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Zenica (/ˈzɛnɪtsə/ ZEN-it-sə; Serbo-Croatian: Зеница; Template:IPA-h), an administrative center and a seat of the City of Zenica (Serbo-Croatian Latin: Grad Zenica / Serbo-Croatian Cyrillic: Град Зеница), is a city, urban settlement and settled place, administrative and economic center of the Zenica-Doboj Canton and – as a settled place – a center of the same-named City in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in the valley of river Bosna, about 70 km (43 mi) north of the country's capital Sarajevo. The city is known for Ironworks Zenica and the second heavy industry but also as a significant university center. According to the final results of 2013 population census in BiH, the settled place Zenica counts 70,553 citizens and the Zenica City 110,663.[5]

Zenica

Зеница
Grad Zenica / Град Зеница
City of Zenica | Zenica City
Zenica main infobox image placeholder text
Zenica, collage
From top to bottom, left to right: Bilino Polje Stadium, Old Čaršija, Fortress Vranduk, čaršija (by the bazaar), old bazaar and Kočeva mosque, panorama with the view on river Bosna, settlements Jalija and Bilimišće, and Krč rocks
Zenica flag image placeholder text
Flag
Zenica CoA image placeholder text
Coat of arms
Etymology: from Proto-Slavic zěnica ("pupil")
Nickname(s): 
Steel/Iron city,[1][2] Nicaze[3][4]
Motto(s): 
Modern, European, regional center
Zenica is located in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Zenica
Zenica
Location within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Coordinates: 44°12′14″N 17°54′28″E / 44.20389°N 17.90778°E / 44.20389; 17.90778Coordinates: 44°12′14″N 17°54′28″E / 44.20389°N 17.90778°E / 44.20389; 17.90778
Country Bosnia and Herzegovina
Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
CantonZenica-Doboj
Earliest findings3,000–2,000 B.C.
(Drivuša, Gradišće)
First name2nd–4th century
(Bistua Nuova)
Current name20 March 1436
(Zenica)
1st Mayorbefore 1908
(Ahmetaga Mutapčić)
Municipality became City20 November 2014
(Zenica City)
Government
 • BodyCouncil
 • MayorFuad Kasumović (Independent)
Area
 • City558.5 km2 (215.6 sq mi)
 • Urban
43.01 km2 (16.61 sq mi)
Elevation
310–350 m (1,017–1,148 ft)
Population
 (2013)
 • City110,663
 • Density200/km2 (510/sq mi)
 • Urban
Fall (25,474 in relation to 1991) 70,553[5]
Demonym(s)Zenican (Croatian: Zeničanin / Зеничанин)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
BIH-72 000
(for whole Zenica City, including Zenica city)
BIH-72 100
(for Zenica city only as settled place)
Area code(s)+387 32
Websitewww.zenica.ba

The urban part of the today city formed in several phases, including Neolithic, Illyrian, Roman Municipium Bistua Nuova (2nd–4th century; old name of the city) with early Christian dual basilica. Traces of an ancient settlement have been found here; villa rustica, thermae, temple, etc. were present too. Earliest findings in the place date from the period 3,000–2,000 B.C.; they were found on the localities of Drivuša and Gradišće. New, today's name of the city, was mentioned for the first time on 20 March 1436. Medieval church has been unearthed in Zenica, as well as Franciscan Monastery of St. Mary. Time of the independence of the Medieval Bosnia is directly connected to Zenica (Gradješa's plate and abdication act; Kulin ban's time; Vranduk, a castle of the Bosnian kings; Janjići and 'hižas' [homes] of the Bosnian Church members; stećci, stone tombstone monuments etc.). During the Ottoman rule (1463–1878), Zenica became a Muslim kasaba (small town); at the very end of the 17th century, Zenica had 2,000 citizens, mostly Muslims; Orthodox and Catholic Christians get mentioned again from the end of 18th century, and Jews in the 19th century. Zenica has been mostly built in the Austro-Hungarian and Yugoslavian periods. Number of citizens has been rising rapidly during the 20th century, and from Bosnian War until 2013 city lost a quarter of its population. Municipality of Zenica became City of Zenica in 2014.

The city is geographically located in the heart of Bosnia. Area of the settled place is 43.01 km2 (16.61 sq mi) and of the City 558.5 km2 (215.6 sq mi). The relief is valley-basin and the elevation 310–350 m (1,017–1,148 ft). Rivers Bosna, Lašva, Babina and Kočeva flow through the city itself. The moderate continental climate prevails. The city has 13 urban local settlements and the City consists of total 81 spread rural settlements.

The city has nine national monuments. One of the marks of the Zenica is the football club Čelik, as well as one of the tallest buildings on the Balkans – Lamela. Some of the most famous Zenicans are Semir Osmanagić, Anabela Basalo, Danis Tanović, Amar Jašarspahić Gile, Nihad Fetić Hakala, Mladen Krstajić, Dejan Lovren, Mervana Jugić-Salkić and Amel Tuka.

EtymologyEdit

 
Catherine portrait

There are several theories about the name.

Tradition and legend

According to the orally transmitted tradition, city got its name after the pupil of the eye (ekavian Serbo-Croatian: zenica – pupil).

The legend about the name is connected with the most sad times of the medieval Bosnian state and Croat people on the Balkans; fall of the Bosnia under Ottomans in 1463. In the folks of Catholic Croats there is a legend that Zenica got its name after Queen Katarina Kosača Kotromanić's words, who was leaving Bobovac and said the following: "My pupil has left!" (Serbo-Croatian: Osta moja z[j]enica!)[6]

Because of its location in the center of Zenica field, city associates to the eye pupil indeed.[7]

Name of the city can also be derived from the word zenit, because the city is in the center (zenith) of the Bosnia and Herzegovina i.e. Bosnia.

HistoryEdit

Historical affiliations

The urban part of the today's Zenica formed through several determined phases which chronologically include the time of Neolithic community, Illyrian 'gradina', Roman Municipium Bistua Nuova, the most important founding (2nd–4th century) in which the monumental early Christian basilica is mostly present, besides which only one other is identified in the Europe.

