Henry Raspe (German: Heinrich Raspe) (1204 – 16 February 1247) was the Landgrave of Thuringia from 1231 until 1239 and again from 1241 until his death. In 1246, with the support of the Papacy, he was elected King of Germany in opposition to Conrad IV, but his contested reign lasted a mere nine months.
|Landgrave of Thuringia|
Seal of Henry as king
|Died||16 February 1247(aged 42–43)|
|Spouse(s)||Elisabeth of Brandenburg|
Gertrude of Babenberg
Beatrice of Brabant
|Father||Hermann I, Landgrave of Thuringia|
|Mother||Sophia of Wittelsbach|
In 1226, Henry's brother Louis IV, Landgrave of Thuringia, died en route to the Sixth Crusade, and Henry became regent for his under-age nephew Hermann II, Landgrave of Thuringia. He managed to expel his nephew and the boy's young mother, St. Elisabeth of Hungary, from the line of succession and ca. 1231 formally succeeded his brother as landgrave.
After the papal ban on Frederick imposed by Pope Innocent IV in 1245, Raspe changed sides, and on 22 May 1246 he was elected anti-king in opposition to Conrad. The strong papal prodding that led to his election earned Raspe the derogatory moniker of "Pfaffenkönig" (priests' king). The papal legate in Germany was Filippo da Pistoia. Henry defeated Conrad in the Battle of Nidda in southern Hesse in August 1246, and laid siege to Ulm and Reutlingen. Having suffered a mortal wound, he died February 1247 in Wartburg Castle near Eisenach in Thuringia.
In 1228, he married Elisabeth (1206-1231), the daughter of Albert II, Margrave of Brandenburg. After her death, he married Gertrude (c. 1210/1215 – 1241), the daughter of Leopold VI, Duke of Austria. After her death, he married Beatrix (1225-1288), the daughter of Henry II, Duke of Brabant.
- Cox, Eugene L. (1974). The Eagles of Savoy. Princeton University Press.
- Knodler, Julia (2010). "Germany:Narrative (1125-1250)". The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. Vol. 1. Oxford University Press.
- Rasmussen, Ann Marie (1997). Mothers and Daughters in Medieval German Literature. Syracuse University Press.
- Stubbs, William (1908). Germany in the Later Middle Ages, 1200-1500. Longmans, Green and Co.
- Van Cleve, Thomas C. (1969). "The Crusade of Frederick II". In Wolff, Robert Lee; Hazard, Harry W. (eds.). A History of the Crusades. Vol. II. The University of Wisconsin Press.
- Van Cleve, Thomas C. (1972). The Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen: Immutator Mundi. Clarendon Press.
|Ancestors of Henry Raspe|
Henry RaspeBorn: 1204 Died: 16 February 1247
| Landgrave of Thuringia
Henry the Illustrious
Frederick II and Conrad IV
|— DISPUTED —
King of the Romans
1246 – 1247
Disputed by Frederick II and Conrad IV