The 1190s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1190, and ended on December 31, 1199.
- Spring – A German expeditionary force (some 15,000 men) led by Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) marches towards Constantinople, on the way to the Holy Land. Emperor Isaac II (Angelos), suspicious that Frederick is planning to conquer Constantinople, attempts to stop him by attacking the Crusaders. The German forces are too strong and they capture Adrianople. A peace treaty is signed by both Isaac and Frederick, that ensures the Germans are given supplies, and free passage through to Palestina.
- Isaac II starts a campaign against the Bulgarians, who claim their independence. After passing the Balkan Mountains, Isaac marches westward to besiege Tarnovo, the new Bulgarian capital. Meanwhile, the Byzantine fleet reaches the Danube River in order to block the way of Cuman reinforcements from the North. The defense of Tarnovo is led by Ivan Asen I, emperor (Tsar) of Bulgaria. After spreading rumors of the arrival of a Cuman army to relieve the city, Isaac orders to retreat to Stara Zagora.
- Battle of Tryavna: Byzantine forces under Isaac II are ambushed and defeated by the Bulgarians in a mountain pass, near Tryavna. In panic, the Byzantines break up and begin a disorganized retreat. Isaac barely escapes, his Varangian Guard has to cut a path through their own soldiers, enabling their emperor's flight from the rout. The Bulgarians capture the imperial treasure, including the golden helmet of Isaac, his crown, and the Imperial Cross which contains a wooden piece of the Holy Cross.
- March – Frederick I leaves Adrianople to Gallipoli at the Dardanelles to embark, with the help of Byzantine transports, to cross into Asia Minor. On April 25, he enters territory of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum under the rule of Sultan Kilij Arslan II. Although promised to let the German Crusaders pass peaceably through his domains, Kilij Arslan harasses Frederick's forces with hit-and-run attacks. On May 7, an Turkish army (some 10,000 men) is defeated at the Battle of Philomelion, by 2,000 Crusaders.
- March 25 – Conrad of Montferrat sails south with a Crusader fleet (some 50 ships) from Tyre. As Conrad's fleet approaches the harbour of Acre, an equally sized Muslim fleet sorties out to meet the Crusaders in open battle. Eventually, the Ayyubid fleet is blockaded (supported by Danish and Pisan ships) in the port. Acre is again cut off from reinforcements; the city's supplies are exhausted, and the Muslim garrison has to resort to eating their own beasts. In the event, troops are driven to cannibalism.
- April – Muslim forces under Saladin capture Beaufort Castle after a long siege from Reginald of Sidon who has offered to hand over the castle to Saladin on the condition that he has three months to remove his family to a place of safety. At the end of the three months, Saladin expects the castle to be handed over but finds that Reginald has used the time to strengthen the castle against a siege. He is imprisoned at Damascus – the castle's garrison finally surrenders in return for Reginald's release.
- May 5 – Siege of Acre: A Crusader force under King Guy of Lusignan attacks the city with three siege engines, but all are destroyed by the Muslim defenders with Greek fire, a highly flammable liquid. An Egyptian flotilla is able to avoid the Pisan fleet (some 50 ships) and resupply the city with new provisions. Saladin launches a massive eight-day attack on the Crusaders two weeks later. Meanwhile, in the Crusader camp the conditions are deteriorating by disease and famine, among the soldiers.
- May 18 – Battle of Iconium: German forces under Frederick I defeat the Seljuk army (40,000 men) in a pitched battle. They are routed, leaving the city at the mercy of the German Crusaders. Frederick does not pursue the Seljuks, because his forces have been weakened by food shortage for the previous weeks. His 23-year-old son, Frederick VI, takes Iconium (modern-day Konya) and proceeds to massacre the citizens. The Germans take booty amounting to 100,000 marks in the Turkish capital.
- June 10 – Frederick I drowns while crossing (or bathing in) the Göksu River near Selucia (modern-day Silifke) in Armenian Cilicia. The German Crusaders are demoralized and exhausted by the summer heat, Frederick VI takes over the command of his father, carrying with him the emperor's body preserved in a barrel of vinegar. Some of the German nobles decide to return home with their followers; Frederick continues with his army (some 5,000 men) and eventually reaches Antioch, on June 21.
- September 24 – A Crusader fleet attempts to destroy the Tower of Flies at Acre, which guards the city's harbour, by ramming vessels loaded with combustibles into it. At a critical moment, the ships collide with one another and are badly damaged. A specially built Pisan vessel resembles a floating castle and outfitted with mangonels, is set afire during a sortie from the harbour by a Muslim flotilla.
- November 24 – The 18-year-old Isabella I, half-sister of Sibylla of Jerusalem, marries Conrad of Montferrat at Acre making him de facto king of Jerusalem (as Conrad I). He has the support of her mother Maria Comnena and stepfather Balian of Ibelin, as well as Reginald of Sidon and other major nobles in the Crusader States.
- The Teutonic Order is founded at Acre by German knights of Lübeck and Bremen. The Order is formed to aid Christians on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land and to establish hospitals (approximate date).
- July 4 – King Richard I (the Lion Heart) and Philip II (Augustus), meet at Vézelay and agree to divide the spoils of the Crusade equally between themselves. They march to the coast and then make their way across the Mediterranean, taking different routes. Richard travels with an expeditionary force (some 17,000 men) via Marseille and Philip travels with a smaller contingent (some 15,000 men) via Genoa. Richard has some 100 ships at his disposal, several of which are from Norman ports, others from Shoreham and Southampton.
- September – Richard I arrives in Sicily at the head of a Crusader army and demands the release of his sister Joan of England, queen of Sicily, who is held hostage by the usurper Tancred of Lecce. He also demands that Tancred fulfills the financial commitments made by the late King William II (the Good) to the Crusade. Tancred refuses the financial demand but he agrees to release Joan, on September 28.
- October 4 – Richard I captures Messina, after looting and burning the city he establishes his base there. Richard insists that his own banner be erected over the city, but this creates tension between Richard and Philip II, who has joined him with his forces. Tancred accepts a peace agreement, and pays Richard 20,000 ounces of gold. Friendly relations are restored, Richard agrees to split the gold with Philip.
- King Henry VI, eldest son of Frederick I, grants Henry I (the Brave) the title of Duke of Duke of Brabant. Henry tries to expand his power and soon quarrels with Count Baldwin V, duke of Hainaut.
- December – Richard I and Philip II stay in Sicily over the winter months waiting for the weather to improve before continuing their journey to the Holy Land.
- The Almohad caliph, Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur, fails to reconquer Silves, Portugal.
- London adopts the Cross of St. George, the red cross on a white background. The flag is also used by the fleet of Genoa, and allows the ships from London to use the flag for protection when they enter the Mediterranean on trading missions.
- March 18 – A massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews in York, results in the deaths of 150–500 Jews in Clifford's Tower.
Art and ScienceEdit
- On the Harmony of Religions and Philosophy (ar. Kitab fasl al-maqal), by Averroes, is first published.
- Speculum Virginum, a German manuscript, is published (approximate date).
- Emo of Friesland, a Frisian scholar and abbot, commences his study at what will become the University of Oxford.
- Cartmel Priory is founded by William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, in England.
- King Stefan Nemanja founds the Studenica Monastery in Serbia.
- April 10 – King Richard I (the Lionheart) leaves Messina for Palestina, but a storm drives his fleet apart. Richard is forced to seek shelter at a Cretan port – from which he has a tempestuous passage to Rhodes, where he stays for ten days (from April 22 to May 1), recovering from his sea-sickness. After some searching, he discovers that the ship carrying his sister Joan of England and his new fiancée, Berengaria of Navarre, is anchored on the south coast of Cyprus, along with the wrecks of several other vessels, including Richard's treasure ship. The survivors of the wrecks have been taken prisoner by Isaac Komnenos, the self-styled emperor of Cyprus.
- May 8 – Richard I and his main fleet arrive in the Byzantine port of Limassol on Cyprus. He orders Isaac Komnenos to release the prisoners and his treasure. Isaac refuses, Richard embarks his forces, and takes Limassol. The Byzantine population and also the Latin merchants in their dislike of Isaac, show themselves friendly to the English invaders. Various leading Crusaders of the Holy Land arrive in Limassol, on May 11. Among them are King Guy of Lusignan of Jerusalem, Bohemond III of Antioch, Humphrey IV of Toron, and Leo I of Armenia. They declare their support for Richard in return that he supports them against their rival, Conrad of Montferrat.
- May 12 – Richard I marries the 19-year-old Berengaria of Navarre, daughter of King Sancho VI (the Wise), in the Chapel of St. George at Limassol. On the same day, she is crowned Queen of England, by John, bishop of Évreux, in the presence of the archbishop of Bordeaux, and many other clergies. After this, hearing that the daughter of Isaac Komnenos has taken refuge in Kyrenia Castle, Richard goes there with his army and receives her submission. On the orders of Richard, she is entrusted to the care of Joan and Berengaria. By the end of May, Richard with his ships sail around the island and seizing all the Cypriot towns and ports on the coast.
- June 1 – A Crusader force led by Richard I defeats the Byzantine army near the village of Tremithus. Isaac Komnenos flees from the battlefield to Kantara. Richard captures Isaac's banner and hunts down the remnants of his army. At Nicosia Richard becomes ill; Guy of Lusignan in command of Richard's forces, marches on Kyrenia and captures it, taking the empress and her child prisoner. Isaac is taken before Richard (in chains of silver) and accepts an unconditional surrender. Richard places garrisons in the towns and castles, and appoints Richard de Camville as governor of Cyprus, jointly with Robert of Thornham.
- Autumn – Emperor Isaac II (Angelos) leads a punitive expedition against Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja. The Serbians are defeated at the South Morava and retreat into the mountains. The Byzantine forces raid all lands around the bank of the river and burn down Stefan's court in Kuršumlija. But Nemanja does not surrender and starts an irregular warfare, Isaac negotiates a peace treaty. The Serbians are forced to give up a large part of their conquests, east of the Velika Morava, and recognize Byzantine rule. Isaac recognizes Nemanja as Grand Prince of Serbia.