In the city Zenica's settlement of Bilimišće, traces of ancient settlement were found;[8][9] in the City of Zenica's villages Putovići and Tišina, where villa rustica dominates, thermae, temple and a series of other following objects are present, too.[8][9][10]

PrehistoryEdit

Earliest findings in the Zenica place date from the period 3,000 B.C. to 2,000 B.C.;[7] they were found on the localities of Drivuša and Gradišće.[7] The following findings are from the Metal Age in Orahovički stream near Nemila, Gračanica, Ravna and other places;[7] metal axes, arrows, ornamental fibulae and ceramic remains were unearthed here.[7]

Illyrians came to this region on the transition from Bronze to Iron Age (from 6th to 5th century B.C.).[7] Their defensive buildings 'gradinas' are the most famous (the name came from the verb – Serbo-Croatian: graditi – to build).[7]

The urban part of today's Zenica has already formed in the younger Stone Age – Neolithic, and especially later in the time of Illyrians – today, toponyms of their 'gradinas' are proof for that;[7] Gradišće, Gračanica, Gradac.[7] That is how the royal city of Vranduk probably existed in the time of Illyrians, under the name Arduba.[7]

There is a dillema on the presence of the Illyrian tribe Desitiates in Zenica region.[7] Solution are direct proofs from toponomastic material – such as toponym gradina which survived until today in the names of the mentioned settlements Gradac, Gradišće and Gračanica.[7]

Recent (August 2019) international archaeological research, conducted by Vienna (Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology [de]), Zenica (Zenica museum) and Sarajevo students and scientists using modern technology, shows precisely that settlements around settled place (city) Zenica were settled by humans and animals even before 3,100 years from now.[11] Skeletons of animals (pig, cow, goat) were found in highly located (600 m a.s.l.) place Kopilo, what indicates that humans (farmers) used to live there at the time; two tombs (one with human bones and ceramics), two tumuli and a completely new prehistorical settlement 'Ravna gradina' were found too.[11][12][13][14]

Old AgeEdit

Romans have conquered these parts from the very end of the 3rd century B.C. Bellum Batonianum from 6th to 9th century was present in this area too. The Romans ruled continuously until the end of the 4th century. Roman authority did not remove settlements in the Illyrian 'gradinas'.[7]

Today's area of Zenica had its peak in the first six centuries of the new era, when in the parts of nowadays Zenica – aside from Bistua Vetus (Barbarians' village in Rama) and Delminium (Duvanjsko Field) – one of the three most important municipiums and centers of Christian dioceses in Bosnia has been found: Bistua Nuova – seat of the Bistuenska diocese,[15] seat of the Roman Christianity in the Bosnia area all time until the Slavs' arrival.[16] Information that Bistua Nuova's bishop Andrew (Andreas, Andrija) took part in and was a signer of Solin sinodas in 530 and 533 underlines its importance. Ancient tombstone monuments are from ancient Bistua Nuova, as well as remains of old Christian basilica etc.[15] In the urban settlement of Odmut, and rural settlements of Putovići and Tišina, archaeologists found various findings; epigraphs stand out by their importance, which guided them towards conclusion that Bistua Nuova was in the Zenica area.[7] It is not excluded that Bistua Nuova was right at the place of today's Zenica.[16]

An important road towards Salona (Solin), Argentarium (Srebrenica) and Sirmium (Srijemska Mitrovica) was passing through Bistua Nuova.[6]

Barbarian invasions from the north stopped civilization continuity and shortly forced Christianity to retreat from these areas. During the invasions at the beginning of the 7th century Bistua Nuova was destroyed, along with its basilica. Four centuries of emptiness in the wells follow after the retreat of Christianity.[6] It is believed that Barbarian invasions destroyed a huge part of ancient inheritance. Goths, Avars and Slavs passed through this location. After their invasions almost one century was needed for first the Slav countries to form.[7]

Medieval BosniaEdit

 
Picture from the middle of the 19th century, of the author Carl Ebert (1821–1885), Fortress Vranduk in Bosnia (German: Die Festung Vranduk in Bosnien; in the picture there are Bosnians shown on the mountain of Vranduk besides river Bosna)

History on Medieval Zenica of 13th and 14th centuries is very insufficient.[8][9] There is but a single item of evidence from 1244 about Croatian-Hungarian king Béla IV's charter. According to the documents that have been studied until so far, the city's current name was first mentioned on 20 March 1436,[8][9] and later – Zenica is mentioned in a series of documents related to Republic of Ragusa (Republic of Dubrovačka).[10][8]

In the period of Middle Ages, in 1370 more precisely, settlement Klopče was mentioned, as well as family of that name; on 8 January 1404 Bosnian bishop from Janjići sent dispatches to the Ragusan prince Vlaho Sorkočević. In the Zenica settlement of Varošište, a Middle Ages church has been unearthed and Franciscan monastery of St. Mary, which was built by sculptor Ivan Hrelić, a student of Juraj Dalmatinac.[10][8]

Time of the political independence of the Middle Ages Bosnia is directly connected to Zenica, before all with Gradješa's plate and act of abjuration, by which Kulin ban's time was continued and it denotes facts of political power too. Small distance of the fortified city of Vranduk, the seat of Bosnian kings, Janjići and homes of the bishops of the Bosnian Church, with stećci in Puhovac and Pojske, several scribes and builders – among other – are the facts and proofs of a special significance of this place in the Middle Ages. Also with its names (Bistua Nuova, Bilino polje, Brod), and Zenica after 20 March 1436, this city is tied for central part of the country and river Bosna.[10][8]

Ottoman eraEdit

 
View of the Sejmenska mosque, the second oldest[17][18][19] Zenica mosque, included among the national monuments of BiH; it originates from Ottoman period, and according to the people's oral tradition it was built by an officer of Janissaries infantry (Persian word segban itself denotes adherents to this army)[20]

In the times of Ottoman rule (1463–1878), the change of the direction of the main trade route in turn changed the city[8][9] and except for a short period when it was a seat of Brod judge 'kadija' (until 1557) Zenica was a kasaba (small town), again with characteristic lookalike made by several mosques (Sultan Ahmedova, known as Čaršijska camii too; Osman-Ćelebijina; Sejmenska; Jalijska), Madrasah (1737), several maktabs, various nishans, shadrivans, hans, karavansarays.[10][8]

In one description from 1697 Zenica is discussed – where melons grow successfully "and whole place is very tame". According to the presumptions, Zenica had 2,000 citizens, among which Muslims dominated; at the end of 18th century Orthodox and Catholic Christians are mentioned again, and in 19th century Jews.[10][8]

After ruination and exodus after the intrusion of Eugene of Savoy in 1697, time of stabilization begins for Zenica, and in administrative, urban, business and topographic sense Zenica čaršija stands out with its characteristic marks.[10][8]

Austro-Hungarian eraEdit

After the Berlin Congress, held in 1878, the Austro-Hungarian monarchy was given the rights to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina; armed resistance to occupying troops soon arose. It is believed that exactly Zenica, more precisely the Hadži Mazića house, was the place of negotiations between the representatives of the Ottoman authorities in the Bosnian vilayet, Hafiz-pasha and the commander of the Austro-Hungarian occupying forces, General Filipović, on the conditions of the cessation of the conflict.[8]

