The 1270s is the decade starting January 1, 1270, and ending December 31, 1279.

Events

1270

AfricaEdit

The Eighth CrusadeEdit
Other eventsEdit

AsiaEdit

EuropeEdit

1271

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
LevantEdit
AsiaEdit
  • September 12Nichiren, Japanese Buddhist priest, is arrested by a band of soldiers and nearly beheaded. This incident, known as Hosshaku Kenpon or "casting off the transient and revealing the true," is regarded as a turning point of Nichiren's teachings within the various schools, known as Nichiren Buddhism.[28]
  • December 18 – Kublai Khan renames his empire "Great Yuan" (大元; dà yuán), officially marking the start of the Yuan Dynasty in China.
  • The Nakhi Kingdom, of the northern Himalayan foothills, is annexed by the Yuan Dynasty (approximate date).

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

1272

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
LevantEdit
  • May 22 – King Hugh III (the Great) signs a peace with Sultan Baibars, Mamluk ruler of Egypt, at Caesarea. The Kingdom of Jerusalem is guaranteed for 10 years the possession of its present lands, which consists mainly of the narrow coastal plain from Acre to Sidon, together with the right to use without hindrance the pilgrim-road to Nazareth. The County of Tripoli is safeguarded by the peace treaty.[34]
  • June 16 – Edward (the Lord Edward) prevents an assassination attempt at Acre. A Syrian Nizari (or Assassin) supposedly sent by Baibars penetrates into the prince's chamber and stabs him with a poisoned dagger. The wound is not fatal, but Edward is seriously ill for some months. Baibars hastens to dissociate himself from the deed by sending his congratulations on the prince's escape.[35]
  • August 18 – Nubian forces sack the Egyptian Red Sea outpost of Aydhab and raid the southern frontier city of Aswan. In return, Baibars invades the kingdom of Makuria.[36]

By topicEdit

AstronomyEdit

1273

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
  • January 22 – Sultan Muhammad I (or Ibn al-Ahmar) suffers fatal injuries after falling from his horse near the city of Granada during a minor military expedition. He is succeeded by his son Muhammad II, who becomes ruler of the Emirate of Granada. Muhammad enters negotiations with King Alfonso X (the Wise) to make peace with Castile, but he refuses to grant a truce to the Banu governors (arraeces) of Málaga and Guadix in Andalusia.[38]
  • Autumn – Muhammad I[who?] sends an embassy to the court of Alfonso X in Seville, where it is received with honour. Alfonso agrees to Granada's demands, to end his support for the Banu Ashqilula, in exchange for the promise that Muhammad becomes Alfonso's vassal. Muhammad pays him 450,000 maravedis each year in tribute and grants the Banu rebels a truce for two years.[39]
  • October 1Rudolf I is elected King of Germany over the rival candidate Ottokar II, king of Bohemia, ending the Great Interregnum. He is the first of many Habsburgs to hold the throne and is crowned in Aachen Cathedral, on October 24. Ottokar refuses to acknowledge Rudolf as the new ruler and is placed under the imperial ban, leading to the outbreak of war in 1276.[40]
  • The Congregatio Regni totius Sclavonie Generalis, with its decisions (statuta et constitutiones), is the oldest surviving document written by the Croatian parliament (or Sabor).
Middle EastEdit
  • July – Mamluk forces under Baibars capture the last remaining stronghold of the Hashashin (or Assassins) sect, Al-Kahf Castle.[41]
  • August – Mongol forces surround the castle of Al-Bira. Baibars skirts around the enemy with camels and wagons. He launches a devastating attack and routes the Mongols.[42]
  • December – Followers of Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, Persian poet and mystic, establish the Mevlevi Order (Whirling Dervishes) in the city of Konya (approximate date).
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

Art and ScienceEdit
  • The Holy Redeemer khachkar, believed to be one of the finest examples of art, is carved in Haghpat (modern Armenia).
EconomyEdit
ReligionEdit

