The 1200s began on January 1, 1200, and ended on December 31, 1209.
- August 25 – After touring an army through Aquitaine to assert his right to it, John of England marries Isabella of Angoulême at Bordeaux.
- The Iroquois invade modern-day Ohio from the north.
- The Mongols defeat Northern China.
- The University of Paris receives its charter, from Philip II of France.
- The rebel Ivanko is captured and executed, by the Byzantine general Alexios Palaiologos.
- The Cherokee and Catawba tribes fight a great battle, in the Brown Mountains of modern-day North Carolina.
- Construction begins on the megalithic city of Nan Madol on Pohnpei in Micronesia.
- The Taíno culture develops in modern day Jamaica
- March 25: Constance, Duchess of Brittany, founds Villeneuve Abbey
- July 31 – John Komnenos the Fat attempts to usurp the throne of the Byzantine Empire; he is overthrown and decapitated by the end of the day.
- John, King of England, puts an embargo on wheat exported to Flanders, in an attempt to force an allegiance between the states. He also puts a levy of a fifteenth on the value of cargo exported to France, and disallows the export of wool to France without a special license. The levies are enforced in each port by at least six men, including one churchman and one knight. John also affirms this year that judgements made by the court of Westminster are as valid as those made "before the king himself or his chief justice".
- The town of Riga is chartered as a city by Albert of Buxhoeveden, Bishop of Livonia, who had landed on the site with 1,500 crusaders earlier in the year.
- Boniface, Marquess of Montferrat is elected leader of the Fourth Crusade, after the death of Theobald III, Count of Champagne.
- Pope Innocent III supports Otto IV as Holy Roman Emperor, against the rival Emperor, Philip of Swabia.
- May – October – The Fourth Crusade gathers in Venice.
- July – John, King of England rescues his mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, from near capture by the rebellious forces of Arthur I, Duke of Brittany.
- July 27 – Battle of Basian: Georgians defeat the Seljuqs of Rüm.
- August 1 – Arthur I, Duke of Brittany is captured in Mirebeau, north of Poitiers, during a battle with John, King of England.
- November 10–23 – Fourth Crusade – Siege of Zara: In the first major action of the Crusade, the Crusaders besiege and conquer Zadar in Dalmatia. Unable to pay the Republic of Venice in cash for its contributions to the Crusade, the Crusaders agree to sack the city (an economic rival to Venice), despite letters from Pope Innocent III forbidding such an action, and threatening excommunication (which is carried out at the urging of Emeric, King of Hungary). This is the first attack against a Catholic city by Catholic Crusaders.
- The Almohad fleet expels the Banu Ghaniya from the Balearic Islands.
- The Livonian Brothers of the Sword is founded, to support a crusade against the inhabitants of Medieval Livonia.
- Pope Innocent III reasserts his right to evaluate and crown the Holy Roman Emperor, in a letter to Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen.
- Danes make a crusade to Finland which is led by the Archbishop of Lund Anders Sunesen and his Brother.
- Leonardo Fibonacci of Pisa writes Liber Abaci, about the modus Indorum, the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, including the use of zero; it is the first major work in Europe to move away from the use of Roman numerals.
- Approximate date – The first jesters are hired in European courts.
- April 16 – Philip II of France enters Rouen, leading to the eventual unification of Normandy and France.
- William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber, becomes the guardian at Rouen of the imprisoned Arthur I, Duke of Brittany, designated heir to the throne of England, who is not known to be alive after April and is probably murdered by or at the orders of his uncle, John I of England.
- The troops of the Fourth Crusade reach the Byzantine heartland:
- June 23 – The Fleet of the crusaders enters the Bosphorus.
- July 17 – The armies of the Fourth Crusade capture Constantinople by assault; the Byzantine emperor Alexios III Angelos flees from his capital into exile.
- August 1 – The Fourth Crusade elevates Alexios IV Angelos as Byzantine emperor, after the citizens of Constantinople proclaim as emperor Isaac II Angelos (Alexius IV's father).
- The House of Burke is founded in Ireland.
- Battle of Basiani: The Georgians defeat a Muslim coalition.
- The Almohads begin the conquest of the Balearic Islands.