 
A narrow-gauge railway train

Capital objects of wider social-economic importance were built; they became important for Zenica. They include the railway from Bosanski Brod to Zenica (1879), the coal mine (1880), the paper factory (1885), the ironworks (1892), and the penitentiary (1886). In 1908 a power station was built in Zenica, which enabled the introduction of electric public lighting. State schools were also opened, the first in 1885, and the second in 1910; in this period in Zenica there were also confessional schools, one for the Catholic and Orthodox churches, and for three maktabs, madrasahs and rozdios ('ruždija'); Muhamed Seid Serdarević, the muallim in the Sultan Ahmed Madrasah in Zenica, advocated for the reform of the teaching, where the lectures began to be conducted in the local language and the program modernized in accordance with the requirements of the time. Cultural societies were organized, on a strictly national-confessional basis, such as the Croatian Singing Society, Zvečaj, the Czech Word and others; at the same time, other societies of general character are established, such as firefighters, hunters, mountaineers and others. In 1910 the first cinema, called Helios, was opened in Zenica, which raised the city culture to a new level. This will, aside from other things, cause a series of changes – both qualitative and quantitative shifts in the city's development.[9][10][8]

End of the 19th century; 20th centuryEdit

 
Catholic St. Elijah Church in New Zenica, building of which began in 1909; it was declared a national monument of BiH; building style is secession, and church has three bells and main altar from 1837 (first parish is from 1870)
 
Orthodox Church of the Nativity of Our Lady on Carina, building of which begain in 1883; it was declared a national monument of BiH; this is a three-nave church; it was finished and dedicated on the Nativity Period i.e. during 8–21 September 1885, and was dedicated by Metropolitan Sava Kosanović

By the end of the 19th and at the beginnings of the 20th century, urban bum has happened (number of citizens increased several fold, according to the 1910 census in this place there were 7,215 men and women), fast urbanization can be noticed (Orthodox Church of the Nativity of Our Lady was built in 1885, two Catholic churches in 1910, a synagogue in 1903), as well as the building of several lodgings for the night, hotels, schools, water supply, modern roads, etc.[10][8]

After World War I, the Kingdom of SHS was formed, which in 1929 became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia; Bosnia and Herzegovina belonged to these countries. The political, economic and social life of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1918 to 1941 stagnated, although the situation changed slightly before the beginning of World War II, when certain investments in Ironworks Zenica came.[8]

20th century in Zenica is generally marked with series of different characteristic phenomena, increased industrialization, especially after 1938 with Harsh railway (Gruba pruga) being built, the pauperization of the part of the citizenry, its proletarization, as well as mixing of advanced urban European and still domestic Bosnian mentality and habits.[10][8]

Specific-functions-and-purposes city develops, especially bordered with two facts – Penitentiary and Ironworks Zenica – but also precious confirmation of the coexistence of the Zenicans with different histories; the stone bridge has connected house of Kosta Jefić and Osmanaga Mehmedić, and Jewish Havra, for over 90 years.[10][8]

YugoslaviaEdit

In the period between 1941 and 1945, domestic people (mostly Muslims, by declaration of the famous Resolution of Zenica Muslims from May 1942)[21][22] show evident effort to retain respect and consideration as well as protection of bare life from non-Muslims,[21] through formation of their authentic sign, Muslim militias – in Šerići, Doglodi, Babino –, and through partisan units, what gave and had certain demands and weight.[23][8]

It was a dimension of Zenica way to have anti-fascist resistance; this city had no major destruction, terror and victims. Dimension of the anti-fascist struggle were, unfortunately, determined by their ideological (more precisely, nationalist) affiliation – what will come up to the surface in the war period and devolve in the after-war one.[24][25][26][8]

After liberation of Zenica achieved by partisans on 12 April 1945 (Zenica Liberation Day),[25] the city started to grow rapidly – as a quickly developed industrial center. It expanded and included the former villages of Bilino Polje, Klopče and Radakovo; new flat blocks were built for more numerous coalminers and workers in the steelworks. Number of citizens in 1948 was only about 15,000, and by 1961 it grew up to over 30,000; in year 1981, there was over 63,000 citizens in Zenica, and after the last Yugoslavian census made in Yugoslavia – Zenica was city with over 96,000 citizens. For the time of the Yugoslavian period, which has lasted for about 50 years, the population increased sixfold.[27]

Bosnian WarEdit

 
Part of the Old town at night

One year before the breakup of Bosnian War, in 1991, Zenica became seat of one of the first private and independent radio-stations in Eastern Europe – Radio CD-CEMP.[28] In the spring of 1993, journalist and owner of the Radio CD-CEMP, won Belgian accolade for independent journalism – "The Pen Of Peace".[29]

The first official civil victim of the Bosnian War in Zenica was a two-year-old Croat girl Matea Jurić (29 July 1990 – 13 May 1992), who was killed by a gunshot during the blockade of the military barrack of JNA in the urban settlement of Bilimišće. Today, meeting to remember Jurić is traditionally organized in Radakovo, where she has a memorial panel to lay flowers next to it.[30]

On 19 April 1993, during the Muslim–Croat War, 15 civilians were killed and 50, injured, when HVO's grenade from a howitzer hit the central bazaar of Zenica.[31] The grenade was shot from the village of Putićevo [15 km (9.3 mi)]. A total of six grenades hit the target, three series of two. The first attack began at about 12.10 o'clock, second with two grenades at 12.24 o'clock, and the following two rounds with two grenades in 12.29 o'clock.[32] During this period Zenica was isolated from the rest of the world for a year and a half. The city suffered significant loss of the civic society from sniper fire, arson and hunger. The fourth-biggest city of BiH had neither water nor electricity.[33]

During the Bosnian War, part of the camp inmates of Serb ethnicity who were kept in Zenica Penitentiary, were burnt in blast furnaces of Zenica Steelworks.[34] The fifth pavilion of the camp for Serbs in Zenica's prison existed until the war finished, and in the report of the Conference for European Security and Cooperation (KEBS) it is said that KPD Zenica formed camps for prisoners of war containing around 2,000 Serbs.[34][35]

It is also significant to note that kafana-singers and other singers-amateurs sang in open music performances in the garden restaurant of KPD Zenica while war in Eastern Bosnia rage and Zenica was hit to a lesser extent.

