5, after a banquet, which is held to celebrate his return, Casimir dies unexpectedly (possibly poisoned). He is succeeded by his eldest surviving son Leszek I (the White), who has to face strong opposition from his uncle Mieszko III (the Old).
  • July 3Battle of Fréteval: English forces under Richard I defeat Philip II, and capture the French baggage train. It contains the royal archives – including a list of the treasure of the French kingdom (transported in a wagon behind the army). Philip withdraws across the River Epte, where the bridge collapses under the weight of the retreating army. Meanwhile, Richard sacks the town of Évreux, which is a possession of Philip's ally, John.[59]
  • November 20 – Emperor Henry VI enforces the inheritance claims by his wife, Constance I, against her illegitimate nephew, King Tancred of Lecce (who has died on February 20). He takes Palermo (supported by the navy of Pisa and Genoa) and gains control of all of Sicily – ending Norman rule in Italy after 90 years.[60]
  • December 25 – Henry VI deposes the 8-year-old William III (son of Tancred de Lecce) and is crowned king of Sicily. The next day, Constance I, who stays in the town of Iesi, gives birth to Frederick II, the future emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.[61]
LevantEdit
Seljuk EmpireEdit
ChinaEdit

1195

1196

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
  • Spring – Emperor Henry VI persuades a diet at Würzburg. He manages to convince the majority of the German nobles and clergy to recognize his 2-year-old son, Frederick II, as king of the Romans and heir to the imperial throne. However, Archbishop Adolf of Cologne thwarts the will of the diet and arouses the resistance of several Saxon and Thuringian nobles against Henry, who realizes that he is unable to establish a hereditary monarchy (see Erbreichsplan) in the Holy Roman Empire without resistance.[73]
  • April 23Béla III dies after a 23-year reign in which he has supported the former Byzantine emperor Isaac II (Angelos) against the invading Bulgarians. Having made the Hungarian court one of the most brilliant in Europe and made his hereditary monarchy. Béla is succeeded by his 22-year-old son Emeric as ruler of Hungary, Croatia and Dalmatia (until 1204).
  • April 25 – King Alfonso II (the Chaste) dies after a 32-year reign at Perpignan. He leaves a will that divides his realm (Aragon loses Provence) and is succeeded by his 21-year-old son Peter II (the Catholic).
  • Battle of Serres: Bulgarian forces under Tsar Ivan Asen I defeat the Byzantine army near Serres. During the winter Ivan continues his campaign in Central Macedonia and captures many Byzantine fortresses.
  • Ivan Asen I is stabbed to death by Ivanko, a Bulgarian boyar (aristocrat), who is accused of having an affair with Ivan's wife sister. He is succeeded by his brother Kaloyan as co-ruler of the Bulgarian Empire.
EnglandEdit
AsiaEdit

1197

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
LevantEdit
  • September 10Henry I (or Henry II), king of Jerusalem, dies from falling out a first-floor window at his palace in Acre. His widow, Isabella I, becomes regent while the kingdom is thrown into consternation.[80]
  • September 22 About 16,000 German crusaders reach Acre, starting the crusade of 1197. Emperor Henry VI, who planned to join the forces later on, was forced to stay behinb in Sicily due to illness. On Septemper 28 he dies at Palermo. Meanwhile the crusaders manage to reconquer Sidon and Beirut but return to Germany after receiving the news of the emperor's death.
AsiaEdit
  • Genghis Khan (or Temüjin) defeats, with help from the Keraites, the Jurchens of the Jin Dynasty. The Jin bestowed Genghis' blood brother Toghrul with the honorable title of Ong Khan, and Genghis receives the lesser title of j'aut quri. During the winter, Toghrul returns and re-establishes himself as leader of the Keraites.[81]

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

1198

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
  • John of England captures a party of 18 French knights and many men-at-arms, in the ongoing conflict against France.[82] His brother, King Richard I (the Lionheart) introduces a new Great Seal – in an attempt to keep the war against France funded. The government proclaims that charters previously struck with the old seal are no longer valid and must be renewed with a fresh payment.[83] The office of Lord Warden of the Stannaries is also introduced, to tax the produce of tin mines in Cornwall and Devon.[84]
  • September 27Battle of Gisors: Richard I defeats the French forces led by Philip II (Augustus) at Courcelles-lès-Gisors, in Picardy. Richard captures three castles on the border of the Vexin. The French troops, many of them mounted, crowd the bridge leading into Gisors Castle but it collapses beneath them. The French king is among those who plunge into the water in his armor. Many French knights drown, but Philip is pulled to safety.
LevantEdit
JapanEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

1199

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
AfricaEdit
JapanEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

Significant peopleEdit

BirthsEdit

1190

1191

1192

1193

1194

1195

1196

1197

1198

1199

DeathsEdit

1190

1191

1192

1193

1194

1195

1196

1197

1198

1199

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Choniates, Nicetas (1984). O city of Byzantium: annals of Niketas Choniatēs. Translated by Magoulias, Harry J. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. p. 224. ISBN 0814317642. OCLC 10605650.
  2. ^ Loud, G. A. (2010). The Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa: The History of the Expedition of Emperor Frederick and Related Texts, p. 104. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-75466-575-5.
  3. ^ Alan Ambrisco (1999). Cannibalism and Cultural Encounters in Richard Coeur de Lion, pp. 105–106. Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies.
  4. ^ Kennedy, Hugh (1994). Crusader Castles, pp. 43–44. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42068-7.
  5. ^ Pryor, John H. (2015). A Medieval Siege of Troy: The Fight to the Death at Acre, 1189–1191, p. 108. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-1-47241-958-3.
  6. ^ Loud, G. A. (2010). The Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa: The History of the Expedition of Emperor Frederick and Related Texts, pp. 110–111. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-75466-575-5.
  7. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  8. ^ Kenneth P. Czech. Third Crusade: Siege of Acre, p. 3. Originally published in August 2001. Military History Magazine.
  9. ^ Wolff and Hazard, p. 57[permanent dead link]
  10. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 33. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  11. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  12. ^ a b Picard, Christophe (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
  13. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 37. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  14. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  15. ^ Nicholson, Helen J. (1997). Chronicle of the Third Crusade: A Translation of the Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi, p. 189. Ashbury, UK: Ashgate. ISBN 1-85928-154-0.
  16. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 39–40. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  17. ^ David Nicolle (2005). The Third Crusade 1191: Richard the Lionheart, Saladin and the struggle for Jerusalem, p. 47. ISBN 978-1-84176-868-7.
  18. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 41. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  19. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 40–41. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  20. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 42. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  21. ^ Asbridge, Thomas (2012). The Crusades: The War for the Holy land, p. 294. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-849-83770-5.
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