The 1190s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1190, and ended on December 31, 1199.
- June 10 – Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Saleph River, while leading an army to Jerusalem.
- November 24 – Isabella of Jerusalem marries Conrad of Montferrat at Acre, making him de jure king.
- The Teutonic Knights are founded, to defend the Latin states in the Levant.
- In Myanmar, Anawrahta's lineage regains control with the assistance of Sri Lanka. Pagan has been in anarchy. The new regime reforms Burmese Buddhism, on Sri Lankan Theravada models.
- February – Anti-Jewish riots break out in England.
- March 16 – A massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England, led by Richard Malebys, result in the deaths of 150–500 Jews in Clifford's Tower.
- July 4 – Richard I of England and Philip II of France, having met at Vézelay, set out from Marseille to join the Third Crusade.
- October 4 – Richard I of England threatens war against Tancred of Sicily, and captures Messina.
- Battle of Stara Zagora: The Bulgarians defeat Byzantine Emperor Isaac II.
- The Almohad caliph, Yaqub al-Mansur, fails to reconquer Silves, Portugal.
- Henry I becomes Duke of Brabant.
- On the Harmony of Religions and Philosophy (ar. Kitab fasl al-maqal), by Averroes, is first published.
- Speculum Virginum, a German manuscript, is published (approximate date).
- The first known foreign scholar, (Emo of Friesland), commences study at what will become the University of Oxford in England.
- July 12 – Saladin's garrison surrenders, ending the two-year siege of Acre. Conrad of Montferrat, who has negotiated the surrender, raises the banners of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and of the Third Crusade leaders (Richard I of England, Philip II of France, and Leopold V of Austria), on the city's walls and towers. Richard stays to push on to Jerusalem, but Philip returns to France, to take possession of a part of Flanders, whose count had died at the siege of Acre. Back in France, Philip also schemes with Richard's brother, John of England, to dispossess Richard of his French lands while he is still away, but the intervention of John's (and Richard's) mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, foils the plan.
- September 7 – Battle of Arsuf in Palestine: Richard I of England defeats Saladin, during the Third Crusade.
- Khmer King Jayavarman VII sacks the capital of Champa.
- The administration of the Taungoo region in modern-day Myanmar is first recorded, when Pagan King Narapatisithu appoints a son-in-law, Ananda Thuriya, to be governor of Kanba Myint.
- April 17 – Tusculum is destroyed by the army of the Commune of Rome.
- May 12 – Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre.
- Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, is crowned by Pope Celestine III.
- Duke Berthold V of Zähringen founds the city of Bern (present-day Switzerland).
- After having failed in their endeavor the year before, the Almohads reconquer the city of Silves in Portugal. In the same campaign, the Almohads take also Alcácer do Sal, while Palmela and Almada are sacked.
- In August, Sicilians defeat an invasion of Emperor Henry VI lasted from May; Empress Constance is captured and later imprisoned at Castel dell'Ovo at Naples.
- Danes make a crusade to Finland.
- The first reference to a windmill in Europe is made by a Dean Herbert of East Anglia, whose mills are supposedly in competition with the abbey of Bury St. Edmunds.
- April 14 – Pope Celestine III succeeds Pope Clement III, as the 175th pope.
- November 27 – Reginald Fitz Jocelin is elected Archbishop of Canterbury.
- Eisai founds the Rinzai Zen sect in Japan.
- The monks of Glastonbury Abbey dig up the remains of a large knight and a blonde woman, and announce they have discovered the tomb of King Arthur and Queen Guinevere.
- January 7 – Venus occults Jupiter.
- April 28 – Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I), King of Jerusalem, is assassinated in Tyre, only days after his title to the throne is confirmed by election. The killing is carried out by Hashshashin, later the basis of folk etymology for the English word "assassin."
- August 21 – Minamoto no Yoritomo is granted the title of shōgun, thereby officially establishing the first shogunate in the history of Japan.
- Second Battle of Tarain in India: The Ghurid forces of Mu'izz al-Din are victorious over Prithviraj Chauhan.
- The Lugouqiao (later the Marco Polo) Bridge is completed in Beijing.
- Constance, Holy Roman Empress is released by Tancred, King of Sicily under the pressure of Pope Celestine III on May and returns to Germany on June.
- Prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich of Novgorod burns down Tartu and Otepää Castles, in Estonia.
- January 1 – Enrico Dandolo becomes Doge of Venice.