- February 13 – Muslim forces attack and succeed in breaking the siege lines around Acre. Though the Crusaders seal the breach, Saladin is able to replenish the garrison, by sending reinforcements. For the defenders, this is a temporary respite – and Saladin is having difficulty keeping his army together. Taqi al-Din, Saladin's nephew and one of his most effective commanders, fails to rejoin the siege. He divides his army for his own territorial ambitions in modern south-eastern Turkey. Later in the spring, Taqi al-Din brings his forces to support the double-siege at Acre.
- April 20 – King Philip II (Augustus) arrives with a Genoese flotilla (six ships) filled with French nobles and his cousin Conrad of Montferrat at Acre. He begins the construction of seven immense stone-throwers – which are used to bombard the city, on May 30. One of the siege-machines is called by the French soldiers the "Evil Neighbour" and "God's Own Sling", and a grappling ladder is known as the "Cat". Meanwhile, the walls of Acre are pounded relentlessly. The Crusaders built earthworks, ramparts, and ditches to protect themselves against Muslim attacks.
- June 8 – Richard I arrives with 25 ships and a strong advanced guard at Acre. Upon reaching the city, he is greeted by Philip II and then set up his camp. Richard becomes almost immediately seriously ill (called Arnaldia) and is confined to his tent. Nevertheless, he leaps into action and secretly initiates negotiations with Saladin. After having been refused a personal meeting, Richard sends a Moroccan prisoner to Saladin's camp as a sign of goodwill. Finally, Saladin accepts a three-day truce and allows his younger brother, Al-Adil, to negotiate with Richard.
- June 25 – The Crusader armies (now totaling some 25,000 men) who are deployed around Acre, implementing a unified strategy of assault-based siege. Teams of sappers and, increasingly massive use of advanced and new stone-throwing catapults, brought by Philip II and Richard I, are used to hammer Acre's walls continuously with giant, accurately loosed stones. By late June, the assault is beginning to undermine the walls, which are tottering. Because of troop shortages and disease, the Muslim defenders can not any longer strengthen their walls.
- July 3 – The Crusaders change their strategy from battering the Acre fortifications to exploiting the breaches. After only the first day of these all-out attacks to seize the city, Saladin's governor sends a message stating he would surrender unless he is relieved. Both French sappers and English catapults manage to make significant breaches in the walls – but the assault is repulsed. Meanwhile, Richard I still unable to walk due to illness, is carried on a regal stretcher near the front lines, from where he picks off Muslim troops on the walls using his crossbow.
- July 12 – Siege of Acre: The Muslim garrison surrenders to Philip II, which includes an agreement to give up the 70 Muslim ships in the harbour without Saladin's consent, and by the time that he learned of this intention, the city has already capitulated. Conrad of Montferrat, who has negotiated the surrender, raises the banners of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and of the Crusader leaders Philip II, Richard I, and Leopold V of Austria, on the city's walls and towers. The siege of Acre has taken nearly two years and has cost some 100,000 Christian casualties.
- July 31 – Philip II, accompanied by Conrad of Montferrat, departs to Tyre and returns to France. He leaves behind a French army (some 10,000 men) under the command of Hugh III, duke of Burgundy. Richard I is left in sole command of the Crusader forces in the Levant. Back in France, Philip schemes with Richard's brother, John of England, to dispossess Richard of his French lands while he is still away, but the intervention of John's mother, Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine, foils the plan. Meanwhile, Richard rebuilds and strengthens the walls of Acre.
- August 20 – Massacre of Ayyadieh: Richard I orders the execution of some 3,000 Muslim prisoners (captured after the siege of Acre), including women and children. The bound prisoners are mercilessly beheaded or cut down using swords and lances. A small group of Saladin's forces (located on Mount Tabor) tries to intervene in order to stop the massacre – but they are repelled. In response, Saladin executes all the Latin prisoners he himself has taken. In the Ayyubid Sultanate, Latin prisoners are tortured and murdered in reprisal for their infamy.
- August 22 – Richard I leads the Crusader forces (some 15,000 men) out of Acre and marches south along the coast, being closely supported by the Crusader fleet, carrying most of the supplies. Meanwhile, Saladin has given his son Al-Afdal orders to remain close to the Crusader rearguard under Hugh III, and strengthens the Muslim garrison both in Jerusalem and Ascalon with 20,000 men each. Richard advances at an unexpectedly slow pace and decides to make camp near Haifa – which Saladin has dismantled shortly before the fall of Acre.
- August 25–26 – Richard I leads a fast-moving advance-guard and establishes a strong position at the fortress near Merle before Saladin arrives. He then hurries back to support the rearguard, to regain contact with the Crusader forces. Richard reorganizes his marching column. The elite Templar and Hospitaller knights hold the van and rearguard, while Richard and a central mass of knights are screened on their landward left side by dense ranks of well-armoured infantry, whose panoply makes them almost immune to Muslim missile attacks.
- August 30 – Richard I advances in three divisions towards Caesarea, with the Crusader fleet accompanying him off-shore. The rearguard becomes engaged, and the French forces under Hugh III are nearly annihilated. Saladin has selected this part of the road for a major assault, but the Muslim attacks have little effect. The main effort to harass the Crusaders from a distance fails. Richard makes camp at the mouth of the Zarqa River, despite the intense heat, thirst, and the loss of many lives. Both armies rest and watch each other the rest of the day.
- September 2 – Richard I leads the Crusader army past Caesarea and is forced to turn inland, where he is separated from his supply ships. Saladin personally attacks the massed Crusader infantry, by bombarding them with arrows before charging their line with cavalry. During this brief but indecisive engagement, Richard is struck in the side by a crossbow bolt – though his armour absorbs much of the blow. By the end of the day, only 25 miles from Jaffa, Richard allows his men to rest (while recovering from his wounds) and re-assembles his forces.
- September 5 – Richard I dispatches envoys to request for peace talks and meets Al-Adil under a flag of truce. Saladin allows the Crusaders to forage in the Forrest of Arsuf. But Richard is in no mood for actual negotiations and demands nothing less than the cession of Palestina. Al-Adil at once breaks off the negotiations. Richard orders his forces to march quietly through the woods, and the Crusaders manage to reach the limits of the forest unhindered and unharmed. The Crusaders pitch their tents in the "Rochetaille" and rest for the night.
- September 7 – Battle of Arsuf: Richard I fights a pitched battle – while waiting for the ideal moment to mount a counterattack. However, the Hospitaller knights led by Garnier de Nablus break formation and launch a charge. Richard restores order in the turmoil and is forced to commit his entire army to support the attack. The Muslim forces flee in panic, but Saladin rallies them in time to defend his camp, and even to lead a counter-charge. By evening, Richard has defeated the Muslim forces, and Saladin retreats in good order to Ramallah.
- September 9–10 – Richard I and his Crusader forces march on to Jaffa and set about rebuilding its fortifications, which Saladin has destroyed by his scorched-earth policy. Mid-September, a large number of French nobles begin to resist – such as Hugh III. They argue about the refortification of Jaffa, instead of a direct strike inland on Jerusalem. Meanwhile, Saladin evacuates and demolishes most of the fortresses of southern Palestina.
- October 29 – Richard I marches with the Crusader forces onto the plains east of Jaffa and begins the slow, steady work of rebuilding a string of sites through which to advance on Jerusalem. During this period, the Third Crusade degenerates into a series of skirmishes. Richard uses diplomacy alongside military threats, hoping to bring Saladin to the point of submission before he has to make the siege of Jerusalem itself.
- December – Richard I and his Crusader forces occupy Latrun, while the advance-guard takes Bayt Nuba. He is warned by his nobles to take no further risks – due to winter conditions, and for being cut off if he presses on. Amongst those keenest on continuing are the French Crusaders under Hugh III. On December 25, Richard is now just 12 miles from Jerusalem.
- April 15 – Henry VI, son of the late Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), is crowned as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, together with his wife Constance by Pope Celestine III, on Easter Monday at Rome. Henry marches south and begins a campaign in Apulia. He besieges Naples, but encounters the resistance of Sicilian forces under Margaritus of Brindisi, who come to support the city's defense. Tusculum is destroyed by the rebel army of the Commune of Rome, on April 17.
- August – Margaritus of Brindisi defeats the Pisan fleet during the siege of Naples, and nearly destroys the late-arriving Genoese contingent. He keeps the harbour approaches open for supplies and reinforcements.
- Prince Yury Bogolyubsky leads a rebellion of disaffected Georgian nobleman against his ex-wife, Queen Tamara (the Great), but her forces win a two pitched battle at Tmogvi and Erusheti. Yury is captured, and Tamara allows him to withdraw to Constantinople.
- Henry VI is forced to raise the siege of Naples, due to an epidemic, and returns to Germany. Upon Henry's retreat, the Lombard cities that have surrendered to the Germans resubmit to Tancred of Lecce. Populace of Salerno turn against Constance during her visit to the city, and Margaritus delivers her to Tancred of Lecce, king or usurper of Sicily, at Messina. Later, Constance is imprisoned at Castel dell'Ovo at Naples.
- The counties of Flanders and Hainaut (modern Belgium) are united under Count Baldwin VIII. Flanders, a feudal fiefdom of France, becomes an important, wealthy independent state of Western Europe.
- Almohad forces under Caliph Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur reconquer Silves in Portugal. In the same campaign, the Almohads take also Alcácer do Sal, while Palmela and Almada are sacked.
- Berthold V, duke of Zähringen, founds the city of Bern (modern Switzerland).
- King Canute VI leads a Danish Crusade to Finland.