During the war, an economic meeting ZEPS was still organized.[7]

Demography of the city changed much during the war, by the arrival of ethnic Muslims (todays Bosniaks) from other parts of BiH and the departure of Serbs to areas under Serb control.[36]

21st centuryEdit

Zenica recovers from the war and continues to slowly progress. The ruling party in the City of Zenica for 20 years was the majority Bosniak and Muslim Party of Democratic Action (SDA), for which i.e. time of its mayors the development of the settled place Zenica / city of Zenica (its urban core but also other villages as the part of then Municipality) advanced slowly, partly because of corruption and various types of misappropriation;[37][38][39] many areas of the populated place itself did not get city lights, water supply and canalization and solidly asphalted roads even after 20 years.[40]

The drastic population decrease was seen from 1991 to 2013 and it is ≈26% (Zenica lost one quarter of its citizens, partly because of the War, partly because of unfavorable economic circumstances in BiH and recessions prompting young and middle-aged residents to emigrate to Europe and America).[27][5]

Municipality building, side view
Municipality building, front view
Smashed RMK building, front view
Cars in Kočeva river and arson next to the RMK

In 2014, Zenica – as well as other FBiH cities – saw violent citizen protests. The Municipality Building was smashed, RMK buildings also demolished, tens of people taken to the cantonal hospital and some officials resigned.[41]

Municipality of Zenica was recategorised on 20 November 2014 as the City of Zenica.[42]

2016 Bosnian-Herzegovinian municipal elections made independent politician (Fuad Kasumović) a Zenica mayor for the first time in the recent city history;[43] he planned to make the city a modern, European and regional center.[44] During the three years of his term he accelerated development, focused on the city's core i.e. settled place Zenica;[45] for the locations of priority importance, the city introduced city lights and water supply with canalization, road asphalting (byciclist lanes and stands for bycicles were introduced for the first time in Zenica's history on a mass scale), plans for introducing new heating system for the city are being made (Zenicans regularly face total turnoff or weak output of heating during the season, especially in the coldest days),[46] New Year's concerts began to be held on the main city square open for all citizens and visitors (the first one was in 2017/18 with Miligram making the show;[47] the second was in 2018/19 with Crvena jabuka) as the main act,[48] various new manifestations are organized for citizens and tourists (e.g. Zenica summer fest, music festival with domestic and regional stars that lasts for several weeks and takes place on the city square – the first was opened by Frenkie in the summer of 2018 and closed by Dubioza Kolektiv,[49] and Saša Kovačević opened the second in summer of 2019 and Željko Joksimović closed it;[50] artistic, trade and other bazaars and the like)[51][52][53][54][55] while the trade-economic fair with a long history ZEPS expands – thus improving tourist i.e. economic potential. These are all reasons because of which city has more visitors from all continents, of which it is significant to mention Africa and Asia. The issue of stray dogs in the urban core was handled,[56] pollution that culminated at the beginning[57] and in the mid-2010s was reduced significantly (Zenicas were used to pink-red sky and stinky, polluted air especially during the nights of pollution),[58] public transport was improved (new buses, wi-fi etc.)... There are plans to resolve a huge problem of unemployment and to modernize the education system, build city underground garage,[59] as well as projects of warming the public city flat buildings with styrofoam facades.[60] Manifestation Čimburijada (Serbo-Croatian: čimbur – the local name for the scrambled eggs), that have been present for several decades in Zenica, took place in 2019, too, with video-broadcast on TV Zenica.[61]

Panorama of Zenica (spring 2015)

GeographyEdit

Zenica is located in the heart of the Bosnia, in the central part of the river Bosna's flow, after which country BiH bears name. Coordinates of the city are 44° 12′ 14″ N and 17° 54′ 28″ E. It has average elevation of 310–350 m (1,017–1,148 ft) above sea level.

Area of Zenica is 43.01 km2 (16.61 sq mi) [area of the City is 558.5 km2 (215.6 sq mi)].

LocationEdit

 
Geographic location of Zenica

Relief and spreadEdit

Relief of the City of Zenica is valley-basin. It is made up of a series of alluvial planes, hills, mountain passes and the like. The average altitude of the city itself surrounded by hills is 310–350 m (1,017–1,148 ft); however, there are many higher positions, such as Tvrtkovac, a hikers' destination of Zenicans, whose altitude is 1,304 m (4,278 ft). The Zenica basin extends from the canyon Lašva river in the south to the Vranduk canyon and Vranduk gorge in the north – of an average length of 35 km (22 mi) and with an average altitude of 700 m (2,300 ft).[62][9] Overview of the highest hills and mountains is given in the table below.[9]

Highest mountains and hills of Zenica[9]
Mountains and hills Elev. [m (ft)]
Tvrtkovac 1,304 (4,278)
Hum 1,280 (4,200)
Vepar 1,083 (3,553)
Lisac 1,080 (3,540)
Smetovi 940 (3,080)
Klopačke stijene 918 (3,012)
Golubak 700 (2,300)
Vučijak 639 (2,096)
Zmajevac 638 (2,093)
Volovska glava 585 (1,919)
Janjićki vrh 561 (1,841)

The lowest parts in the relief context are along the river Bosna. As one moves towards east and west, altitudes increase; thus, northwestern and northeastern areas of the city are the highest.[9]

WatersEdit

Zenica city is characterized by many small rivers and streams; all of them completely belong to the Bosna river basin.

River Bosna is the most important water flow in the Zenica area. Spring of the river Bosna in Ilidža, near Sarajevo, and mouth in the river Sava near Bosanski Šamac; thus, the river has a natural flow from south to the north, what is usually uncommon but characteristic for larger number of rivers in BiH.[63] Out of a total of 274 km (170 mi), which is the total length of the river Bosna, 47.95 km (29.79 mi) flows throughout the cityity. Along the river Bosna there are roads and railway built; also, most of the citizens is concentrated along river Bosna.[9]

Except Bosna, in the city itself there are flows of the rivers Lašva, Babina and Kočeva, and farther are Bistričak, Orahovička, Nemilska, Gračanička, Starinska and Džulanova rivers. The most significant streams are Tetovski, Zvečajski, Janjićki, Svitački and streams of Perin han I, Perin han II, Bukovica etc.[9]