- February 14 – Richard I of England, previously imprisoned on his return from the Third Crusade by his personal enemy Leopold V, Duke of Austria, is handed over to Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, and moved to Speyer.
- March 4 – Saladin dies at Damascus. The lands of the Kurdish Ayyubid Dynasty of Egypt and Syria are split among his descendants.
- August 15 – Philip II of France marries Ingeborg, daughter of Valdemar I of Denmark.
- Qutb al-Din Aibak, a Ghurid slave commander, captures Delhi.
- Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, a general under the command of Qutb al-Din Aibak, sacks and burns the ancient college-city of Nalanda, India's greatest Buddhist seat of learning, and the University of Vikramashila.
- Northern Crusades: Pope Celestine III calls for a crusade against those he regards as pagans, in the Baltic region of northern Europe.
- January 1 – Raja Nooruddin Khan attacks the kingdom of Rajauri in Kashmir, and captures it.
- February 4 – King Richard I of England is ransomed from Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor.
- c. February 10 – Henry Marshal is nominated Bishop of Exeter in England.
- March 10 – Sultan Toghrul III is defeated and killed in battle with Ala ad-Din Tekish, near Rey in Persia, ending the Seljuq Dynasty of Hamedan; the Great Seljuq Empire passes to the Khwarazmian Dynasty.
- March 12–28 – King Richard returns to England and besieges Nottingham Castle, to reclaim it from his brother John.
- April 17 – Richard I is crowned for the second time at Winchester.
- May 2 – The port of Portsmouth in England is granted a Royal Charter.
- May 12 – After settling affairs in England, Richard I leaves for Barfleur in Normandy, to reclaim lands lost to Philip II of France.
- June 10 – A fire at Chartres Cathedral leads to the start of its rebuilding.
- July 3 – Battle of Fréteval: Richard I of England reconquers his French fiefdoms from Philip II.
- July 5 – Emperor Guangzong of Song China is forced to give up his throne.
- November 20 – Palermo in Sicily falls to Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor.
- December 25 – Henry VI is crowned king of Sicily.
- The Danes attack Estonia.
- Ordinance of the Jewry in England: Strict records are to be kept of financial transactions by Jews in England, for taxation purposes.
- The Yellow River of China experiences a major course change, taking over the Huai River drainage system for the next 700 years.
- June 1 – Battle of Shamkor: Georgians defeat the Ildenizids of Azerbaijan.
- July 18 – Battle of Alarcos: Almohad ruler Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur decisively defeats Castilian King Alfonso VIII.
- The Priory of St Mary's is founded in Bushmead.
- Alexius III Angelus overthrows Isaac II, and becomes Byzantine Emperor.
- England is struck by a pestilence and a resulting famine
- Spring – In London, a popular uprising of the poor against the rich is led by William Fitz Osbern.
- Upon the death of Knut Eriksson, he is succeeded peacefully as king of Sweden, by his rival Sverker the Younger.
- According to a popular legend, Prince Madog of Gwynedd reaches North America, in what is present-day Alabama.
- Stefan Prvovencani becomes Grand Župan of Serbia.
- General Choe Chung-heon takes control in Korea.
- Temujin of Khamag Mongol defeats the Jurchens of the Jin dynasty. Muqali's father Gü'ün U'a gives him and his brother to Temujin as personal hereditary slaves.
- Amalric II succeeds Henry II of Champagne, as King of Jerusalem.
- Theobald III becomes Count of Champagne.
- Kaloyan becomes Tsar of Bulgaria.
- Corfu is occupied by the Genoese.
- Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, negotiates a peace with Wales.
- North Crawley is split into Great Crawley and Little Crawley.
- Philip of Swabia marries Irene Angelina, daughter of Byzantine emperor Isaac II.
- Danish king Knud raids area of present day Estonia.
- Saracen pirates, from the Balearic Islands, raid the city of Toulon in Provence, and the Benedictine monastery of Saint Honorat, on the Lérins Islands.
- March – Philip of Swabia is elected King of Germany by his supporters.
- July – Otto of Brunswick is crowned King of Germany by the House of Welf.
- Frederick II, infant son of German King Henry VI, is crowned King of Sicily.