- Spring – William de Longchamp, Chief Justiciar and regent, besieges Lincoln Castle accusing the castellan Gerard de Canville of corruption. In response, Prince John captures Nottingham and Tickhill castles from William. News of the dispute reaches Richard I, who sends Walter de Coutances, archbishop of Rouen, with orders to lead negotiations, for a peace between John and William.
- April – John and William de Longchamp meet at Winchester to discuss their differences. Several senior bishops are appointed as arbitrators. At the end of the meeting, both John and William agree to follow the recommendations. William is to return Lincoln Castle to Gerard de Canville and accepts limits to his powers. In return, John is to surrender Nottingham and Tickhill castles.
- September – Geoffrey, illegitimate son of the late King Henry II and half-brother to Richard I and John, lands secretly at Dover. He has been consecrated as the new archbishop of York while in Tours, and on his return is arrested by William de Longchamp. Citing the Winchester treaty, John seeks a meeting with William. Geoffrey is freed, William flees and heads to Dover Castle.
- October – William de Longchamp tries to hold the Tower of London against John's supporters for three days. He surrenders the Tower and escapes to continue his support for Richard I. On October 29, William is captured when disguised as a female merchant. John orders that he is expelled from the country.
- November 13 – Battle of Tarain: Sultan Muhammad of Ghor invades northern India, but is defeated by Rajput forces under Prithviraja III, ruler of Ajmer and Delhi. Prithviraj marches against the Ghurid army (some 100,000 men) with infantry, cavalry, and an elephant force. He repulses the Ghurid invasion near Taraori (some 70 miles of Delhi), Muhammad escapes the battlefield.
- The administration of the Taungoo region (modern Myanmar) is first recorded. King Narapatisithu appoints his son-in-law, Ananda Thuriya, as governor of Kanba Myint.
- King Jayavarman VII of the Khmer Empire sacks the capital of Champa (approximate date).
- March 20 – Pope Clement III dies at Rome after a pontificate of less than 3½ years. He is succeeded by the 85-year-old Celestine III as the 175th pope of the Catholic Church.
- The monks of Glastonbury Abbey dig up the remains of a large knight and a blonde woman, and announce they have discovered the tomb of King Arthur and Queen Guinevere.
- January 7 – Venus occults Jupiter.
- April 28 – Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I), King of Jerusalem, is assassinated in Tyre, only days after his title to the throne is confirmed by election. The killing is carried out by Hashshashin, later the basis of folk etymology for the English word "assassin."
- August 21 – Minamoto no Yoritomo is granted the title of shōgun, thereby officially establishing the first shogunate in the history of Japan.
- Margaritus of Brindisi is created the first Count of Malta for capturing Constance, Holy Roman Empress in 1191.
- Second Battle of Tarain in India: The Ghurid forces of Mu'izz al-Din are victorious over Prithviraj Chauhan.
- The Lugouqiao (later the Marco Polo) Bridge is completed in Beijing.
- Constance, Holy Roman Empress is released by Tancred, King of Sicily under the pressure of Pope Celestine III in May, and returns to Germany in June.
- Prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich of Novgorod burns down Tartu and Otepää Castles, in Estonia.
- March 4 – Saladin (the Lion) dies of a fever at Damascus. The lands of the Ayyubid Dynasty of Syria and Egypt are split among his relatives. During his reign, he briefly unites the Muslim world, and drives the Crusaders out of Jerusalem to a narrow strip of coast. At the time of his death, Saladin has seventeen sons and one little daughter. Al-Afdal succeeds his father as ruler (emir) of Damascus, and inherits the headship of the Ayyubid family. His younger brother, the 22-year-old Al-Aziz, proclaims himself as independent sultan of Egypt. Al-Zahir receives Aleppo (with lands in northern Syria), and Turan-Shah receives Yemen. The other dominions and fiefs in the Oultrejordain (also called Lordship of Montréal) are divided between his sons and the two remaining brothers of Saladin.
- May – The Pisan colony at Tyre plots to seize the city and hands it over to Guy of Lusignan – the ruler of Cyprus. King Henry I of Jerusalem arrests the ringleaders, and orders that the colony is reduced to only 30 persons. The Pisans retaliated by raiding the coastal villages between Tyre and Acre.
- February 14 – King Richard I (the Lionheart), previously imprisoned on his return from the Third Crusade by Leopold V (the Virtuous), duke of Austria is handed over to Emperor Henry VI, and moved to Trifels Castle.
- King Philip II (Augustus) marries Ingeborg of Denmark, daughter of King Valdemar I (the Great). After the marriage, Philip changes his mind, wishes to obtain a separation, and attempts to send her back to Denmark.
- King Tancred of Sicily arranges a marriage between his son Roger III and the 12-year-old Irene Angelina, daughter of the Byzantine emperor Isaac II (Angelos). Roger suddenly dies on December 24.
- Ghurid forces under Qutb al-Din Aibak capture Delhi. General Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji sacks and burns the ancient city of Nalanda, India's greatest Buddhist seat of learning, and the university of Vikramashila.
- February 4 – King Richard I (the Lionheart) is ransomed for an amount of 150,000 marks (demanded by Emperor Henry VI), raised by his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine – who travels to Austria to gain his release. Henry will never receive the full amount he demanded. In March, Richard returns to England, and remains for only a few weeks before returning to the Continent. He leaves the administration of England in the hands of Hubert Walter, archbishop of Canterbury, who accompanied Richard on the Third Crusade and led his army back to England. He levied the taxes to pay the king's ransom and put down a plot against Richard by his younger brother John.
- March 12–28 – Richard I besieges Nottingham Castle (occupied by supporters of John) – which falls after a siege of several days. Richard is aided by English troops under Ranulf de Blondeville and David of Scotland.
- April 17 – Richard I is crowned for the second time, at Winchester, to underline his rightful position as monarch. During the coronation, he wears a golden crown and is followed by notables from the Church and State.
- May – Richard I calls for a council in Nottingham to raise funds for an expedition to France. On May 12, he leaves for Normandy with a large fleet (some 300 ships), to reclaim lands lost to King Philip II (Augustus).
- Ordinance of the Jewry: Beginning of strict records of financial transactions by Jews liable to taxation. The Exchequer of the Jews at Westminster regulates the taxes and the law-cases (also in Wales).
- Spring – Casimir II (the Just), High Duke of Poland, organizes an expedition against the Baltic Yotvingians. The expedition ends with full success, and Casimir has a triumphant return in Kraków. On May 5, after a banquet, which is held to celebrate his return, Casimir dies unexpectedly (possibly poisoned). He is succeeded by his eldest surviving son Leszek I (the White), who has to face strong opposition from his uncle Mieszko III (the Old).
- July 3 – Battle of Fréteval: English forces under Richard I defeat Philip II, and capture the French baggage train. It contains the royal archives – including a list of the treasure of the French kingdom (transported in a wagon behind the army). Philip withdraws across the River Epte, where the bridge collapses under the weight of the retreating army. Meanwhile, Richard sacks the town of Évreux, which is a possession of Philip's ally, John.
- November 20 – Emperor Henry VI enforces the inheritance claims by his wife, Constance I, against her illegitimate nephew, King Tancred of Lecce (who has died on February 20). He takes Palermo (supported by the navy of Pisa and Genoa) and gains control of all of Sicily – ending Norman rule in Italy after 90 years.
- December 25 – Henry VI deposes the 8-year-old William III (son of Tancred de Lecce) and is crowned king of Sicily. The next day, Constance I, who stays in the town of Iesi, gives birth to Frederick II, the future emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
- October – Leo I (Lord of the Mountains), ruler of Armenian Cilicia, invites Bohemond III of Antioch to Bagras, ostensibly to resolve their differences. Upon Bohemond's arrival, Leon captures him and his family, and takes them to the capital of Sis.
- March 10 – Sultan Toghrul III is defeated and killed in battle with Ala ad-Din Tekish, near Rey in Persia – ending the Seljuk Dynasty of Hamedan. The Seljuk Empire passes to the Khwarazmian Dynasty.
- July 24 – Emperor Guang Zong (or Zhao Dun) is forced to abdicate the throne to his 25-year-old son Ning Zong, who succeeds him as ruler of the Song Dynasty. During his reign, he will be dominated by his prime-minister Han Tuozhou (or Han T'o-Chou).
- The Yellow River experiences a major course change, taking over the Huai River drainage system for the next 700 years.
- June 1 – Battle of Shamkor: Georgians defeat the Ildenizids of Azerbaijan.
- July 18 – Battle of Alarcos: Almohad ruler Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur decisively defeats Castilian King Alfonso VIII.
- The Priory of St Mary's is founded in Bushmead.
- Alexius III Angelus overthrows Isaac II, and becomes Byzantine Emperor.
- Spring – Emperor Henry VI persuades a diet at Würzburg. He manages to convince the majority of the German nobles and clergy to recognize his 2-year-old son, Frederick II, as king of the Romans and heir to the imperial throne. However, Archbishop Adolf of Cologne thwarts the will of the diet and arouses the resistance of several Saxon and Thuringian nobles against Henry, who realizes that he is unable to establish a hereditary monarchy (see Erbreichsplan) in the Holy Roman Empire without resistance.
- April 23 – Béla III dies after a 23-year reign in which he has supported the former Byzantine emperor Isaac II (Angelos) against the invading Bulgarians. Having made the Hungarian court one of the most brilliant in Europe and made his hereditary monarchy. Béla is succeeded by his 22-year-old son Emeric as ruler of Hungary, Croatia and Dalmatia (until 1204).
- April 25 – King Alfonso II (the Chaste) dies after a 32-year reign at Perpignan. He leaves a will that divides his realm (Aragon loses Provence) and is succeeded by his 21-year-old son Peter II (the Catholic).
- Battle of Serres: Bulgarian forces under Tsar Ivan Asen I defeat the Byzantine army near Serres. During the winter Ivan continues his campaign in Central Macedonia and captures many Byzantine fortresses.