- The Oeselians ravage Danish Scania. The returning pirates later skirmish with the German settlers of Riga, near Visby in Gotland.
- First evidence that the Temple in London is extending loans to the king of England. The sums remain relatively small, but are often used for critical operations, such as the ransoming of the king’s soldiers captured by the French.
- April 8 – Congress of Bilino Polje: Ban Kulin officially declares his allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church and denounces heresy.
- The Temple of Nataraja is completed, at Chidambaram in India.
- The Benedictine abbey of Iona is founded by Ragnall mac Somairle, on a previous Columban site.
- January – Four-year-old Guttorm is proclaimed King of Norway; his "reign" ends with his death a few months later.
- January 28 – Byzantine emperor Alexios IV Angelos is overthrown in a revolution.
- February 5 – Alexios V Doukas is proclaimed Byzantine emperor.
- April 13 – Fourth Crusade: The Crusaders take Constantinople by storm, and pillage the city for 3 days. Forces of the Republic of Venice seize the antique statues that will become the horses of Saint Mark.
- May 16 – Baldwin, Count of Flanders is crowned emperor of the Latin Empire a week after his election, by the members of the Fourth Crusade.
- Theodore I Laskaris flees to Nicaea after the capture of Constantinople, and establishes the Empire of Nicaea; Byzantine successor states are also established in Epirus and Trebizond.
- Boniface I, Marquess of Montferrat, a leader of the Fourth Crusade, founds the Kingdom of Thessalonica.
- The writings of French theologian Amalric of Bena are condemned by the University of Paris, and Pope Innocent III.
- Tsar Kaloyan is recognized as king of Bulgaria by Pope Innocent III, after the creation of the Bulgarian Uniate church.
- Valdemar II of Denmark is recognized as king in Norway.
- Angers and Normandy are captured by Philip II of France.
- The Cistercian convent of Port-Royal-des-Champs is established.
- The district of Cham becomes subject to Bavaria.
- Hermann I, Landgrave of Thuringia submits to Philip of Swabia.
- Beaulieu Abbey is founded.
- The Channel Islands of Guernsey and Jersey decide, after a plebiscite of wealthy land owners, to remain with the English crown, after Normandy is recaptured by Philip II of France.
- General Muhammad al-Inti b. Abi Hafs establishes Almohad domination over the eastern parts of Ifriqiya, and enters Tripoli.
- Theodore I Laskaris is proclaimed Byzantine Emperor, formally founding the Empire of Nicaea, after repelling the invasions of rivals David Komnenos and Manuel Maurozomes into his domains.
- January 6 – Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans.
- April 14 – Battle of Adrianople: The Bulgarians defeat the Latins.
- Anjou is conquered by Philip II of France. Fearing a French invasion of England itself, John of England requires every English male over 12 to enter an association "for the general defence of the realm and the preservation of peace".
- Othon de la Roche founds the Duchy of Athens.
- William of Wrotham, Lord Warden of the Stannaries of England, oversees a reform of English currency. In keeping with other high-ranking bureaucrats of his time and place, this is just one of Wrotham's many offices: he is also Keeper of the King's Ports & Galleys, supervisor of the mints of Canterbury and London, ward of the vacant Diocese of Bath and Wells, an archdeacon of Taunton, a canon of Wells, and will serve the following year as a circuit judge.
- July 15 – Pope Innocent III lays down the principle that Jews are doomed to perpetual servitude, because they had crucified Jesus.
- Temüjin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire.
- Mukhali is appointed myriarch of the left wing of the newly reorganized Mongol army, and granted immunity for up to 9 breaches of the law.
- Qutb-ud-din Aybak, a Turkish Mameluke from Central Asia, proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.
- Theodore Lascaris is crowned Byzantine Emperor at Nicaea.
- The Livonian Brothers of the Sword, in alliance with the Semigallians, conquer the Livs.
- King Valdemar II and Archbishop Andreas Sunonis raid Saaremaa Island, Estonia, forcing the islanders to submit. The Danes build a fortress, but finding no volunteers to man it, they burn it down themselves and leave the island.