- John of England captures a party of eighteen French knights & many men-at-arms, in the ongoing conflict against France. King Richard I of England introduces a new Great Seal, in an attempt to keep the war against France funded. The government proclaims that charters previously struck with the old seal are no longer valid, and must be renewed with a fresh payment. The office of Lord Warden of the Stannaries is also introduced, to tax the produce of tin mines in Cornwall and Devon.
- January 8 – Pope Innocent III succeeds Pope Celestine III, to become the 176th pope. He immediately lays an interdict on Laon, in an attempt to stamp out independent beliefs there. This will be followed by interdicts against France in 1199, and Normandy in 1203.
- January 13 – A short-lived truce is declared, between England and France.
- March 25 – King Richard I of England is shot in the left shoulder with a crossbow, by French boy Pierre Basile, at the siege of the castle of Châlus in France. The war between the kingdoms of England and France has become so brutal, that Hugh of Lincoln is warned that "nothing now is safe, neither the city to dwell in nor the highway for travel".
- April 6 – King Richard I of England dies from gangrene, caused by his crossbow wound. His younger brother, John, becomes king of England. Richard's jewels are left to his nephew, Otto, King of the Romans. As a result of Richard's death, French soldier Mercadier has Pierre Basile flayed alive and hanged.
- King Philip II of France renews his war against John, King of England, supporting the rival claim to the English throne of Arthur I, Duke of Brittany.
- St Laurence's Church, Ludlow, in England is rebuilt.
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- July 24 – Yelü Chucai, Mandarin statesman (d. 1243)
- approximate date
- February 8 – Yaroslav II of Russia (d. 1246)
- Tolui, son of Genghis Khan and father of Kublai Khan (d. 1232)
- Joan I, Countess of Burgundy (d. 1205)
- Theobald I, Duke of Lorraine (d. 1220)
- September 17 – Minamoto no Sanetomo, Japanese shōgun (d. 1219)
- Queen Maria of Jerusalem (d. 1212)
- King Giorgi IV Lasha of Georgia (d. 1223)
- King Stefan Radoslav of Serbia (d. 1234)
- Saint Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari of Uch Sharif (d. 1291)
- March – William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby (d. 1254)
- Albertus Magnus, German philosopher and theologian (d. 1280)
- Altheides, Cypriot philosopher (d. 1262)
- Henri de Dreux, Archbishop of Reims (d. 1240)
- Frederick of Isenberg, German nobleman (d. 1226)
- Saint Juliana of Liège (d. 1252)
- Margaret of Scotland, Countess of Kent (d. 1259)
- July 16 – Clare of Assisi, Italian saint and nun, follower of Francis of Assisi (d. 1253)
- December 26 – Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1250)
- August 15 – Anthony of Padua, Portuguese preacher and saint (d. 1231)
- Princess Shōshi of Japan (d. 1211)
- Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester (d. 1265)
- January 3 – Emperor Tsuchimikado of Japan (d. 1231)
- Alice of Champagne, queen consort and regent of Cyprus, and regent of Jerusalem (d. 1246)
- July – Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse (d. 1249)
- October 22 – Emperor Juntoku of Japan (d. 1242)
- Princess Rishi of Japan (d. 1251)
- Amadeus IV, Count of Savoy (d. 1253)
- Naratheinga Uzana, heir to the Burmese throne (d. 1235)
- August 24 – King Alexander II of Scotland (d. 1249)
- date unknown
- March 15 – Isabella of Hainault, queen of Philip II of France (b. 1170)
- June 10 – Frederick Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor (drowned) (b. 1122)
- July 25 – Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem (b. c. 1160)
- September 20 – Adelog of Hildesheim, German bishop
- Ranulf de Glanvill, chief justiciar of England
- Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester
- January 20
- March 20 – Pope Clement III
- August 13 – Philip I, archbishop of Cologne, during Siege of Naples
- September 9 – Conrad II, Duke of Bohemia (b.c 1136), during Siege of Naples
- December 26 – Reginald Fitz Jocelin, Archbishop-elect of Canterbury
- date unknown
- April 26 – Emperor Go-Shirakawa of Japan (b. 1127)
- April 28 – Conrad of Montferrat, King of Jerusalem (b. mid-1140s)