ClimateEdit

Zenica
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
70
 
 
4
−3
 
 
70
 
 
7
−2
 
 
64
 
 
12
2
 
 
76
 
 
17
6
 
 
85
 
 
22
10
 
 
88
 
 
25
13
 
 
72
 
 
28
15
 
 
70
 
 
28
14
 
 
72
 
 
24
11
 
 
84
 
 
17
7
 
 
105
 
 
10
3
 
 
96
 
 
5
−1
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

In the Zenica City area, moderate continental climate prevails. Summers are hot and winters moderately cold. Mean annual temperature is 10.4 °C (50.7 °F), average annual precipitation 804 mm (31.7 in) and unevenly distributed during the year, provided that there are no exceptionally dry months (the lowest monthly precipitation is in March and the highest in November). The coldest month is January [average year minimum −1 °C (30 °F)] while July is the hottest [average year maximum 20.2 °C (68.4 °F)]. The lowest mean monthly temperature in Zenica was in January 1964 [−6.4 °C (20.5 °F); minimal −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) in January 1963] and maximal mean monthly temperatures were registered in August 2003 [23.8 °C (74.8 °F); maximal 40.8 °C (105.4 °F) in August 2003]. Relative air humidity is 70% and cloudiness 6.1 tenths. Air pressure is 976.3 milibars. Zenica has one meteorological station; it was founded in 1925 and is located at an elevation of 344 m (1,129 ft) a.s.l.[9][64]

Climate data for Zenica
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 3.8
(38.8)
6.9
(44.4)
12.1
(53.8)
16.7
(62.1)
21.5
(70.7)
25.2
(77.4)
27.8
(82.0)
27.6
(81.7)
23.7
(74.7)
17.3
(63.1)
10.0
(50.0)
5.1
(41.2)
16.5
(61.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
2.6
(36.7)
7.0
(44.6)
11.2
(52.2)
15.6
(60.1)
19.2
(66.6)
21.1
(70.0)
20.7
(69.3)
17.1
(62.8)
12.0
(53.6)
6.3
(43.3)
2.1
(35.8)
11.3
(52.3)
Average low °C (°F) −3.0
(26.6)
−1.7
(28.9)
1.9
(35.4)
5.8
(42.4)
9.8
(49.6)
13.2
(55.8)
14.5
(58.1)
13.9
(57.0)
10.6
(51.1)
6.7
(44.1)
2.7
(36.9)
−0.9
(30.4)
6.1
(43.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 70
(2.8)
70
(2.8)
64
(2.5)
76
(3.0)
85
(3.3)
88
(3.5)
72
(2.8)
70
(2.8)
72
(2.8)
84
(3.3)
105
(4.1)
96
(3.8)
952
(37.5)
Mean daily sunshine hours 9.5 10.5 12 13.5 14.5 15.5 15 14 12.5 11 9.5 9 12.2
Source: climate-data.org; for sun hours: NOAA

EcologyEdit

 
River Bosna
in the front: a railway, behind it the settlement of Jalija (right) and farther Bilimišće (left); in the back: Zenica hills – Krč rocks (right) and other (left)

Zenica's industry polluted and damaged the environment. After the Bosnian War, the main culprit for hard ecological state in Zenica, ironworks (today mostly converted into Arcelor Mittal, owned by Lakshmi Mittal), was incapacitated. However, a few years ago, the old steelworks partially resumed its operations, so because of these and other reasons the non-partisan, citizen organisation "Eko pokret Zenica" was founded in Zenica, and later the Greens of Bosnia and Herzegovina political party as well – with their seat in Zenica. In the city there is also "Eko-forum Zenica" as an acting organization.[65][66][67]

The Babina river basin was declared a nature park after their intercession. There are initiatives to create a dam on the Vranduk, what would cause ecological catastrophe. The Greens of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and "Eko pokret" as well, are against this and advocate declaring Vranduk a national park.[65]

Regional depony [waste landfill] "Mošćanica" (RDM) d.o.o. Zenica is located between Mošćanica, Mutnica, Palinovići, Briznik, Arnauti, Ponihovo and Plavčići villages southeast of Zenica city;[68] it takes care about all waste from Zenica and surrounding places; Zenica waste management company – that moves garbage to "Mošćanica" and curates city parks, streets, etc. – is German company Alba d.o.o.[69][70]

Urban settlementsEdit

Urban part of Zenica is consisted of the following settlements – urban entireties:

DemographicsEdit

View over Zenica čaršija full of people
Old Čaršija (upper part of it with cafes)
Old Zenica bazaar and tržnica, and Kočevska mosque
New Zenica renovated roofed bazaar, currently in use

Zenica's population increased from 7,215 citizens in 1910 to 15,550 in 1948 and 63,869 in 1981.[27]

According to the Population census in SR BiH from 1991, Zenica had 96,027 citizens. Zenica Municipality had 145,517 citizens by same census data, in 81 settlements. According to the official data of the 2013 population census in Bosnia and Herzegovina for the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina published by the Federal Office of Statistics of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and then re-published by Federal Office of Statistics, the populated place Zenica (without Upper Zenica and surrounding villages and places) had 70,553 persons living there, while the City of Zenica had 110,663 inhabitants.[5]

Many Serbs after the Bosnian War fled from the Zenica (either voluntarily or not);[71] now they live in Republika Srpska and elsewhere in the world, too; on the Federation of BiH level, they are reduced to a statistical error.[36]

Population of the settled place / cityEdit

Ethnic composition[27][5]
Year Serbs  % Bosniaks[1]  % Croats  % Yugoslavs  % Others  % Total
1961 10,525 32.41% 5,908 18.19% 9,393 28.92% 5,517 15.31% - -% 32,476
1971 12,779 24.93% 21,365 41.68% 13,250 25.85% 1,945 3.79% - -% 51,263
1981 12,728 20.02% 22,146 34.84% 11,716 18.43% 14,437 22.71% - -% 63,569
1991 18,312 19.07% 43,154 44.94% 15,809 16.46% 14,703 15.31% 4,049 4.22% 96,027
2013 2,296 3.25% 55,239 78.29% 6,746 9.56% - -% 6,272 8.89% 70,553
 
YearPop.±% p.a.
1879 2,101—    
1885 3,073+6.54%
1910 7,215+3.47%
1921 7,632+0.51%
1948 15,550+2.67%
1953 28,961+13.24%
1961 32,476+1.44%
1971 51,263+4.67%
1981 63,569+2.17%
1991 96,027+4.21%
2013 70,553−1.39%
Source: [72][73][27][5]

Population of the municipality / CityEdit

Ethnic composition[27][74]
Year Serbs  % Bosniaks[2]  % Croats  % Yugoslavs  % Others  % Total
1961 20,369 24.15% 31,177 36.97% 20,509 24.32% 10,755 12.75% - -% 84,341
1971 21,875 19.45% 61,204 54.43% 24,658 21.93% 2,133 1.90% 2,577 2.29% 112,447
1981 21,204 15.97% 66,930 50.42% 23,595 17.78% 17,536 13.21% - -% 132,733
1991 22,592 15.52% 80,377 55.21% 22,651 15.56% 15,651 10.75% 4,306 2.96% 145,577
2013 2,409 2.17% 92,988 84.02% 8,279 7.48% - -% 6,987 6.31% 110,663
 