- Ivan Asen I is stabbed to death by Ivanko, a Bulgarian boyar (aristocrat), who is accused of having an affair with Ivan's wife sister. He is succeeded by his brother Kaloyan as co-ruler of the Bulgarian Empire.
- Spring – William FitzOsbert, a rebel leader, leads an uprising of the poor against the rich in London. He gathers over 52,000 supporters, stocks of weapons are cached throughout the city by breaking into the houses of the rich. Finally, the riots are suppressed and William is hanged, drawn and quartered by orders of Hubert Walter, archbishop of Canterbury.
- England is struck by pestilence and a resulting famine.
- Choe Chung-heon, a Korean general, massacres his rivals and restores unity. After a coup d'état, he takes full power and becomes prime-minister of the Korean state Goryeo (until 1219).
- Spring – Emperor Henry VI travels to Italy to persuade Pope Celestine III to crown his infant son Frederick II, who has been elected "King of the Romans" at Frankfurt.
- King Richard I (the Lionheart) has Château Gaillard (Normandy) built on the Seine River as he fights to restore Angevin power in northern France (approximate date).
- Summer – Henry VI takes cruel measures to put down an insurrection in Sicily and southern Italy, which has been provoked by the oppression of his German officials.
- September 28 – Henry VI dies of malaria at Messina (also possibly poisoned), while preparing an expedition against the Byzantine usurper Alexios III (Angelos).
- Autumn – A German civil war begins upon the sudden death of Henry VI. Henry's brother, Philip of Swabia, takes over the family lands and claims his inheritance.
- Winter – Duke Ottokar I forces his brother, Vladislaus III, to abandon Bohemia. Ottokar restores power and Vladislaus accepts the margravial title of Moravia.
- Saracen pirates, from the Balearic Islands, raid the city of Toulon in Provence, and the Benedictine monastery of Saint Honorat, on the Lérins Islands.
- Northern Crusades: Danish forces led by King Canute VI raid the area of present-day Estonia.
- April 28 – Rhys ap Gruffydd, a Welsh prince, dies and is succeeded by his eldest son Gruffydd ap Rhys II. With the help of Gwenwynwyn ap Owain, his brother Maelgwn ap Rhys invades southern Wales.
- Summer – Gruffydd ap Rhys II is captured and handed over to Gwenwynwyn ap Owain, who transfers him to the English. Gruffydd is imprisoned at Corfe Castle and Maelgwn ap Rhys claims the throne.
- September 10 – Henry I (or Henry II), king of Jerusalem, dies from falling out a first-floor window at his palace in Acre. His widow, Isabella I, becomes regent while the kingdom is thrown into consternation.
- September 22 About 16,000 German crusaders reach Acre, starting the crusade of 1197. Emperor Henry VI, who planned to join the forces later on, was forced to stay behinb in Sicily due to illness. On Septemper 28 he dies at Palermo. Meanwhile the crusaders manage to reconquer Sidon and Beirut but return to Germany after receiving the news of the emperor's death.
- Genghis Khan (or Temüjin) defeats, with help from the Keraites, the Jurchens of the Jin Dynasty. The Jin bestowed Genghis' blood brother Toghrul with the honorable title of Ong Khan, and Genghis receives the lesser title of j'aut quri. During the winter, Toghrul returns and re-establishes himself as leader of the Keraites.
- Arbroath Abbey located in the Scottish town of Arbroath, is consecrated and dedicated to St. Thomas Becket.
- March 8 – Philip of Swabia, son of the late Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), is elected "King of Germany" by his supporters at Mühlhausen in Thuringia. On July 12, Archbishop Adolf of Cologne elects Otto of Brunswick, son of Henry the Lion, as Philip's rival. Otto IV is crowned as King of the Romans in Aachen by supporters of the House of Welf. Philip's coronation, does not take place until September 8 at Mainz.
- May 17 – Frederick II, infant son of the late Emperor Henry VI, is crowned King of Sicily. His mother, Queen Constance I becomes regent, while she surrounds herself with local advisors. On November 27, Constance dies in the royal palace at Palermo. She is succeeded by the new pope, Innocent III, who becomes Frederick's guardian and mentor.
- John of England captures a party of 18 French knights and many men-at-arms, in the ongoing conflict against France. His brother, King Richard I (the Lionheart) introduces a new Great Seal – in an attempt to keep the war against France funded. The government proclaims that charters previously struck with the old seal are no longer valid and must be renewed with a fresh payment. The office of Lord Warden of the Stannaries is also introduced, to tax the produce of tin mines in Cornwall and Devon.
- September 27 – Battle of Gisors: Richard I defeats the French forces led by Philip II (Augustus) at Courcelles-lès-Gisors, in Picardy. Richard captures three castles on the border of the Vexin. The French troops, many of them mounted, crowd the bridge leading into Gisors Castle but it collapses beneath them. The French king is among those who plunge into the water in his armor. Many French knights drown, but Philip is pulled to safety.
- Spring – Amalric I, ruler of Cyprus, marries Princess Isabella I, daughter of the late King Amalric I. A few days later they are crowned as King and Queen of Jerusalem at Acre. On July 1, Amalric signs a truce with Al-Adil I, sultan of Egypt and Syria, securing the Crusader possessions from Acre as far as to Antioch.
- February 18 – Emperor Go-Toba (or Toba the Second) abdicates the throne in favor of his two-year-old son Tsuchimikado after a 14-year reign.
- January 8 – Pope Celestine III dies at Rome after a pontificate of nearly 7 years. He is succeeded by Innocent III as the 176th pope of the Catholic Church. Shortly after he lays an interdict on Laon, in an attempt to create independent beliefs there. This will be followed by interdicts against France in 1199, and Normandy in 1203.
- Innocent III excommunicates Philip II for repudiating his marriage to Ingeborg of Denmark (see 1193), to whom he took an almost instant dislike, but public opinion forces Philip to effect a reconciliation with the pope.
- January 13 – A short-lived truce is declared, between the Kings Richard I (the Lionheart) and Philip II (Augustus). Two of Europe's most powerful rulers meet on the banks of the Seine River, while shouting terms to one another. With a peace secured, Richard is able to refocus on bringing internal order to the south of the Angevin Empire.
- March 26 – Richard I besieges the unarmed castle of Châlus-Chabrol, and is shot in the left shoulder with a crossbow, by the French boy Pierre Basile. The war between the kingdoms of England and France has become so brutal, that Hugh of Lincoln is warned that "nothing now is safe, neither the city to dwell in nor the highway for travel".
- April 6 – Richard I dies from gangrene, caused by his crossbow wound. His younger brother, John (Lackland), becomes King of England. Richard's jewels are left to his nephew, Otto IV, King of the Romans. Mercadier, a mercenary captain and Richard's second in command, has Pierre Basile flayed alive and hanged.
- Roman Mstislavich (the Great), Grand Prince of Vladimir-Volhynia, unites his realm with its westerly neighbor Galicia (after the death of Vladimir II). He creates the Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia more powerful than Kiev.
- Summer – Philip II renews his war against England, supporting the rival claim to the English throne of John's 12-year-old nephew Arthur I, duke of Brittany.
- May 26 – John returns to London and chooses people to help him to rule the kingdom. He appoints Archbishop Hubert Walter as his advisor and chancellor. Geoffrey Fitz Peter is chosen as Chief Justiciar and William (the Marshal) becomes Marshal of John's household. On May 27, John is crowned as king of England at Westminster Abbey.
- Summer – King William the Lion of Scotland supports John's claim to the English throne, in exchange for ownership of the northern territories (including Northumberland and Cumberland).
- January 23 – Caliph Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur dies at Marrakesh after a 15-year reign in which he has defeated the Castilian forces of King Alfonso VIII (the noble) (see 1195) and other Christian enemies in Al-Andalus. He is succeeded by his son Muhammad al-Nasir as ruler of the Almohad Caliphate (until 1213).
- February 9 – Minamoto no Yoritomo, Japanese shogun, dies at Kamakura after a 7-year reign in which he has established the Kamakura Shogunate (see 1192). He is succeeded by his 16-year-old son Minamoto no Yoriie, his grandfather Hōjō Tokimasa proclaims himself regent for Yoriie (until 1202).
