|Ab urbe condita||2028|
|Balinese saka calendar||1196–1197|
|English Regnal year||3 Edw. 1 – 4 Edw. 1|
|Chinese calendar||甲戌年 (Wood Dog)|
3971 or 3911
— to —
乙亥年 (Wood Pig)
3972 or 3912
|- Vikram Samvat||1331–1332|
|- Shaka Samvat||1196–1197|
|- Kali Yuga||4375–4376|
|Japanese calendar||Bun'ei 12 / Kenji 1|
|Minguo calendar||637 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1817–1818|
1401 or 1020 or 248
— to —
1402 or 1021 or 249
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1275.|
- March – The 200,000 multiethnic troops of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty, headed by the Turkish commander Bayan, face a Chinese Song Dynasty army of 130,000, led by the Song Chancellor Jia Sidao. The result is a decisive victory for the Yuan Dynasty, and soon after the much-vilified Jia Sidao is stripped of rank and title, and killed by one of his own guards, as he is sent to exile in Fujian by the Song court.
- March 4 – Chinese astronomers observe a total eclipse of the Sun in China.
- The invading forces of the Yuan Dynasty capture the Song Dynasty city of Suzhou.
- Marco Polo purportedly visits Xanadu, Kublai Khan's summer capital of the Yuan Dynasty.
- The city of Kunming is made capital of the Yunnan province of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty.
- Nestorian monk Rabban Bar Sauma begins his pilgrimage from China towards Jerusalem.
- The Japanese era Bun'ei ends, and the Kenji era begins.
- April 22 – The first Statute of Westminster is passed by the English Parliament, establishing a series of laws in its 51 clauses, including equal treatment of rich and poor, free and fair elections, and definition of bailable and non-bailable offenses.
- June 14 – Battle of Hova: Valdemar, King of Sweden is defeated by his brother Magnus, after which Magnus deposes him.
- July 22 – Magnus is elected the new king of Sweden.
- October 8 – Battle of Ronaldsway: Scottish forces defeat the Manx of the Isle of Man in a decisive battle, firmly establishing Scottish rule of the island.
- October 27 – Floris V, Count of Holland, grants the city of Amsterdam freedom from taxes.
- Eleanor de Montfort is captured by sailors in the employ of Edward I of England, to prevent her marriage to Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, prince of Wales; she is used as a bargaining chip over the coming years, in Edward's attempts to subjugate Llywelyn and Wales.
- The Mongol Golden Horde raids Lithuania for the third time.
- Around Ciney, in present day Wallonia, the War of the Cow begins; (ending in 1278).
- The first main survey of the Hundred Rolls, an English census seen as a follow-up to the Domesday Book completed in 1086, is finished; it began in 1274.
- Jean de Meun completes the French allegorical work of fiction, Roman de la Rose, with a second section (the first section was written by Guillaume de Lorris in 1230).
- In Ghent, the first instance is recorded of emission of life annuities by a town in the Low Countries; this event confirms a trend of consolidation of local public debt in north-western Europe, initiated in 1218 by Reims.
- Ramon Llull establishes a school in Majorca to teach Arabic to preachers, in an attempt to aid proselytizing to Moors. He also discovers diethyl ether.
- The era of the tosafot (medieval commentators on the Talmud) ends (it began in 1100).
- John II, Duke of Brabant (d. 1312)
- Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere (d. 1322)
- Dnyaneshwar, Indian Hindu Marathi saint, philosopher and poet (d. 1296)
- Mondino de Liuzzi, Italian physician and anatomist (d. 1326)
- Giovanni d'Andrea, Italian jurist
- Eleanor of Brittany (abbess) (d. 1342)
- approximate date
- Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, Franco-English nobleman (d. 1324)
- William of Alnwick, English Franciscan theologian (d. 1333)
- Walter V, Count of Brienne, Duke of Athens (d. 1311)
- Gediminas, Duke of Lithuania (d. 1341)
- Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1313)
- John de Menteith, Scottish nobleman (d. 1323)
- Giovanni Villani, Florentine writer (d. 1348)
- February 26 – Margaret of England, Queen consort of the Scots (b. 1240)
- April 13 – Eleanor of England (b. 1215)
- August 15 – Lorenzo Tiepolo, Doge of Venice
- September 24 – Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, Constable of England (b. 1208)
- September – Ferdinand de la Cerda, Crown Prince of Castile
- date unknown
- Meynier, Gilbert (2010). L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518). Paris: La Découverte. p. 158. ISBN 978-2-7071-5231-2.
- Zuijderduijn, Jaco (2009). Medieval Capital Markets. Markets for renten, state formation and private investment in Holland (1300-1550). Leiden/Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-17565-5.