Arts and cultureEdit
- Sugar, an import from the Muslim world, is mentioned for the first time in a royal English account. Almonds, cinnamon, ginger, and nutmeg are also imported for royal banquets.
- The Order of the Friars Minor is founded by Francis of Assisi.
- A peasant named Thurkhill in England claims that Saint Julian took him on a tour of Purgatory. Thurkhill includes realistic touches including descriptions of Purgatory’s torture chambers, and is believed by Roger of Wendover, one of his society’s leading historians.
- This year, Dominic de Guzmán claims to have received the Holy Rosary from the Virgin Mary.
- The Arab engineer al-Jazari describes many mechanical inventions in his book (title translated to English) The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices.
- Before 1207 – Kosho writes Kuya Preaching, during the Kamakura period (it is now kept at Rokuhara Mitsu-ji, Kyoto).
- Hōnen and his followers are exiled to remote parts of Japan, while a few are executed, for what the government considers heretical Buddhist teachings.
- Jochi, eldest son of Genghis Khan subjugates people of the Siberian forest (taiga), the Uriankhai, the Oirats, Barga, Khakas, Buryats, Tuvans, Khori-Tumed, and Kyrgyz.
- October 7 – The Indramayu Regency in Nusantara is established.
- February 2 – Terra Mariana, comprising present-day Estonia and Latvia, is established as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire.
- November – Leeds, a market town in England, receives its first charter.
- Pope Innocent III declares for Philip of Swabia as Holy Roman Emperor, a reversal of his previous support for Otto IV.
- King John issues letters patent, creating the new Borough of Liverpool.
- The first documentary evidence of forced loans in Venice. This technique becomes the staple of public finance in Europe, until the 16th century.
- April 15 – A fire breaks out in the Song Chinese capital city of Hangzhou, raging for four days and nights, destroying 58,097 houses over an area of more than 3 miles (4.8 km), killing 59 people, and an unrecorded number of other people, who are trampled while attempting to flee. The government provides temporary lodging for 5,345 people, in nearby Buddhist and Taoist monasteries. The collective victims of the disaster are given 160,000 strings of cash, along with 400 tons of rice. Some of the government officials who lost their homes take up residence in rented boathouses, on the nearby West Lake.
- January 15 – Pierre de Castelnau is murdered by a vassal of Raymond VI of Toulouse; Raymond is held responsible and excommunicated by Pope Innocent III, leading to the Albigensian Crusade.
- January 31 – Battle of Lena: Inferior Swedish forces defeat the invading Danes, and King Sverker the Younger is deposed as king of Sweden. He is succeeded by his rival Erik Knutsson.
- March 24 – Pope Innocent III places England under an interdict, as punishment for King John of England rejecting his choice for Archbishop of Canterbury. Under the interdict, Church sacraments including marriage and consecrated burial are probably stopped, but there is no sign of the popular discontent which interdicts are intended to produce over the next several years.
- June 21 – Philip of Swabia, King of Germany and rival to Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV, is assassinated in Bamberg by German Count Otto of Wittelsbach, because Philip had refused to give him his daughter in marriage.
- June 30 – Battle of Philippopolis: The Second Bulgarian Empire is defeated by the Latin Empire, near modern Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
- Livonian Crusade: With the help of the newly converted local tribes of Livs and Letts, the crusader Livonian Brothers of the Sword initiate raids into Ugandi County in southern Estonia. The resulting Estonian ancient fight for independence lasts until 1227.
Arts and cultureEdit
- Robert of Courçon writes his Summa.
- Genghis Khan conquers Western Xia.
- The army of the Kingdom of Georgia raids the Muslim principalities in north Iran.
- The Albigensian Crusade is launched against the Cathars.
- May – The First Parliament of Ravennika is held in Greece.
- June – Treaty of Sapienza: the Republic of Venice recognizes the possession of the Peloponnese by the Prince of Achaea, Geoffrey I of Villehardouin, and keeps only the fortresses of Modon and Coron.
- November – John of England is excommunicated by Pope Innocent III. Despite the excommunication, John will continue to make amends to the Church, including giving alms to the poor whenever he defiles a holy day by hunting during it. This year, he feeds a hundred paupers to make up for when he "went into the woods on the feast of St. Mary Magdalen", and three years from now, he will feast 450 paupers "because the king went to take cranes, and he took nine, for each of which he feasted fifty paupers."