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (March 2016)
- July 24 – Yelü Chucai, Chinese statesman (d. 1244)
- December 30 – Ibn Abi'l-Hadid, Arab scholar (d. 1258)
- Benedetto Sinigardi, Italian Franciscan friar (d. 1282)
- Gerhard II of Lippe, German archbishop (d. 1258)
- Heinrich I von Müllenark, German archbishop (d. 1238)
- Helvis of Cyprus, princess of Antioch (approximate date)
- Henry II of Bar, French nobleman and knight (d. 1239)
- Ida of Nivelles, Belgian Cistercian nun and mystic (d. 1231)
- John (the Old), French nobleman and knight (d. 1267)
- Klement of Ruszcza, Polish nobleman and knight (d. 1256)
- Luce de Gast, English nobleman (approximate date)
- Maria of Brabant, Holy Roman Empress (d. 1260)
- Peter González (or Pedro), Castilian priest (d. 1246)
- Pietro della Vigna, Italian jurist and diplomat (d. 1249)
- Richer of Senones, French monk and chronicler (d. 1266)
- Roger I of Fézensaguet, French nobleman (d. 1245)
- Saif ed-Din al-Boharsi, Persian theologian (d. 1261)
- Sorghaghtani Beki, mother of Kublai Khan (d. 1252)
- Tbeli Abuserisdze, Georgian scholar and writer (d. 1240)
- Theodora Angelina, Byzantine noblewoman (d. 1246)
- Vincent of Beauvais, French encyclopedist (d. 1264)
- William Marshal, English nobleman and knight (d. 1231)
- William Perault, French preacher and writer (d. 1271)
- Władysław Odonic, duke of Greater Poland (d. 1239)
- Yuan Haowen, Chinese politician and poet (d. 1257)
- Zulema L'Astròloga, Moorish astronomer (approximate date)
- February 8 – Yaroslav II, Grand Prince of Vladimir (d. 1246)
- Geoffrey de Mandeville, English nobleman (approximate date)
- George IV (or Lasha Giorgi), king of Georgia (d. 1223)
- Joanna of Hohenstaufen, countess of Burgundy (d. 1205)
- Mafalda of Castile, Spanish princess (infanta) (d. 1204)
- Richard Marshal, Norman nobleman and knight (d. 1234)
- Stephen Devereux, Norman nobleman (approximate date)
- Theobald I, German nobleman (House of Lorraine) (d. 1220)
- Tolui, Mongol general and son of Genghis Khan (d. 1232)
- Yan Yu, Chinese poetry theorist and writer (d. 1241)
- September 17 – Minamoto no Sanetomo, Japanese shōgun (d. 1219)
- Queen Maria of Jerusalem (d. 1212)
- King Stefan Radoslav of Serbia (d. 1234)
- Saint Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari of Uch Sharif (d. 1291)
- July 28 – Kujō Michiie, Japanese nobleman (d. 1252)
- Alice of Champagne, queen of Cyprus (d. 1246)
- Altheides, Cypriot philosopher and writer (d. 1262)
- Beatrice II, French countess palatine (d. 1231)
- Henri de Dreux, French archbishop (d. 1240)
- Frederick of Isenberg, German nobleman (d. 1226)
- Giovanni da Penna, Italian Franciscan priest (d. 1271)
- John III (Doukas Vatatzes), emperor of Nicaea (d. 1254)
- John Angelos (Good John), Byzantine prince (d. 1253)
- John Devereux, Norman nobleman (approximate date)
- Juliana of Liège, Belgian nun and mystic (d. 1258)
- Margaret of Scotland, English noblewoman (d. 1259)
- Sayyed ibn Tawus, Arab jurist and theologian (d. 1266)
- William de Ferrers, English nobleman (d. 1254)
- April 25 – Ezzelino III, Italian nobleman and knight (d. 1259)
- July 16 – Clare of Assisi, Italian nun and saint (d. 1253)
- November 30 – Andrea Caccioli, Italian priest (d. 1254)
- December 26 – Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1250)
- Jacob Anatoli, French Jewish translator and writer (d. 1256)
- Jacopo Contarini, doge of Venice (House of Contarini) (d. 1280)
- Lý Huệ Tông, Vietnamese emperor (Lý Dynasty) (d. 1226)
- Majd al-Din Taymiyyah, Seljuk judge and theologian (d. 1255)
- Margaret, marchioness of Namur (House of Vianden) (d. 1270)
- Maurice FitzGerald, Norman nobleman and justiciar (d. 1257)
- Moses ben Nahman, Spanish rabbi and philosopher (d. 1270)
- Otto I, Dutch nobleman and bishop (House of Gelre) (d. 1215)
- Richard Mór de Burgh, Norman nobleman (approximate date)
- Rusudan, queen of Georgia (House of Bagrationi) (d. 1245)
- Saionji Saneuji, Japanese nobleman and waka poet (d. 1269)
- August 15 – Anthony of Padua, Portuguese preacher and saint (d. 1231)
- Princess Shōshi of Japan (d. 1211)
- Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester (d. 1265)
- January 3 – Tsuchimikado, emperor of Japan (d. 1231)
- March 27 – Sviatoslav III, Kievan Grand Prince (d. 1252)
- Abul Hasan ash-Shadhili, Almohad scholar (d. 1258)
- Alberico II, Italian troubadour and statesman (d. 1260)
- Aurembiaix, Spanish countess (House of Urgell) (d. 1231)
- Dōjonyūdō, Japanese nobleman and waka poet (d. 1249)
- Henry II (the Pious), High Duke of Poland (d. 1241)
- Henry VI (the Younger), German nobleman (d. 1214)
- Pedro Alfonso de León, Spanish nobleman (d. 1226)
- William II of Dampierre, French nobleman (d. 1231)
- October 22 – Juntoku, emperor of Japan (d. 1242)
- Amadeus IV, count of Savoy (House of Savoy) (d. 1253)
- Dharmasvamin, Tibetan monk and pilgrim (d. 1264)
- Ibn al-Baitar, Moorish botanist and pharmacist (d. 1248)
- John de Braose (Tadody), English nobleman (or 1198)
- Naratheinga Uzana, Burmese prince and regent (d. 1235)
- Nicola Paglia, Italian priest and preacher (d. 1256)
- Nikephoros Blemmydes, Byzantine theologian (d. 1272)
- Oberto Pallavicino, Italian nobleman (signore) (d. 1269)
- Raymond VII, French nobleman and knight (d. 1249)
- Richard of Chichester, bishop of Chichester (d. 1253)
- William de Braose, English nobleman (d. 1230)
- May 4 – Kyaswa, ruler of the Pagan Empire (d. 1251)
- July 11 – Hōjō Shigetoki, Japanese samurai (d. 1261)
- August 24 – Alexander II, king of Scotland (d. 1249)
- September 25 – Ai Zong, Chinese emperor (d. 1234)
- Baldwin III, Flemish nobleman and knight (d. 1244)
- Beatrice of Savoy, countess of Provence (d. 1266)
- Beatrice of Swabia, Holy Roman Empress (d. 1212)
- Branca of Portugal, Portuguese princess (d. 1240)
- Fujiwara no Tameie, Japanese waka poet (d. 1275)
- Humbert V de Beaujeu, French constable (d. 1250)
- Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari, Arab missionary (d. 1292)
- John de Braose (Tadody), English nobleman (d. 1232)
- Konrad the Curly, Polish nobleman (approximate date)
- Koun Ejō, Japanese Sōtō Zen monk and priest (d. 1280)
- Marie of France, French princess and duchess (d. 1224)
- Minamoto no Ichiman, Japanese nobleman (d. 1203)
- Ramon Berenguer IV, Spanish nobleman (d. 1245)
- Sybilla of Lusignan, queen of Lesser Armenia (d. 1230)
- April 17 – Marie of Ponthieu, French noblewoman (d. 1250)
- Aisha Al-Manoubya, Almohad female Sufi mystic (d. 1267)
- Al-Mansur al-Hasan, Yemeni imam and politician (d. 1271)
- Bohemond V, prince of Antioch (House of Poitiers) (d. 1252)
- Ferdinand III (the Saint), king of Castile and León (d. 1252)
- Guttorm of Norway (Sigurdsson), king of Norway (d. 1204)
- Ibn al-Abbar, Andalusian biographer and historian (d. 1260)
- Isobel of Huntingdon, daughter of David of Scotland (d. 1252)
- Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, Khwarezmid ruler (shah) (d. 1231)
- Joan of Constantinople, Flemish noblewoman (d. 1244)
- Sturla Sighvatsson, Icelandic chieftain (or goði) (d. 1238)
- Thomas II, Flemish nobleman (House of Savoy) (d. 1259)
- February 18 – Otto II (the Rich), margrave of Meissen (b. 1125)
- March 15 – Isabella of Hainault, wife of Philip II (Augustus) (b. 1170)
- March 23 – Saigyō Hōshi, Japanese monk, poet and writer (b. 1118)
- June 10 – Frederick I (Barbarossa), Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1122)
- July 25 – Sibylla (or Sibylle), queen of Jerusalem (b. 1160)
- July 29 – Maud of Gloucester (or Matilda), English countess
- August 1 – Floris III, Dutch nobleman and knight (b. 1141)
- August 16 – Dedi III (the Fat), German nobleman (b. 1130)
- August 21 – Godfrey III, count of Louvain (House of Reginar)
- September 13 – Herman IV, German nobleman (b. 1135)
- September 20 – Adelog of Hildesheim, German bishop
- October 16 – Louis III (the Mild), German nobleman
- November 3 – Diepold of Berg, German bishop (b. 1140)
- November 19 – Baldwin of Forde, English archbishop
- November 21 – Děpolt II (or Diepold), German nobleman
- Bernard II de Balliol, Norman nobleman (approximate date)
- Chrétien de Troyes, French poet, trouvère and writer
- Geoffrey IV (the Younger), French nobleman and knight
- Judah ben Saul ibn Tibbon, Arab-Jewish translator (or 1191)
- Maria Komnene, queen of Hungary and Croatia (b. 1144)
- Ramon I de Montcada, Catalan nobleman (b. 1150)
- Ranulf de Glanvill, English Chief Justiciar and writer
- Robert de Beaumont (White-Hands), English nobleman
- Walkelin de Derby (de Ferrers), Norman nobleman
- Walter de Clifford (or FitzRichard), English nobleman
- January 14 – Berno, German missionary and bishop
- January 20
- February 8 – Erard II, French nobleman (House of Brienne)
- February 24 – John I, French nobleman (House of Alençon)
- March 20 – Clement III, pope of the Catholic Church (b. 1130)
- April 1 – Engelbert II, German nobleman (House of Gorizia)
- June 10 – Barisone II of Torres, Sardinian ruler of Logudoro
- June 29 – William le Vavasour, English nobleman (b. 1131)
- July 3 – Albéric Clément, Marshal of France (b. 1165)
- July 7 – Judith of Hohenstaufen, German noblewoman
- August 1 – Philip of Alsace, Flemish nobleman (b. 1143)