- May 8 – Duke Ottokar IV, Duke of Styria (b. 1163)
- August 25 – Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy (b. 1142)
- Saint Margaret of England, English saint
- Ikhtiyar al-Din Hasan ibn Ghafras, vizier of the Sultanate of Rum
- Kilij Arslan II, Sultan of Rum
- Rashid ad-Din Sinan, the "Old Man of the Mountain", leader of the Hashashin sect (b. 1132/1135)
- Prithviraj Chauhan, King of the Chauhan Dynasty (b. 1166)
- March 4 – Saladin, Sultan of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt and Syria (b. c. 1138)
- September 23 – Robert de Sablé, 11th Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1191 to 1193
- December 23 – Saint Thorlak, patron saint of Iceland (b. 1133)
- December 24 – Roger III of Sicily (b. 1175)
- Robert FitzRalph, Bishop of Worcester
- Balian of Ibelin, noble of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (b. early 1140s)
- Burgundio of Pisa, Italian scholar
- Düsum Khyenpa, 1st Gyalwa Karmapa (b. 1110)
- Matthew of Ajello, Sicilian noble
- Minamoto no Noriyori, Japanese general (b. 1156)
- Emperor Renzong of Western Xia, 5th emperor of the Western Xia dynasty (b. 1124)
- Richard de Redvers, 4th Earl of Devon
- Sultan Shah of Khwarezm
- February 20 – Tancred, King of Sicily
- May 5 – King Casimir II of Poland (b. 1138)
- June 27 – Sancho VI, king of Navarre (b. 1132)
- June 28 – Emperor Xiaozong of China (b. 1127)
- July 18 – Guy of Lusignan, king consort of Jerusalem (b. c. 1150)
- July 27 – Sviatoslav III of Kiev
- September 27 – Renaud de Courtenay, Anglo-Norman nobleman (b. 1125)
- November 15 – Margaret I, Countess of Flanders
- December – Raymond V of Toulouse (b. 1134)
- December 31 – Duke Leopold V of Austria (at a tournament) (b. 1157)
- Basil Vatatzes, Byzantine general
- March 3 – Hugh de Puiset, bishop of Durham (b. c. 1125)
- August 6 – Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria (b. 1129)
- October 13 – Gualdim Pais, Great Master of the Templars in Portugal (b. 1118)
- December 17 – Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut (b. 1150)
- Ascelina, French nun and mystic (b. 1121)
- April 23 – Béla III of Hungary (b. c.1148)
- August 15 – Conrad II, Duke of Swabia (b. 1173)
- November – Dulcea of Worms, German-Jewish moneylender
- King Alfonso II of Aragon (b. 1152)
- Tsar Ivan Asen I of Bulgaria
- Eschiva of Ibelin, queen consort of Cyprus (b. 1160)
- William Fitz Osbern
- Knut Eriksson, king of Sweden since 1167
- Mrokota, bishop of Poznań
- January – William Longchamp, Lord Chancellor of England and bishop
- April 28 – Rhys ap Gruffydd, Welsh ruler (b. 1132)
- August/September – Marguerite of France, queen consort of England, Hungary and Croatia (b. 1158)
- September 10 – Henry II, Count of Champagne (b. 1166)
- September 28 – Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1165)
- January 8 – Pope Celestine III (b. c. 1106)
- March 11 – Marie of France, Countess of Champagne, daughter of Louis VII of France (b. 1145)
- April 16 – Duke Frederick I of Austria (b. c. 1175)
- July 24 – Berthold of Hanover, Bishop of Livonia
- September 1 – Dulce, Queen of Portugal, married to King Sancho I of Portugal (b. 1160)
- November 27 – Constance, Queen of Sicily, married to Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1154)
- December 10 – Averroes, Arab philosopher and physician (b. 1126)
- date unknown
- January 23 – Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur, Almohad Caliph (b. 1160)
- February 9 – Minamoto no Yoritomo, Japanese shōgun (b. 1147)
- February 13 – Stefan Nemanja, Serbian Grand Prince and founder of Nemanjić dynasty (b. 1113)
- March 17 – Jocelin of Glasgow, Scottish bishop
- April 6 – Richard the Lionheart, King of England (of wound) (b. 1157)
- September 4 – Joan of England, Queen of Sicily, married to William II of Sicily (b. 1165)
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- Turner, Ralph V. (Spring 1997). "Richard Lionheart and English Episcopal Elections*". Albion. 29 (1): 1–13. doi:10.2307/4051592. ISSN 0095-1390. JSTOR 4051592.
- Stubbs, William (2012). Chronicles and Memorials of the Reign of Richard I (in Latin). Volume 2: Epistolae Cantuarienses, the Letters of the Prior and Convent of Christ Church, Canterbury, from AD 1187 to AD 1199. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 148. ISBN 9781108048064.