1274

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
AfricaEdit
AsiaEdit
  • November 419Battle of Bun'ei: Forces of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty of China invade Japan. After conquering the Japanese settlements on Tsushima and Iki islands, Kublai Khan's fleet moves on to Japan and lands at Hakata Bay. Their landing is not unopposed: an old sea wall ran along much of the bay and behind it are stationed the warriors of Hōjō Tokimune. The Japanese open combat with whistling arrows (kabura-ya), designed to unnerve and intimidate their foes. The Mongols use bombs against the Japanese forces and manage to break through at a few places, burning down the nearby town of Hakata (modern-day Fukuoka). The invaders are eventually repelled, and after inflicting heavy losses on the Japanese, a withdrawal is ordered. Credit for a great typhoon – called a kamikaze, or divine wind – the Mongol fleet is dashed on the rocks and destroyed. Some sources suggest that 200 warships are lost. Of the 30,000 strong invasion force, some 13,000 does not return.[46]
  • Nichiren, Japanese priest and philosopher, enters exile on Mount Minobu. He leads a widespread movement of followers in Kantō and Sado mainly through his prolific letter-writing.

By topicEdit

LiteratureEdit
ReligionEdit

1275

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • Battle of Neopatras: Emperor Michael VIII (Palaiologos) assembles a Byzantine expeditionary force (some 30,000 men), mostly mercenaries from Bulgaria, Serbia and the Sultanate of Rum. He places these forces under his own brother, John Palaiologos, and General Alexios Kaballarios. Michael sends them against Thessaly, and is supported by the Byzantine navy led by Admiral Alexios Doukas Philanthropenos, who is ordered to attack the Latin principalities and prevent them from aiding John I (Angelos), ruler of Thessaly. John is caught by surprise by the rapid advance of the Byzantine forces and is bottled up with a garrison in his capital of Neopatras, which the Byzantines proceed to lay siege. John manages to escape: he climbs down the walls of the fortress with a rope and walks through the Byzantine lines. After 3 days, John reaches Thebes, where he requests the aid of John I de la Roche, duke of Athens. He receives some 500 horsemen with whom he returns to Neopatras. Meanwhile, the Byzantine forces have been weakened, with several detachments sent off to capture other forts or plunder the region. The Byzantines panic under the sudden attack of a smaller but disciplined Latin force and breaks completely when a Cuman contingent switches sides. Despite John's attempt to rally his forces, they flee and scatter.[50]
  • Battle of Demetrias: Michael VIII (Palaiologos) sends a Byzantine fleet led by Alexios Philanthropenos, to harass the Latin coasts. A joint Latin fleet composed of Lombard and Venetian vessels from Negroponte (Euboea) and Venetian-held Crete, is variously given at 30 to 60 ships. The Latin fleet under Admiral Guglielmo II da Verona gets the Byzantines by surprise and their attack is so effective that they almost win. Their ships, on which high wooden towers have been erected, have the advantage, and many Byzantine seamen and soldiers are killed or drowned. Just as victory seem theirs, Greek reinforcements arrive, led by John I (Angelos). His arrival boosts the Byzantines' morale, and John's men, ferried on board the ships by small boats, begin to replenish their casualties and turn the tide. The Latin casualties are heavy, which also include Guglielmo. By nightfall, all but two Latin ships have been captured.[51]
EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
AfricaEdit
  • Marinid forces take the city of Algiers, at that time independent.[57]
AsiaEdit
  • March – Mongol forces (some 200,000 men) under Bayan of the Baarin (Hundred Eyes) defeat a Chinese army of 130,000 men led by the Song chancellor Jia Sidao on the Yangtze River. Sidao sends an emissary to Bayan to discuss a truce, but he declines to negotiate. Dowager Empress Xie Daoqing strips Sidao of his rank and titles, and is later on her orders executed by one of his own guards, as he is sent to exile in Fujian.[58]
  • The 21-year-old Marco Polo together with his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo Polo, arrives at Kublai Khan's opulent summer palace at Shangdu (or Xanadu), after a 4-year journey. They present the "Great Khan" sacred oil from Jerusalem and papal letters of Pope Gregory X. Kublai takes Marco into his royal court and appoints him as a 'special envoy' (possibly as a tax collector).[59]
  • The mountain fortress Alamut Castle (Eagle's Nest) is temporarily recaptured from the Mongols by a Nizari force under Shams al-Din Muhammad.[60][61]
  • April – The Japanese era Bun'ei ends and the Kenji era begins during the reign of the 8-year-old Emperor Go-Uda (until 1278).