- August 5 – Rudolf of Zähringen, archbishop of Mainz
- August 13 – Philip I, archbishop of Cologne (b. 1130)
- September 7 – James of Avesnes, French nobleman
- September 9 – Conrad II, duke of Bohemia (b. 1136)
- September 10 – Ralph de Warneville, Norman bishop
- October 15 – Raoul I (the Red), French nobleman
- December 15 – Welf VI, margrave of Tuscany (b. 1115)
- December 26 – Reginald Fitz Jocelin, English bishop
- Adam de Senlis, French Benedictine monk and abbot
- Agnes of Loon, German duchess and regent (b. 1150)
- Galeran V de Beaumont, French nobleman and knight
- Geoffroy III de Pons, French nobleman and knight
- Hugh VI (the Clever), French nobleman and knight
- John I of Ponthieu, Norman nobleman and knight
- Maurice of Carnoet, French Cistercian abbot (b. 1117)
- Mór Ní Tuathail, queen of Leinster (approximate date)
- Richard de Camville, English nobleman and governor
- Rupert III, German nobleman (House of Nassau)
- Shun'e (or Tayū no Kimi), Japanese (waka) poet
- Sohrevardi, Persian scholar and philosopher (b. 1154)
- Walter Ophamil (or Offamil), Sicilian archbishop
- William V (the Old), Italian nobleman and knight
- William Fitzstephen, English cleric and administrator
- April 26 – Emperor Go-Shirakawa of Japan (b. 1127)
- April 28 – Conrad of Montferrat, King of Jerusalem (b. mid-1140s)
- May 8 – Duke Ottokar IV, Duke of Styria (b. 1163)
- August 25 – Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy (b. 1142)
- Saint Margaret of England, English saint
- Ikhtiyar al-Din Hasan ibn Ghafras, vizier of the Sultanate of Rum
- Kilij Arslan II, Sultan of Rum
- Rashid ad-Din Sinan, the "Old Man of the Mountain", leader of the Hashashin sect (b. 1132/1135)
- Prithviraj Chauhan, King of the Chauhan Dynasty (b. 1166)
- March 4 – Saladin (the Lion), sultan of Egypt and Syria (b. 1137)
- June 13 – Pedro de Artajona, Spanish nobleman and bishop
- June 27 – Robert FitzRalph, English archdeacon and bishop
- August 2 – Mieszko the Younger, duke of Kalisz (House of Piast)
- September 14 – Minamoto no Noriyori, Japanese general (b. 1150)
- September 23 – Robert IV, French nobleman and Grand Master
- December 23 – Thorlak Thorhallsson, Icelandic bishop (b. 1133)
- December 24 – Roger III, king of Sicily (House of Hauteville)
- Balian of Ibelin (the Younger), French nobleman and knight
- Derbforgaill ingen Maeleachlainn (or Derval), Irish princess
- Düsum Khyenpa, Tibetan spiritual leader (karmapa) (b. 1110)
- Fan Chengda, Chinese politician and geographer (b. 1126)
- Ren Zong, Chinese emperor of the Western Xia (b. 1124)
- Walter de Berkeley, Scottish nobleman (approximate date)
- February 20 – Tancred of Lecce, king of Sicily (b. 1138)
- March 19 – Toghrul III, sultan of the Seljuk Empire
- April 3 – Sigurd Magnusson, Norwegian nobleman
- April 20 – Odon of Poznań, duke of Greater Poland
- May 5 – Casimir II (the Just), duke of Lesser Poland
- June 27 – Sancho VI (the Wise), king of Navarre (b. 1132)
- June 28 – Xiao Zong, Chinese emperor (Song Dynasty) (b. 1127)
- July 18 – Guy of Lusignan, king of Jerusalem (b. 1150)
- July 27 – Sviatoslav III, Kievan Grand Prince (b. 1126)
- November 15 – Margaret I, countess of Flanders
- December 26 – Aubrey de Vere, 1st Earl of Oxford
- December 31 – Leopold V, duke of Austria (b. 1157)
- Basil Vatatzes, Byzantine governor and general
- March 3 – Hugh de Puiset, bishop of Durham (b. c. 1125)
- August 6 – Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria (b. 1129)
- October 13 – Gualdim Pais, Great Master of the Templars in Portugal (b. 1118)
- December 17 – Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut (b. 1150)
- Ascelina, French nun and mystic (b. 1121)
- January 6 – Burchard du Puiset, Norman archdeacon
- April 23 – Béla III, king of Hungary and Croatia (b. 1148)
- April 25 – Alfonso II (the Chaste), king of Aragon (b. 1157)
- April 30 – Baldwin II van Holland, bishop of Utrecht
- July 12 – Maurice II de Craon, Norman nobleman
- August 14 – Henry IV (the Blind), count of Luxembourg
- August 15 – Conrad II, duke of Swabia (b. 1172)
- September 11 – Maurice de Sully, bishop of Paris
- November 30 – Richard of Acerra, Norman nobleman
- Canute I (Eriksson), king of Sweden (approximate date)
- Dulcea of Worms, German Jewish businesswoman
- Ephraim of Bonn, German rabbi and writer (b. 1132)
- Eschiva of Ibelin, queen consort of Cyprus (b. 1160)
- Godfrey of Viterbo, Italian chronicler (approximate date)
- Hugh III of Rodez, French nobleman (House of Millau)
- Ibn Mada', Andalusian scholar and polymath (b. 1116)
- Isaac Komnenos Vatatzes, Byzantine aristocrat
- Ivan Asen I, ruler (tsar) of the Bulgarian Empire
- Jamal al-Din al-Ghaznawi, Arab jurist and theologian
- Roger fitzReinfrid, English sheriff and royal justice
- Taira no Kagekiyo, Japanese nobleman and samurai
- Vsevolod I Svyatoslavich (the Fierce), Kievan prince
- Wartislaw Swantibor (the Younger), Polish nobleman
- William FitzOsbert, English politician and rebel leader
- William of Salisbury, English nobleman and high sheriff
- Yaish ibn Yahya, Portuguese politician and advisor
- Agnetha Ní Máelshechlainn, Abbess of Clonard, Ireland
- April 23 – Davyd Rostislavich, Kievan Grand Prince (b. 1140)
- April 28 – Rhys ap Gruffydd, Welsh prince of Deheubarth
- June 1 – Gertrude of Bavaria, queen consort of Denmark
- July 9 – Rudolf of Wied (or Rudolph), archbishop of Trier
- September 10 – Henry I (or Henry II), king of Jerusalem (b. 1166)
- September 18 – Margaret of France, daughter of Louis VII
- September 28 – Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1165)
- November 13 – Homobonus of Cremona, Italian merchant
- December 12 – Wu (or Xiansheng), Chinese empress (b. 1115)
- Alix of France, French countess consort and regent (b. 1150)
- Bretislav III, bishop of Prague (House of Přemyslid) (b. 1137)
- Burhan al-Din al-Marghinani, Arab Hanafi jurist (b. 1135)
- Jamal al-Din al-Ghaznawi, Arab scholar and theologian
- Jón Loftsson, Icelandic chieftain and politician (b. 1124)
- Jordan Lupin, Italo-Norman nobleman and rebel leader
- Margaritus of Brindisi, Sicilian Grand Admiral (b. 1149)
- Owain ap Gruffydd (or Cyfeiliog), Welsh prince (b. 1130)
- Peter II (or Theodor-Peter), ruler (tsar) of the Bulgaria
- Peter Cantor (the Chanter), French theologian and writer
- Ruadhri Ua Flaithbertaigh, Irish king of Iar Connacht
- Tughtakin ibn Ayyub, Ayyubid emir (prince) of Arabia
- Walter Devereux, Norman nobleman and knight (b. 1173)
- William de Longchamp, Norman nobleman and bishop
- January 8 – Celestine III, pope of the Catholic Church (b. 1106)
- February 1 – Walram I (of Laurenburg), German nobleman
- March 11 – Marie of France, French princess and countess (b. 1145)
- April 16 – Frederick I (the Catholic), duke of Austria (b. 1175)
- July 7 – George II (Xiphilinos), patriarch of Constantinople
- July 24 – Berthold of Hanover, German apostle and bishop
- August 13 – Hellicha of Wittelsbach, duchess of Bohemia
- September 10 – Richard FitzNeal, bishop of London (b. 1130)
- November 27
- November 29 – Al-Aziz Uthman, sultan of Egypt (b. 1171)
- December 2 – Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, High King of Ireland
- December 11 – Averroes, Arab judge and physician (b. 1126)
- Abu Madyan, Andalusian mystic and Sufi master (b. 1126)
- Alix of France, French princess and countess (approximate date)
- Constantine II (de Martis), ruler of the Judicate of Logudoro
- Donatus of Ripacandida, Italian monk and saint (b. 1179)
- Dulce of Aragon (or Barcelona), queen of Portugal (b. 1160)
- Nerses of Lambron, Armenian archbishop and writer (b. 1153)
- Walter Fitz Robert, English nobleman and knight (b. 1124)
- William of Newburgh, English historian and writer (b. 1136)
- Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich, Kievan Grand Prince (b. 1139)
- January 23 – Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur, Almohad caliph (b. 1160)
- February 9 – Minamoto no Yoritomo, Japanese shogun (b. 1147)
- February 13 – Stefan Nemanja, Serbian Grand Prince (b. 1113)
- March 17 – Jocelin of Glasgow (or Jocelyn), Scottish bishop
- April 5 – Ashikaga Yoshikane, Japanese samurai and monk
- April 6
- July 10 – Hugh de Roxburgh (or Hugo), Scottish bishop
- August 20 – Matthew, Scottish churchman and bishop
- September 4 – Joan of England, queen of Sicily (b. 1165)
- October 9 – Bobo of San Teodoro, Italian cardinal-deacon
- November 6 – Hatim ibn Ibrahim, Yemeni religious leader
- November 25 – Albert III (the Rich), count of Habsburg
- December 25 – Helena of Hungary, duchess of Austria
- Alexios Komnenos, son of Andronikos I (Komnenos)
- Azalais of Toulouse (or Adelaide), French noblewoman
- Benedicta Ebbesdotter of Hvide, queen of Sweden (or 1200)
- Date Tomomune, Japanese nobleman and samurai (b. 1129)
- Michael the Syrian (the Great), Syriac patriarch (b. 1126)
- Raymond IV (or Raimund), count and regent of Tripoli
- Vladimir II Yaroslavich, Kievan prince (House of Rurik)
- Choniates, Nicetas (1984). O city of Byzantium: annals of Niketas Choniatēs. Translated by Magoulias, Harry J. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. p. 224. ISBN 0814317642. OCLC 10605650.