- King, Richard John (1869). Handbook to the Cathedrals of England: Northern Division. Part II: Durham, Chester, Manchester. London: John Murray. p. 344.
- Munz, Peter (1965-10-01). "Frederick Barbarossa and Henry the Lion in 1176". Historical Studies: Australia and New Zealand. 12 (45): 1–21. doi:10.1080/10314616508595307. ISSN 0728-6023.
From the fact that the author says 'habebat' it has been inferred that this addition was made after 1195, ie after the death of Henry the Lion
- Lyon, Jonathan R. (2012). Princely Brothers and Sisters: The Sibling Bond in German Politics, 1100–1250. Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University Press. p. 139. ISBN 9780801467844.
- Swarzenski, Georg (1949). "Romanesque Aquamanile of the Guennol Collection". Brooklyn Museum Bulletin. 10 (4): 1–10. ISSN 2578-7640. JSTOR 26457966.
this is certainly the later piece, probably made or finished after the death of Henry the Lion (1195)
- Barroca, Mário Jorge (2001). "Os castelos dos templários em Portugal e a organização da defesa do reino no séc. XII". Acta Historica et Archaeologica Mediaevalia (22): 213–227–227. ISSN 2339-9996.
- Mendes, Paulo Alexandre Cabaço (2018-12-17). "De Redinha a Pombal (1508): a Terra e os Homens. Estudo de Antroponímia e de Toponímia". Repositório Institucional da Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa: Departamento de História, Artes e Humanidades Mestrado Em História, Arqueologia e Património: 13.
Gualdim Pais (c. 1118/20-1195)
- Napran, Laura (2008). France, John (ed.). Mercenaries and Paid Men: The Mercenary Identity in the Middle Ages. Proceedings of a Conference Held at University of Wales, Swansea, 7th-9th July 2005. Leiden and Boston: BRILL. p. 287. ISBN 9789047432616.
- Wolff, Robert Lee (1952-07-01). "Baldwin of Flanders and Hainaut, First Latin Emperor of Constantinople: His Life, Death, and Resurrection, 1172-1225". Speculum. 27 (3): 281–322. doi:10.2307/2853088. ISSN 0038-7134. JSTOR 2853088.
Baldwin retained only the titles Marquis of Namur and Count of Hainaut. When he died in December 1195, the young Baldwin inherited Hainaut
- Draelants, Isabelle; Balouzat-Loubet, Christelle (January 2015). La formule au Moyen Âge, II / Formulas in Medieval Culture, II: Actes du colloque international de Nancy et Metz, 7-9 juin 2012 / Proceedings of the International Conference, Nancy and Metz, 7th-9th June 2012. Atelier de recherche sur les textes médiévaux. 23. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols Publishers. p. 17. doi:10.1484/m.artem-eb.5.108413. ISBN 9782503554327.
The period covers the successive reigns of Count Baldwin V/ VIII (1191-1194/1195), double-numbered in this way because he was the fifth count of Hainaut and the ninth count of Flanders to bear the name Baldwin
- Dinzelbacher, Peter (2005). "Kirchenreform und Frauenleben im Hohen Mittelalter". Mitteilungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung. 113 (JG): 20–40. doi:10.7767/miog.2005.113.jg.20. ISSN 2307-2903. S2CID 163481019.
Ascelina von Boulancourt (t 1195)
- Pinard, T. (1847). "Notre-Dame de Boulancourt (Haute-Marne)". Revue Archéologique. 4 (2): 474–477. ISSN 0035-0737. JSTOR 41745542.
la contrée appelée le Champ-Vieillard un monastère de fem mes, à la tète duquel il plaçait la vierge Asceline, sa cousine; elle mourut, suivant les uns, l'an 1165; suivant les autres, en 1195
- A. P. Vlasto (2 October 1970). The Entry of the Slavs Into Christendom: An Introduction to the Medieval History of the Slavs. CUP Archive. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-521-07459-9.
- S. D. Church (2003). King John: New Interpretations. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-85115-947-8.
- Mrs. Markham; Eliza Robbins (1854). A History of England from the first Invasion by the Romans to the 14th year of the Reign of Queen Victoria. pp. 101–.
- Edmund Lodge (1907). The Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage & Companionage of the British Empire for 1907. Kelly's Directories. p. 93.
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