YearPop.±% p.a.
1879 4,174—    
1885 6,261+6.99%
1910 10,637+2.14%
1921 11,211+0.48%
1948 35,399+4.35%
1953 38,152+1.51%
1961 84,341+10.42%
1971 112,447+2.92%
1981 132,733+1.67%
1991 145,577+0.93%
2013 110,663−1.24%
Source: [72][73][27][74]

Common surnamesEdit

The most common surname in Zenica is Delić (983 persons).[75] It is followed by Spahić (878),[75] and the most common BiH surname[76] – Hodžić[76] (815).[75] These are followed by Bajramović (701), Isaković (688), Imamović (669), Halilović (649), Beganović (643) and Šišić (566).[75] The previously mentioned surnames are borne by about 5.5% of the city's population.[75] Other common surnames are Arnaut, Babić, Bašić, Durmić, Fejzić, Pašalić, Mahmić, Kovačević and Alić.[75]

In Zenica-Doboj Canton, as of July 2019, most common surnames are (descending incidence, all with incidence >1,000 are listed):[77]

  1. Hodžić
  2. Halilović
  3. Delić
  4. Spahić
  5. Bašić
  6. Imamović
  7. Kovačević
  8. Kadrić
  9. Tadić
  10. Marković
  11. Babić
  12. Begić
  13. Alić
  14. Šehić
  15. Selimović
  16. Beganović
  17. Hadžić
  18. Tomić
  19. Muratović
  20. Dedić
  21. Šišić
  22. Karić
  23. Smajić
  24. Sinanović
  25. Jukić
  26. Vidović
  27. Ramić
  28. Dizdarević
  29. Brkić
  30. Softić
  31. Avdić
  32. Pavlović
  33. Matijević
  34. Bošnjak
  35. Pašalić
  36. Šabanović
  37. Fejzić
  38. Radić
  39. Lukić
  40. Kovač
  41. Petrović

EconomyEdit

 
Steelworks

Zenica is a famous industrial center.[78] In the development politics until today, base branches of industry prevailed (production of iron and steel, and coalmining). Exploitation of brown coal in Zenica has begun in 1880, and production of steel in 1892.[79]

In the pre-war period (in 1990), Zenica produced, among others, 1.4 tons of steel and 924,000 tons of coal, 1,018,000 m2 (10,960,000 sq ft) of cloth, 158,000 hL of milk etc. Employed workers numbered 53,419 – 49,415 in the social sector (42,965 economy and 6,450 non-economy), and 4,004 employed men and women in private sector.[79]

Even though the Bosnian War (1992–1995) did not bring destruction into Zenica to the extent it did elsewhere, the war damaged the economy. It is reflected in the interruption of the continuous process of steel production and a huge decrease in its production.[79]

Farming and cattle breeding have significant preconditions for further increase in production, with greater application of agrotechnical measures. In the farming production, the most prominent is the production of high quality potatoes – with significant market surpluses, carrots, onion, corn, wheat and vegetables. Outside Zenica, the famous sheep cheese is praised and sought after.[79]

Metal sector companies

The most notable metal sector (but also active on other plans) companies from Zenica are ArcelorMittal, Femetall, Cimos, RM-LH, Bosio, Treasure.

PoliticsEdit

 
The fourth Zenica soliter in which LC Odmut is; on the building one can see a small notation for the street, "Bulevar Kulina bana", besides other bigger table "Bulevar Ezhera Eze Arnautovića" (former mayor during whose term boulevard-building began) – because of citizens not supporting decision the change of the boulevard's name

Official symbolsEdit

City of Zenica (City) has a coat of arms and a flag, which are official for the populated place (city) too.[80][81]

The coat of arms is a square field with half-circled base framed with two lines, that have equal thickness and area. It has six elements shown with black lines of the same thickness. On the left side, following the frame of the coat of arms' field, the contour of the Bosna river can be seen, cut by two horizontal lines in the lower part – symbol of communication. In the remaining part of the coat of arms, there are four circular symbols representing (from left to right, from top to bottom) the symbol of Vranduk – northern gate of the city, one of the six crosses from ban Kulin's plate, symbol of Christianity at the same time, crescent moon – symbol of Islam and Ottoman period, and crossed hammers – symbol of coalmining and heavy industry and indirectly symbol of Austro-Hungarian period, too. The field of the coat of arms is colored yellow and green. Yellow covers the field until the upper two circle elements level and the rest of the field is green. The crescent moon in the lower part is also yellow. The contour of the river is white.[80][81]

Zenica's flag's background is white. Width vs length relationship is 1:2. Flag is vertically positioned in all its variants. At the middle part there is coat of arms set vertically along the length of the flag. The width of the coat of arms formerly occupied[82] ⅔ of flag width.[80][81][82]

Conditions and the way of usage of the coat of arms of Zenica is regulated by a special decision of the Council (see admin structure right below).[80][81]

Governance: The seat of administration of the CityEdit

In the populated place Zenica there is seat of the Authority of the City of Zenica and seat of City of Zenica (Municipality until 2014); the Authority consists of a City Mayor (Municipality Mayor until 2014), the Council of the City of Zenica (Municipality Council until 2014) and City Attorney's Office (Municipality Attorney's Office until 2014).[83]

Mayors and City MayorsEdit

Abdulah Mutapčić (b. 1932),
23rd mayor (1970–1974)
Fuad Kasumović (b. 1958),
36th mayor (2016–today)

For Zenica city role of importance is consequently played by City Mayor of Zenica City. Below is a list of former Zenica Mayors1–34 + * and City Mayors**.