- London Bridge is completed.
- Black Monday, Dublin: A group of 500 recently arrived settlers from Bristol are massacred by warriors of the Gaelic O'Byrne clan. The group leaves the safety of the walled city of Dublin to celebrate Easter Monday near a wood at Ranelagh, and are attacked without warning. Although in modern times a relatively obscure event in history, it is commemorated by a mustering of the Mayor, Sheriffs and soldiers on the day, as a challenge to the native tribes for centuries afterwards.
- Cambridge University is founded.
- Philippe Auguste of France grants a "conduit" to merchants going to the Champagne fairs, guaranteeing the safety of their travel, as any attempt made against them is now to be considered as a crime of lese-majesty. The decision increases again the appeal of the fairs, to merchants from Italy and the Low Countries.
- The banking firm known as the Gran Tavola is formed; most of the partners are members of the Bonsignori Family. 
- The Franciscan Order is founded.
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- January 19 – Dōgen Zenji, founder of Sōtō Zen (d. 1253)
- exact date unknown
- Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (d. 1278)
- Adam Marsh, English Franciscan scholar and theologian (approximate date; d. 1259)
- Matthew Paris, English Benedictine monk and chronicler (approximate date; d. 1259)
- Rabbi Isaac ben Moses of Vienna (d. 1270)
- Mindaugas, Great King of Lithuania (approximate date; d. 1263)
- William of Sherwood, English logician (approximate date; d. c.1272)
- February 18 – Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Persian scientist and writer (d. 1274)
- May 30 – Theobald of Navarre (Theobald IV, Count of Champagne) (d. 1253)
- August 9 – Arnold Fitz Thedmar, English chronicler (d. 1274)
- October 9 – Robert de Sorbon, French theologian and founder of the Sorbonne (d. 1274)
- King Ladislaus III of Hungary (d. 1205)
- Danylo, first king of Galicia–Volhynia (d. 1264)
- Alix, Duchess of Brittany (d. 1221)
- June 2 – Margaret II, Countess of Flanders (d. 1278)
- Matilda II, Countess of Boulogne, spouse of King Afonso III of Portugal (d. 1262)
- Qin Jiushao, Chinese mathematician of the Song dynasty (d. 1261)
- Peter II, Count of Savoy (d. 1268)
- Eva Marshal, Norman noble (d. 1246)
- Ibn Abi Usaibia, Syrian Arab medical historian (d. 1270)
- April 14 – Henry I, king of Castile (d. 1217)
- Haakon IV of Norway (d. 1263)
- Henry Raspe, Landgrave of Thuringia (d. 1247)
- Maria of Courtenay, Empress regent of Nicaea (d. 1228)
- Alice of Schaerbeek (d. 1250)
- January 26 – Emperor Lizong of Song (d. 1264)
- July 10 – Hōjō Masamura, Japanese shōgun (d. 1273)
- August – Razia Sultana, only female ruler of Sultanate of Delhi (d. 1240)
- Béla IV of Hungary (d. 1270)
- Güyük Khan, the third Great Khan of the Mongol Empire (d. 1248)
- Margaret de Quincy, Countess of Lincoln (d. 1266)
- July 7 – Elizabeth of Hungary, Hungarian princess and saint (d. 1231)
- September 30 – Rumi, Persian poet and Sufi mystic (d. 1273)
- October 1 – King Henry III of England (d. 1272)
- Henry II, Duke of Brabant (d. 1248)
- Philip I, Count of Savoy (d. 1285)
- February 2 – King James I of Aragon (d. 1276)
- Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, Constable of England (d. 1275)
- date unknown – Margrete Skulesdatter, queen consort of Norway (d. 1270)
- probable – Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (d. 1265)
- April 8 – Adalbert III of Bohemia, archbishop (b. 1145)
- April 23 – Zhu Xi, Chinese Confucian philosopher (b. 1130)
- September 17? – Emperor Guangzong of Song (b. 1147) 
- December – Gilbert Horal, 12th Grand Master of the Knights Templar