- Loud, G. A. (2010). The Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa: The History of the Expedition of Emperor Frederick and Related Texts, p. 104. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-75466-575-5.
- Alan Ambrisco (1999). Cannibalism and Cultural Encounters in Richard Coeur de Lion, pp. 105–106. Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies.
- Kennedy, Hugh (1994). Crusader Castles, pp. 43–44. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42068-7.
- Pryor, John H. (2015). A Medieval Siege of Troy: The Fight to the Death at Acre, 1189–1191, p. 108. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-1-47241-958-3.
- Loud, G. A. (2010). The Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa: The History of the Expedition of Emperor Frederick and Related Texts, pp. 110–111. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-75466-575-5.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Kenneth P. Czech. Third Crusade: Siege of Acre, p. 3. Originally published in August 2001. Military History Magazine.
- Wolff and Hazard, p. 57[permanent dead link]
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 33. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Picard, Christophe (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 37. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Nicholson, Helen J. (1997). Chronicle of the Third Crusade: A Translation of the Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi, p. 189. Ashbury, UK: Ashgate. ISBN 1-85928-154-0.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 39–40. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- David Nicolle (2005). The Third Crusade 1191: Richard the Lionheart, Saladin and the struggle for Jerusalem, p. 47. ISBN 978-1-84176-868-7.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 41. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 40–41. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 42. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Asbridge, Thomas (2012). The Crusades: The War for the Holy land, p. 294. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-849-83770-5.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 43. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 46. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- David Nicolle (2005). The Third Crusade 1191: Richard the Lionheart, Saladin and the struggle for Jerusalem, p. 52. ISBN 978-1-84176-868-7.
- David Nicolle (2005). The Third Crusade 1191: Richard the Lionheart, Saladin and the struggle for Jerusalem, p. 59. ISBN 978-1-84176-868-7.
- David Nicolle (2005). The Third Crusade 1191: Richard the Lionheart, Saladin and the struggle for Jerusalem, p. 66. ISBN 978-1-84176-868-7.
- David Nicolle (2005). The Third Crusade 1191: Richard the Lionheart, Saladin and the struggle for Jerusalem, p. 66. ISBN 978-1-84176-868-7.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 47–49. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Oman, Charles William Chadwick (1924). A History of the Art of War in the Middle Ages. Vol I: 378–1278 AD, pp. 317–318. London: Greenhill Books; Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, reprinted in 1998.
- Verbruggen, J. F. (1997). The Art of Warfare in Western Europe during the Middle Ages: From the Eighth Century to 1340, p. 239. Boydell & Brewer.
- David Nicolle (2005). The Third Crusade 1191: Richard the Lionheart, Saladin and the struggle for Jerusalem, p. 85. ISBN 978-1-84176-868-7.
- Horst Fuhrmann (1986). Germany in High Middle Ages: c. 1050–1200, p. 181. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-31980-5.
- Khazanov, Anatoly M. (2001). Nomads in the Sedentary World, p. 49. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1369-7.
- David Nicolle (2011). The Fourth Crusade 1202–04: The betrayal of Byzantium, p. 12. ISBN 978-1-84908-319-5.
- Picard, Christophe (2000). Le Portugal musulman (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. L'Occident d'al-Andalus sous domination islamique. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. p. 110. ISBN 2-7068-1398-9.
- Georg Haggren; Petri Halinen; Mika Lavento; Sami Raninen ja Anna Wessman (2015). Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. p. 380.
- Huscroft, H. (2005). Ruling England 1042–1217, p. 144. London: Pearson/Longman. ISBN 0-582-84882-2.
- Warren, W. L. (1978). King John, p. 42. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03643-3.
- Turner, Ralph V. (2007). Longchamp, William de (d. 1197). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (May 2007 revised ed.). Oxford University Press.
- Cynthia Talbot (2015). The Last Hindu Emperor: Prithviraj and the Indian Past, 1200–2000, p. 47. ISBN 978-1-10711-856-0.
- Grandsen, Antonia (2001). "The Growth of Glastonbury Traditions and Legends in the Twelfth Century". In J. P. Carley (ed.). Glastonbury Abbey and the Arthurian tradition. Boydell & Brewer. p. 43. ISBN 0-85991-572-7.
- "Assorted planetary/lunar events: Mutual planetary events, -1000 to +6000". www.projectpluto.com. 17 August 1998. Retrieved 2019-03-29.
- Daftary, Farhad; Sacy, Antoine Isaac Baron Silvestre de (1994). The Assassin Legends: Myths of the Isma'ilis. London, New York: I.B. Tauris. p. 72. ISBN 9781850437055.
- Deal, William E. (2007) . Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 37. ISBN 9780195331264.
- Krenner, Walther G. von; Jeremiah, Ken (2015). Creatures Real and Imaginary in Chinese and Japanese Art: An Identification Guide. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. pp. 135–136. ISBN 9781476619583.
- Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2008). History of Ancient India: Earliest Times to 1000 A. D. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 210. ISBN 9788126900275.
- Aldrich, M. A. (2006). The Search for a Vanishing Beijing: A Guide to China's Capital Through the Ages. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. p. 286. ISBN 9789622097773.
- Hughes, Philip (1979) . History of the Church. Volume 2: The Church In The World The Church Created: Augustine To Aquinas. London: A&C Black. p. 317. ISBN 9780722079829.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 70. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Warren, W. L. (1961). King John. University of California Press. p. 44.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 14 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 563. .
- Allen, Charles (2002). The Buddha and the Sahibs.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 129–131. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Palmer, Alan; Palmer, Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 73–75. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History, p. 131. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- John Gillingham (2002). Richard I, p. 285. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-09404-6.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History, p. 131. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Horst Fuhrmann (1986). Germany in the High Middle Ages: c. 1050–1200, p. 181. Cambridge University Press.ISBN 978-0-521-31980-5.
- Burgtorf, Jochen (2016). The Antiochene War of Succession, p. 199. In Boas, Adrian J. (ed.). The Crusader World. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-415-82494-1.
- Grousset, René (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
- Grousset, René (1959). The Rise and Splendour of the Chinese Empire. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 303.
- Donvito, Philippo (2005). "Queen Tamar of Georgia (1184-1213): The Lioness of the Caucasus". Medieval Warfare. IV-2: Female Knights and Fighting Princesses - Medieval Women as Warriors: 19–23.
- Tsurtsumia, Mamuka (2014). "Couched Lance and Mounted Shock Combat in the East: The Georgian Experience". In Rogers, Clifford J.; DeVries, Kelly; France, John (eds.). Journal of Medieval Military History. Volume XII. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell & Brewer Ltd. pp. 89–90. ISBN 9781843839361.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Wheeler, Benjamin Webb (1927). "The Papacy and Hispanic Interstate Relations, 1195-1212". The Catholic Historical Review. 13 (1): 29–38. ISSN 0008-8080. JSTOR 25012394.
- Jumper, Mark A. (2017). Shaw, Jeffrey M.; Demy, Timothy J. (eds.). War and Religion: An Encyclopedia of Faith and Conflict. Santa Barbara, CA, Denver, CO and Oxford: ABC-CLIO. pp. 13–14. ISBN 9781610695176.
- Postles, Dave (2002). "Religious Houses and the Laity in the Eleventh to Thirteenth Century England: An Overview". In Morillo, Stephen (ed.). The Haskins Society Journal: Studies in Medieval History 2002. Volume XII. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. pp. 9. ISBN 9781843830085.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Davis, G. R. C. (2010). Medieval Cartularies of Great Britain and Ireland. London: The British Library Publishing Division. p. 31. ISBN 9780712350389.
- Lascaratos, John; Marketos, S. (1992-03-01). "The penalty of blinding during Byzantine times". Documenta Ophthalmologica. 81 (1): 133–144. doi:10.1007/BF00155023. ISSN 1573-2622. PMID 1473461. S2CID 19966858.
- Ciggaar, Krijna Nelly (1996). Western Travellers to Constantinople: The West and Byzantium, 962-1204 : Cultural and Political Relations. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 356. ISBN 9789004106376.
- Hampe, Karl (1973). Germany under the Salian and Hohenstaufen Emperors, p. 226. Trans: Bennett, Ralph. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-14180-4.
- Warren, W. L. (1961). King John. University of California Press. p. 60.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History, p. 131. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- "Henry VI died in Messina, poisoned, so it was believed, by his own entourage because of his Italian policy." P. 41 in Kenneth Varty (editor), Reynard the Fox: Social Engagement and Cultural Metamorphoses in the Beast Epic from the Middle Ages to the Present (Berghahn Books, 2000). ISBN 1-57181-737-9.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 92–93. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Unité mixte de recherche 5648--Histoire et archéologie des mondes chrétiens et musulmans médiévaux. Pays d'Islam et monde latin, Xe-XIIIe siècle: textes et documents. Lyon: Presses Universitaires de Lyon.
- Sulev Vahtre (2007). Eesti ajalugu: kronoloogia, 2007. Printed by "Olion". Pg 21.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 78. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Biran, Michal (2012). Genghis Khan, p. 35. London: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 978-1-78074-204-5.
- King John by Warren. Published by University of California Press in 1961. p. 47
- King John by Warren. Published by University of California Press in 1961. p. 62
- King John by Warren. Published by University of California Press in 1961. p. 124
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 79–82. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Palmer, Alan; Palmer, Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 73–75. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Rees, Simon (2006). "King Richard I of England Versus King Philip II Augustus". Military History (published September 2006).
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 129–131. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- King John by Warren. Published by University of California Press in 1961. p. 63
- Warren, Lewis (1961). King John. University of California Press. p. 48.