  1. Ahmetaga Mutapčić (?–?)
  2. Ali Harmandić (1908–1913)
  3. Mahmud Tarabar (1913–1917)
  4. Osman Mutapčić (1917–1923)
  5. Ivo Ghey (1923–1925)
  6. Ahmed Mutapčić (1926–1931)
  7. Abdulaziz Asko Borić (1932–1935)
  8. Eniz Mutapčić (1935–1936)
  9. Mehmedalija Tarabar (1936–1941)
  10. Ismet Salčinović (1941–1945)
  11. Mustafa Čolaković (1945)
  12. Mustafa Mujagić (1945)
  13. Abdulaziz Asko Borić (1945–1946)
  14. Jozo Marčinković (1945–1948)
  15. Veljko Bilanović (1949–1950)
  16. Nikola Spaić (1951–1952)
  17. Safet Uzunović (1950–1955)
  18. Đuro Vekić (1955–1959)
  19. Milko Križanović (1959–1960)
  20. Ezher Ezo Arnautović (1960–1965)
  21. Vinko Jelčić (1965–1966)
  22. Muhamed Berberović (1966–1970)
  23. Abdulah Mutapčić (1970–1974)
  24. Vinko Jelčić (1974–1978)
  25. Nikola Mirković (1978–1982)
  26. Salim Tarabar (1982–1983)
  27. Muhamed Pašalić (1983–1984)
  28. Nikola Telebak (1984–1985)
  29. Omer Filipović (1986–1988)
  30. Bogdan Kolar (1988–1990)
  31. Ibrahim Alispahić (1990–1992)
  32. Besim Spahić (1992–1997)
  33. Ferid Alić (1997–2000)
  34. Zakir Pašalić (2000–2004)
  35. Husejin Smajlović (2004–2016)*, **
  36. Fuad Kasumović (2016–today)**

source: [84]

Non-governmental organizationsEdit

Scouts (Izviđači) are a children's and youth movement, and they accomplish their goals and programs with help of adult members of the organization.

Scouts mainly acquaint nature, make friendships (children socialization) and learn useful skills that can help in the future of the life – both in the civilized world and nature. The scout organization in Zenica marked in 2017 its 65th anniversary of continuous existence. Since its founding there have been about 100,000 young people with different orientations in the Zenica scout organization.[85][86]

CultureEdit

Monuments of Zenica NOB

The city has the following institutions of cultural importance: the Camera Symphony Orchestra; Bosnian People's Theater with the Great Scene, Small Scene, Scene in the Basement and Kabare; Youth chorus; Art gallery; Museum of the City of Zenica. At the Bosnian People's Theater, beside the permanent ensemble, the Children's scene is also active with its own program.

The Croat culture society "Napredak" (Advancement), Zenica affiliate, from 2010 has organized within Easter days every year "Tucijada" (beating eggs), competition on the occasion of the biggest Catholic festivity Easter. The goal is to find a participant with the strongest Easter-egg shell. Manifestation takes place in the rooms of the Croat house.[87] Since 2010 CCS "Napredak", Zenica affiliate, organizes every year on the occasion of Easter days Festival of the natural rakijas and liqueurs, also in the Croat house.[88][89]

The medieval musical ensemble Fugato is from Zenica, and so are the reggae/dub/rock band Dubioza Kolektiv and pop-rock band Nemoguće Vruće. GUD "Filigran" Zenica and tamburaši "Zlatna žica" on 30 July took part in the International tamburaši's meetings (Međunarodni tamburaški susreti), that represented the eight-night show of Zenica summer fest 2019 (19 July – 9 August).[90]

National monumentsEdit

 
Zenica Synagogue and Zenicans

There are several national monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Zenica, at the former Municipality's i.e. City from 2014. On the list of national monuments of BiH for Zenica there are following monuments:

AttractionsEdit

Arena Zenica (City arena "Husejin Smajlović")
"Jabuka" building (Apple building)
  • Tvrđava Vranduk [Vranduk fortress]
  • Zenička sinagoga [Zenica synagogue]
  • Spomenik Kameni spavač [Stone sleeper monument]
  • Spomenici NOB-a [NOB monuments]
  • Bulevar Kulina bana [Kulin ban's boulevard]
  • Stara čaršija [Old Čaršija]
  • Hadži Mazića kuća [Hadži Mazića house]
  • Medresa [Madrasah]
  • Korzo [Corso]
  • Kameniti most [Stone bridge]
  • Muzej grada Zenice [Zenica City Museum]
  • Crkva Rođenja Svete Bogorodice [Church of the Nativity of Our Lady]
  • Crkva Svetog Ilije [St. Elijah Church]
  • Čaršijska džamija [Čaršijska mosque]
  • Sejmenska džamija [Sejmenska mosque]
  • Smetovi [Smetovi]
  • Bistričak [Bistričak]
  • Kamberovića polje [Kamberovića polje]
  • Lamela [Lamela]
  • Bosansko narodno pozorište [Bosnian People's Theater]
  • Gradska tržnica [City tržnica]
  • Sajam ZEPS [ZEPS fair]
  • Sajam Dani organske proizvodnje [Days of organic production fair]
  • Festival Zenica summer fest [Zenica summer fest festival]
  • Robne kuće Bosanka & Zeničanka [Bosanka & Zeničanka shopping malls]
  • Šoping-centar Džananović [Shopping center Džananović]
  • MI "Kemal Kapetanović" [MI "Kemal Kapetanović"]
  • Željezara Zenica [Ironworks Zenica]
  • Papirna [Papirna]
  • Rudnik Stara jama [Old pit mine]
  • Zenički zatvor [Zenica prison]
  • Dom Armije, bivši Dom JNA [Army house, former JNA house]
  • Zenička arena [Zenica arena]
  • Hotel Internacional [International hotel]
  • FK Čelik [FC Čelik]
  • Stadion Bilino polje [Bilino polje stadium]
  • Četiri solitera na Odmutu [Four soldiers on Odmut]
  • Zgrada Jabuka [Apple building]
  • Crkvice [Crkvice]
  • Jalija [Jalija]
  • Janjići [Janjići]
  • Drivuša [Drivuša]
  • Carina i Stari mlin u Zacarini [Carina and Old mill in Zacarina]
  • Bazeni u Babinoj Rijeci [Pools in Babina Rijeka]
  • Kino Multiplex ekran [Multiplex Ekran Cinema]
  • Zelena & Buvlja/stočna pijaca [Green & Flea/cattle piazzas]
  • Gradska kafana [City kafana]
  • Mljekara ZIM [Dairy factory ZIM]
  • PZ Nova Zenica i Kanal [BZ New Zenica and Kanal]
  • Most Drvena ćuprija [Wooden cuprii bridge]
  • Viseći Jalijski most [Suspended Jalija bridge]
  • Dom penzionera Zenica [Retirement home Zenica]
  • Spomenik ZPO na Smetovima [Monument to ZPO on Smetovi]
  • Zgrada HKD "Napredak" [Building of HCS "Napredak"]

SportsEdit

 
Athletic stadium at Kamberovića polje

Zenica has remarkable base for the development of sport and mass physical culture. Zenica sportspeople and sportsworkers achieved a series of noted results – both on Bosnia and Herzegovina and international sports scenes.[92]

FC Čelik is a two-time winner of the former Central European Cup. From the recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Čelik has been thrice state champion, and won the Cup twice. Significant results were made also by rugby players of Čelik, who were eight-time champions of SFR Yugoslavia, won the Cup six times and were double champion of BiH.[92]