- date unknown – Odo of Canterbury, theologian and abbot of Battle (date of birth unknown)
- March 21 – Absalon, Danish archbishop (b. c. 1128)
- May 24 – Theobald III, Count of Champagne (b. 1179)
- c. September 5 – Constance, Duchess of Brittany (b. 1161)
- Agnes of Merania, queen consort of king Philip II of France
- Bohemond III of Antioch (b. 1144)
- January 9 – Birger Brosa, Swedish Jarl
- March 9 – Sverre Sigurdsson, King of Norway since 1184
- March 13 – Mieszko III the Old, king of Poland (b. c. 1121)
- May 7 – Hamelin de Warenne, Earl of Surrey
- November 12 – Canute VI of Denmark (b. 1163)
- Cathal Carragh Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht
- Alain de Lille, French theologian and poet (b. c. 1128)
- January 21 – Agnes II, Abbess of Quedlinburg (b. 1139)
- April 6 – William of Æbelholt, Danish churchman (b. 1125)
- November 4 – Dirk VII, Count of Holland
- May – Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd, King of Gwynedd
- date unknown – Alexios Palaiologos, Byzantine heir apparent
- probable – Arthur I, Duke of Brittany (b. 1187)
- January 1 – King Haakon III of Norway
- January – Isaac II Angelos, Byzantine emperor
- February 8 – Alexios IV Angelos, Byzantine emperor
- April 1 – Eleanor of Aquitaine, Sovereign Duchess Regnant of Aquitaine, queen of France and England
- August 11 – King Guttorm of Norway
- August 14 – Minamoto no Yoriie, Japanese shōgun (b. 1182)
- September 30 or November 30 – Emeric, King of Hungary (b. 1174)
- c. October 21 – Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester, English nobleman
- November – Ban Kulin, ruler of Bosnia (b. 1163)
- December 12 (or December 13) – Maimonides, Spanish rabbi and philosopher (b. 1135)
- December 22 – Fujiwara no Shunzei, Japanese waka poet (b. 1114)
- date unknown – Suleiman II, Sultan of Rûm
- probable – Amalric of Bena, French theologian
- April 1 – King Amalric II of Jerusalem (b. 1145)
- April 5 – Queen Isabella I of Jerusalem (b. 1172)
- May 7 – Ladislaus III of Hungary (b. 1201)
- June 14 – Walter III, Count of Brienne
- July 13 – Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury
- June – Alexios Aspietes, ruler of Philippopolis
- December – Alexios V Doukas, Byzantine Emperor (executed)
- date unknown
- probable – Baldwin I of Constantinople (b. 1172)
- April 7 – Frederick I, Duke of Lorraine
- April – John X, Patriarch of Constantinople (alternative date is May)
- June 4 – Adèle of Champagne, queen of Louis VII of France and regent of France
- Ikhtiyar al-Din Muhammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, founder of Muslim rule in Bengal
- Muhammad of Ghor, Persian conqueror and sultan (b. 1162)
- Jamuqa, Mongol military and political leader
- Yang Wanli, Chinese poet (b. 1127)
- January 4 – Simon II, Duke of Lorraine
- June 17 – Daoji, Chinese buddhist monk (b. 1130)
- Amalric of Bena, French theologian and 'heretic'
- Tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria
- David Soslan, king consort of Georgia
- Xin Qiji, Chinese general and poet (b. 1140)
- Han Tuozhou, Chinese statesman (b. 1152)
- January 15 – Pierre de Castelnau, French priest (assassinated)
- April 22 – Philip of Poitou, Prince-Bishop of Durham
- June 21 – Philip of Swabia, King of Germany
- November 9 – Sancha of Castile, Queen of Alfonso II of Aragon (b. 1155)
- December 29 – Emperor Zhangzong of Jin, (b. 1168)
- Amhaoibh O'Rothlain, Chief of Calruidhe Cuile Cearnadha
- March 29 – Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Persian theologian and philosopher (b. 1149)
- April 2 – Elisabeth of Greater Poland, Duchess of Bohemia (b. 1152)
- November 12 – Phillipe de Plessis, Grand Master of the Knights Templar (b. 1165)
- date unknown –
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