- Voell, Stéphane; Kaliszewska, Iwona (March 9, 2016). State and Legal Practice in the Caucasus: Anthropological Perspectives on Law and Politics. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-317-05050-6.
- Chiang, Howard (2015). Historical Epistemology and the Making of Modern Chinese Medicine. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. p. 51. ISBN 9780719096006.
- Bellomo, Elena (2008). The Templar Order in North-west Italy: (1142 - C. 1330). Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 144. ISBN 9789004163645.
- Commire, Anne (2001). Women in World History. Waterford, CT: Gale. p. 401. ISBN 9780787640699.
- Podskalsky, Gerhard (2000). "Two Archbishops of Achrida (Ochrid) and their significance for Macedonia's secular and church history: Theophylaktos and Demetrios Chomatenos". In Burke, John; Scott, Roger (eds.). Byzantine Macedonia: Identity, Image and History: Papers from the Melbourne Conference July 1995. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 147. ISBN 9789004344730.
- Asif, Manan Ahmed (2016). A Book of Conquest: The Chachnama and Muslim Origins in South Asia. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press. p. 210. ISBN 9780674660113.
- Hanif, N. (2000). Biographical Encyclopaedia of Sufis: South Asia. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. p. 169. ISBN 9788176250870.
- "Frederick II | Biography, Accomplishments, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
- MacEvitt, Christopher (2011). "Martyrdom and the Muslim World Through Franciscan Eyes". The Catholic Historical Review. 97 (1): 1–23. ISSN 0008-8080. JSTOR 23052738.
- Craughwell, Thomas J. (2007). This Saint's for You!: 300 Heavenly Allies for Architects, Athletes, Brides, Bachelors, Babies, Librarians, Murderers, Whales, Widows, and You. Philadelphia, PA: Quirk Books. p. 148. ISBN 9781594741845.
- Lewis, James B. (2011-04-01). "Robert I. Hellyer. Defining Engagement: Japan and Global Contexts, 1640–1868. (Harvard East Asian Monographs, number 326.) Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia Center. 2009. Pp. xvi, 281. $39.95.Reviews of BooksAsia". The American Historical Review. 116 (2): 429–430. doi:10.1086/ahr.116.2.429a. ISSN 0002-8762.
- McHardy, A.K. (1988-05-01). "K.J. Stringer (ed.), Essays on the nobility of medieval Scotland". Northern Scotland. 8 (First Series) (1): 75–76. doi:10.3366/nor.1988.0010. ISSN 0306-5278.
- Ryerons, Richard Alan; Reveals, Jonna M.; Walker, Celeste; Lint, Gregg G.; Costello, Humphrey J., eds. (1993). Adams Family Correspondence. Volumes 5: October 1782 - November 1784. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press. p. 336. ISBN 9780674020061.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Perkins, George W. (1998). The Clear Mirror: A Chronicle of the Japanese Court During the Kamakura Period (1185-1333). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. p. 31. ISBN 9780804763882.
- Varley, Paul (2008). "The Way of the Warrior". In Bary, William Theodore De (ed.). Sources of East Asian Tradition: Premodern Asia. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 759. ISBN 9780231143059.
- Loud, Graham A. (2010). The Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa: The History of the Expedition of the Emperor Frederick and Related Texts. Crusade Texts in Translation. 19. New York, London: Routledge. ISBN 9781317036845.
- Loud, Graham A. (2017). "A Political and Social Revolution: the Development of the Territorial Principalities in Germany". In Loud, Graham A.; Schenk, Jochen (eds.). The Origins of the German Principalities, 1100-1350: Essays by German Historians. New York and London: Taylor & Francis. p. 16. ISBN 9781317022008.
- Graham, William (1862). Genealogical and Historical Diagrams, Illustrative of the History of Scotland, England, France, and Germany. From the Ninth Century to the Present Time. Edinburgh and London: Oliver & Boyd. p. 17.
- Bouchard, Constance Brittain (1999) . Sword, Miter, and Cloister: Nobility and the Church in Burgundy, 980-1198. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. p. 256. ISBN 9780801475269.
- Butler, Alban (1798). The Lives Of The Primitive Fathers, Martyrs, And Other Principal Saints: Compiled From Original Monuments And Other Authentic Records. II (Third ed.). London and Newcastle: J. Moir. p. 43.
- Bryer, Anthony (1980). The Empire of Trebizond and the Pontos. London: Variorum Reprints. p. 181. ISBN 9780860780625.
- Stavrides, Théoharis (2001). The Sultan of Vezirs: The Life and Times of the Ottoman Grand Vezir Mahmud Pasha Angelović (1453-1474). Leiden, Boston, Köln: BRILL. p. 48. ISBN 9789004121065.
- Willey, Peter (2005). The Eagle's Nest: Ismaili Castles in Iran and Syria. London and New York: I.B.Tauris. p. 49. ISBN 9781850434641.
- Bosworth, Clifford Edmund; van Donzel, E.; W. P., Heinrichs; Pellat, Ch. (1989). The Encyclopaedia of Islam: Fascicules 111-112 : Masrah Mawlid. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 790. ISBN 9789004092396.
- Turner, Ralph V. (Spring 1997). "Richard Lionheart and English Episcopal Elections*". Albion. 29 (1): 1–13. doi:10.2307/4051592. ISSN 0095-1390. JSTOR 4051592.
- Stubbs, William (2012). Chronicles and Memorials of the Reign of Richard I (in Latin). Volume 2: Epistolae Cantuarienses, the Letters of the Prior and Convent of Christ Church, Canterbury, from AD 1187 to AD 1199. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 148. ISBN 9781108048064.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- King, Richard John (1869). Handbook to the Cathedrals of England: Northern Division. Part II: Durham, Chester, Manchester. London: John Murray. p. 344.
- Munz, Peter (1965-10-01). "Frederick Barbarossa and Henry the Lion in 1176". Historical Studies: Australia and New Zealand. 12 (45): 1–21. doi:10.1080/10314616508595307. ISSN 0728-6023.
From the fact that the author says 'habebat' it has been inferred that this addition was made after 1195, ie after the death of Henry the Lion
- Lyon, Jonathan R. (2012). Princely Brothers and Sisters: The Sibling Bond in German Politics, 1100–1250. Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University Press. p. 139. ISBN 9780801467844.
- Swarzenski, Georg (1949). "Romanesque Aquamanile of the Guennol Collection". Brooklyn Museum Bulletin. 10 (4): 1–10. ISSN 2578-7640. JSTOR 26457966.
this is certainly the later piece, probably made or finished after the death of Henry the Lion (1195)
- Barroca, Mário Jorge (2001). "Os castelos dos templários em Portugal e a organização da defesa do reino no séc. XII". Acta Historica et Archaeologica Mediaevalia (22): 213–227–227. ISSN 2339-9996.
- Mendes, Paulo Alexandre Cabaço (2018-12-17). "De Redinha a Pombal (1508): a Terra e os Homens. Estudo de Antroponímia e de Toponímia". Repositório Institucional da Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa: Departamento de História, Artes e Humanidades Mestrado Em História, Arqueologia e Património: 13.
Gualdim Pais (c. 1118/20-1195)
- Napran, Laura (2008). France, John (ed.). Mercenaries and Paid Men: The Mercenary Identity in the Middle Ages. Proceedings of a Conference Held at University of Wales, Swansea, 7th-9th July 2005. Leiden and Boston: BRILL. p. 287. ISBN 9789047432616.
- Wolff, Robert Lee (1952-07-01). "Baldwin of Flanders and Hainaut, First Latin Emperor of Constantinople: His Life, Death, and Resurrection, 1172-1225". Speculum. 27 (3): 281–322. doi:10.2307/2853088. ISSN 0038-7134. JSTOR 2853088. S2CID 163762031.
Baldwin retained only the titles Marquis of Namur and Count of Hainaut. When he died in December 1195, the young Baldwin inherited Hainaut
- Draelants, Isabelle; Balouzat-Loubet, Christelle (January 2015). La formule au Moyen Âge, II / Formulas in Medieval Culture, II: Actes du colloque international de Nancy et Metz, 7-9 juin 2012 / Proceedings of the International Conference, Nancy and Metz, 7th-9th June 2012. Atelier de recherche sur les textes médiévaux. 23. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols Publishers. p. 17. doi:10.1484/m.artem-eb.5.108413. ISBN 9782503554327.
The period covers the successive reigns of Count Baldwin V/ VIII (1191-1194/1195), double-numbered in this way because he was the fifth count of Hainaut and the ninth count of Flanders to bear the name Baldwin
- Dinzelbacher, Peter (2005). "Kirchenreform und Frauenleben im Hohen Mittelalter". Mitteilungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung. 113 (JG): 20–40. doi:10.7767/miog.2005.113.jg.20. ISSN 2307-2903. S2CID 163481019.
Ascelina von Boulancourt (t 1195)
- Pinard, T. (1847). "Notre-Dame de Boulancourt (Haute-Marne)". Revue Archéologique. 4 (2): 474–477. ISSN 0035-0737. JSTOR 41745542.
la contrée appelée le Champ-Vieillard un monastère de fem mes, à la tète duquel il plaçait la vierge Asceline, sa cousine; elle mourut, suivant les uns, l'an 1165; suivant les autres, en 1195
- A. P. Vlasto (2 October 1970). The Entry of the Slavs Into Christendom: An Introduction to the Medieval History of the Slavs. CUP Archive. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-521-07459-9.
- S. D. Church (2003). King John: New Interpretations. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-85115-947-8.
- Mrs. Markham; Eliza Robbins (1854). A History of England from the first Invasion by the Romans to the 14th year of the Reign of Queen Victoria. pp. 101–.
- Edmund Lodge (1907). The Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage & Companionage of the British Empire for 1907. Kelly's Directories. p. 93.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1190s.|