Since 1992, noted international results were made by tennis player Mervana Jugić, high jumper Elvir Krehmić, shooter Šejla Kurtagić, karatist Arnel Kalušić etc.[92]

Zenica has 45 working clubs in which there are many professionally and amateur sportsworkers employed. Zenica is also the only BiH city in which there is working Club of extreme sports (Scorpio), with focuses on alpinism and sports climbing.[92]

Clubs listEdit

  • Aeroklub "Zenica" [aeroclub]
  • Asocijacija radio-amatera [radio-amaeteurs]
  • Asocijacija radio-amatera radio-klub "Zenica" [radio-amaeteurs]
  • Atletski klub "Zenica" [athletics]
  • Biciklistički klub "Zenica – Metalno" [byciclism]
  • Bokserski klub "Čelik" [box]
  • Invalidski odbojkaški klub "Bosna" [disabled volleyball]
  • Džudo klub "Policajac" [Judo]
  • Karate klub "Hasen-do" [Karate]
  • Karate klub "Zenica – Mladost" [Karate]
  • Karate klub "Nico" [Karate]
  • Košarkaški invalidski klub "Bosna" [disabled basketball]
  • Klub borilačkih vještina "Isak" [martial arts]
  • Klub ekstremnih sportova "Scorpio" [extreme sports]
  • Košarkaški klub "Čelik" (žene) [basketball (women)]
  • Košarkaški klub "Čelik" [basketball]
  • Košarkaški klub "Željezara – Zenica" (žene) [basketball (women)]
  • Klub sjedeće odbojke "Zenica 92" [sitting volleyball]
  • Malonogomentni klub "Drugari" [futsal]
  • Fudbalski klub "Borac" (Tetovo) [football]
  • Fudbalski klub "Iris" (žene) [football (women)]
  • Fudbalski klub "Čelik" [football]
  • Fudbalski klub "Nemila" [football]
  • Fudbalski klub "Zenica 97" [football]
  • Fudbalski klub "Zlatni ljiljan" [football]
  • Fudbalski klub "Željezničar" [football]
  • Odbojkaški klub "Zenica" [volleyball]
  • Odbojkaški klub "Ruki" [volleyball]
  • Plivački klub "Željezara" [swimming]
  • Plesni klub "Latino" [dance]
  • Rafting klub "Žara" [rafting]
  • Rafting klub "Bosna" [rafting]
  • Ragbi klub "Čelik" [rugby]
  • Ragbi klub "Rudar" [rugby]
  • Ragbi klub "Zenica 72" [rugby]
  • Rukometni klub "Čelik" [handball]
  • Smučarski klub "Zenica" [skiing]
  • Stonoteniski klub "Mladost" [table tennis]
  • Stonoteniski klub "Željezara" [table tennis]
  • Streljački klub "Zenica" [shooting]
  • Šahovski klub "Čelik" [chess]
  • Šahovski klub "Preporod" [chess]
  • Teniski klub "Čelik" [tennis]
  • Tekvondo klub "Zenica" [Taekwondo]
  • Udruženje građana sportskih ribolovaca RD "Bistro" Zenica [fishing]

source: [92]

Transportation and infrastructureEdit

 
Electric train in Zenica

Zenica is connected with Sarajevo [70 km (43 mi) South-East] by railway and road lines – both of which follow the valley of the Bosna river. Highway А1 connects Zenica with Sarajevo and Mostar. The railway follows further to the south, and at the end it comes to the coast in Ploče (Croatia).[78]

Roads in the city are relatively bad. Exceptions are newly-built main city magistral (GGM) and some parts of the main city roads in the center and New Zenica. Widening of the roads toward some surrounding settlements and villages is being prepared, and works have begun in some places already (roads around Vranduk, towards Nemila and Bistričak resort).[93]

The most important infrastructure and transportation companies from Zenica (all d.o.o.) are Almy Gradnja, ITC, Arcon, Arel, Uniprojekt Komerc – Inžinjering, Komgrad – Ze, Almy-transport, Geosonda, Engra, ŽGP – Zenica.

Closest airport is Sarajevo International Airport.[78]

Rebuild of Vranduk tunnel

During 2019, the city faces the problem of rebuilding the "Vranduk" tunnel, that will according to the plans last even until the end of the first quarter of the following year;[94] transportation is basically done in one lane alternately, and sometimes there is complete stopping of traffic and accidents of many types occur very often (vehicles go off the narrower alternative roads, drivers engage in physical clashes due to impatience and heat, etc.).[95][96][97][98][99]

EducationEdit

 
Technical high school on Bilimišće

There are 19 elementary and 12 high[100] schools in Zenica city. Among others, there are elementary[101] and high[102] music schools, an elementary special school,[103] and Catholic school center "Saint Paul" which has an elementary school and a gymnasium.[104]

Zenica is a university city.[78] The University of Zenica consists of several faculties: Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Metallurgy and Materials Faculty, Philosophy, Law, Economics, Medicine, Islamic Pedagogical Faculty and Polytechnic Faculty.[78]

MediaEdit

The main medium of communication in the city is its public service, Radio and Television of Zenica (RTVZE). It is seated in Boulevard of King Tvrtko I street, across the road where the main city bus station is located.[105] There are no other television stations in the city; the closest is NTV IC Kakanj. There are many other radio stations, such as: Radio Zenit, Narodni Radio Zenica, Radio Mix, Radio TNT Zenica, Radio ZOS, Uživo radio, BM radio (former), Q radio Zenica, YUB radio, Radio Zeničko nebo, and Radio Dijaspora Zenica.

Zenica has one newspaper and it is free of charge (also the first Bosnian free newspaper), Superinfo, distributed to the citizens at street stands (rarely, nowadays) or by paper boys who bring them to most of the public flat buildings in the city.[106] The city has an official gazette (Službene novine Grada Zenica).[107] The seats of the national Dnevni avaz and Naša riječ newspapers correspondence offices are located in Zenica, in the "Jabuka" building below Hamida hill and on the other side of the building where RTVZE has its seat, respectively.

Notable peopleEdit


source: [109]

Partner citiesEdit

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

1.^ ^ Bosniaks declared themselves as Muslims prior to the 2013 census.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Akcioni plan energetski održivog razvoja Grada Zenica" (SEAP/ZEDA presentation). www.zeda.ba (in Bosnian). Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 August 2019. Zenica kao ”zeleni čelični grad [Steel city]” gradi zdravu i bogatu budućnost...
  2. ^ Iron city
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  4. ^ Nicaze 2
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