By topicEdit

Art and ScienceEdit
MarketsEdit
TechnologyEdit
ReligionEdit

1276

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
  • Spring – King Edward I (Longshanks) orders the people of Bayonne in Gascony (as part of the only English possessions in France) to provide Castile with warships "to resist the Saracens by sea", but he excuses himself from personal participation against the Marinid invasion in Spain because of his wars in Wales and his plan to lead a Crusade to the Holy Land.[67]
AfricaEdit
AsiaEdit
The AmericasEdit

By topicEdit

Cities and TownsEdit
CultureEdit
EconomyEdit
  • Henry of Ghent (or Henricus) becomes the last major theologian to openly consider annuities as a usurious contract. The end of the debate allows for the expansion of the budding practice of renten emission, to become a staple of public finance in northwestern Europe.[73]
ReligionEdit

1277

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • March 19Byzantine–Venetian Treaty: Emperor Michael VIII (Palaiologos) concludes an agreement with the Republic of Venice. Stipulating a two-year truce, and renewing Venetian commercial privileges in the Byzantine Empire. Michael keeps the Venetians and their fleet from participating in the attempts of Charles I, king of Sicily, to organize an anti-Byzantine crusade, while the Venetians can retain their access to the Byzantine market.[74]
  • Battle of Pharsalus: Michael VIII (Palaiologos) sends a Byzantine expeditionary army under John Synadenos to invade Thessaly. The Byzantines are ambushed and defeated by Greek forces under John I (Doukas), Latin ruler of Thessaly, near Pharsalus (or Old Pharsalus). During the battle, Synadenos is captured and Michael Kaballarios, commander of the Latin mercenaries, dies shortly afterward of his wounds.[75]
  • Summer – Uprising of Ivaylo: A uprising under Ivaylo breaks out in northeastern Bulgaria against Emperor Constantine I Tikh to cope with the constant Mongol invasions which devastated the country for years. He confronts and defeats the plundering Mongols, and by autumn all Mongols are driven out of Bulgarian territory. In return, Constantine gathers a small army and tries unsuccessfully to suppress the revolt.
EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
LevantEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

1278

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
  • November 17 – King Edward I (Longshanks) raises the penalty for coin clipping from banishment to execution. All Jews are subjected to arrest and search of their homes on suspicion of coin clipping. Some 680 Jews are imprisoned in the Tower of London, with more than 300 subsequently executed. At this time, the Jewish population is believed to have been some 3,000.[91]
LevantEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

Art and CultureEdit
  • The earliest known written copy of the Avesta, a collection of ancient sacred Persian Zoroastrian texts previously passed down orally, is produced.
MarketsEdit
  • Giles of Lessines writes his De usuris. He estimates that some credit contracts need not to be usurious, as "future things are not estimated to be of such value as those collected in the instant". The prevalence of this view in the usury debate allows for the development of the financial industry in Roman Catholic Europe.[93]
ReligionEdit

1279

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • July 17Battle of Devina: Emperor Michael VIII (Palaiologos) sends a Byzantine expeditionary force (some 10,000 men) to Bulgaria, to impose his ally (and son-in-law) Ivan Asen III on the throne. Tsar Ivaylo, former rebel leader (see Uprising of Ivaylo), attacks the Byzantines in the Kotel Pass, who are completely routed. Many of them perish in the battle – while the rest are captured and later killed by orders from Ivaylo. Later, Michael sends another army of some 5,000 men, but this is also defeated by Ivaylo before reaching the Balkan Mountains. Without support, Ivan Asen has to flee to Constantinople and the turmoil in Bulgaria continues.
EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
LevantEdit
AfricaEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

Cities and TownsEdit
LiteratureEdit

Significant peopleEdit

Births

1270

1271

1272

1273

1274

1275

1276

1277

1278

1279 

Deaths

1270

1271

1272

1273

1274

1275

1276

1277

1278

1279


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