Taungoo (Burmese: တောင်ငူမြို့; MLCTS: taung ngu mrui., pronounced [tàʊɰ̃ŋù mjo̰] Tauñngu myoú; S'gaw Karen: တီအူ; also spelled Toungoo) is a district-level city in the Bago Region of Myanmar, 220 km from Yangon, towards the north-eastern end of the division, with mountain ranges to the east and west. The main industry is in forestry products, with teak and other hardwoods extracted from the mountains. The city is known for its areca palms, to the extent that a Burmese proverb for unexpected good fortune is equated to a "betel lover winning a trip to Taungoo".
|Founded||17 April 1279|
|• Type||District government and Township government|
|• Ethnicities||Burman Karen|
|• Religions||Theravada Buddhism Christianity|
|Time zone||UTC+6:30 (MST)|
The city is famous in Burmese history for the Toungoo dynasty which ruled the country for over 200 years between the 16th and 18th centuries. Taungoo was the capital of Burma in 1510–1539 and 1551–1552.
Taungoo was founded in 1279 in the waning days of Pagan as part of frontier expansion southwards. After the fall of Pagan Empire in 1287, Taungoo came under the rule of Myinsaing Kingdom and later Pinya Kingdom. In 1358, Taungoo successfully revolted and became independent until 1367 when it became a nominal part of the Ava Kingdom. Its rulers retained a large degree of autonomy, playing larger Ava and Hanthawaddy kingdoms against each other. In 1470, Ava put down another rebellion and made Sithu Kyawhtin, the general who defeated the rebellion, governor. Sithu Kyawhtin's grandson Mingyi Nyo became governor of Taungoo in 1485. Under Mingyi Nyo's leadership, the principality grew powerful. In October 1510, Mingyi Nyo formally broke away from Ava and founded the Taungoo Kingdom.
Mingyi Nyo's successors Tabinshwehti and Bayinnaung went on to found the largest empire in the history of south-east Asia. Taungoo's stint as capital was short-lived, however. Tabinshwehti moved the kingdom's capital to Pegu (Bago) in 1539. The city briefly again became capital of a rebellion in 1599 when viceroy Minye Thihathu II of Taungoo declared himself king. In December 1599, Taungoo's forces in collaboration with the Arakanese armies aided by Portuguese mercenaries, sacked Pegu. The rebellious city state remained independent for another 10 years when Natshinnaung ascended the Taungoo throne in 1609. In the following year, King Anaukpetlun captured Taungoo and ended the city's long line of rulers. Although few visible historic remains survive, all four sides of the brick city wall remain from the dynastic period, with the exception of the part of the southern wall. The 9.6 m wide moat has largely dried up, except for a section on the eastern side, which is still maintained.
By the mid-19th century, Taungoo was governed by a local governor appointed by the Konbaung kings. The Taungoo District consisted of 52 wards, including today's Pyinmana (and Naypyidaw) regions. The district was cut in half after the Second Anglo-Burmese War. The British annexed the southern half, including the city of Taungoo while the northern portion, including Pyinmana and Ela, remained under Burmese control. British troops were withdrawn in 1893.
In 1940, the British Royal Air Force built an airfield north of the town, which from August 1941 through February 1942 served as a training and support base for the 1st American Volunteer Group, popularly known as the Flying Tigers.
Taungoo celebrated its 500th birthday on 16 October 2010, by reconstructing and renovating many city attractions.
Three mountain ranges traverse the district—the Pegu Yomas, the Karen Hills, and the Nat Ma Taung or "Great Watershed"—all of which have a north and south direction, and are covered for the most part with dense forest. The Pegu Yomas have a general elevation of from 800 to 1,200 feet (240 to 370 m), while the central range averages from 2,000 to 3,000 feet (610 to 910 m). The rest of Taungoo forms the upper portion of the valley of the Sittaung River.
Taungoo has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) bordering on a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am). Temperatures are hot throughout the year, and the months before the monsoon (March–May) are especially hot with average maximum temperatures exceeding 35 °C (95 °F). There is a winter dry season (November–March) and a summer wet season (April–October).
|Climate data for Taungoo (1981–2010, extremes 1942–1994)|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.6
|Average high °C (°F)||30.9
|Average low °C (°F)||15.0
|Record low °C (°F)||8.3
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||2.6
|Source 1: Norwegian Meteorological Institute|
|Source 2: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial (records)|
- Taungoo District (The district combined have a total of 6 townships. They are Taungoo, Phyu, Yedashe, Tantabin, Kyaukkyi, Oktwin)
- Taungoo Township
- Taungoo Ward – 23 Wards
- Taungoo Municipal
- District and Township Immigration Dept
- Myanmar Timber Enterprise
- Finance and Tax Dept
- Civil Engineering Dept
- District and Township Education Dept
- Health Dept
- District and Township Forestry Dept
- Taungoo Correctional Dept. Taungoo Prison
- Taungoo Quarry Camp
- Taungoo Post Office
- Taungoo TeleCom station
- Myanmar Television Sub-station
- Myawady Television Sub-station
- Union Solidarity and Development Association
- Myanmar Maternal Children’s Welfare Association
- Myanmar Women Affair Federation
- Division 5 Railways Office
- Taungoo Township and District Courts
- "Maha Myittar" Education Foundation
- No.1 Police Station Taungoo
- No.2 Police Station Taungoo
- No.3 Police Station Taungoo
- Taungoo Apala Police Station
- Taungoo District Police Force
- Taungoo Township Police Force
- Division 5 Railways Police Force, Taungoo
- Taungoo Motor Vehicle Police Station
- Taungoo Fire Station Command (1 Support Vehicle)
- Taungoo Township Fire Station No.1 (3 Engines)
- Taungoo Township Fire Station No.2 (2 Engines)
- Myanmar Red Cross Society, Taungoo – Ambulance
- Electrical Department
- Taungoo Weather Station
- Bureau of Special Investigation
Military and Internal SecurityEdit
- Southern Command – Kaytumadi new city
- Taungoo Air Force Base
- No.47 Helicopters Squadron
- Amoury Division – Oak Twin
- Artillery Division – Oak Twin
- Police Battalion, Taungoo – Training School
- No.(3) Field Medical Battalion
- Bureau of Special Investigation Training School
- Taungoo Prison Department
- Shwe San Taw Pagoda (Build by King Min Gyi Nyo)
- Kaung Hmu Taw Pagoda
- Mya See Gone Pagoda
- Myat Saw Nyi Naung Pagoda
- Kaylazarti Pagoda (Build by King Bayintnaung)
- Statue of King Bayintnaung
- Statue of King Min Gyi Nyo
- Statue of Bogyoke Aung San
- Kantawgyi Garden
- Royal Kaytumadi Hotel (Design by Old Taungoo)
- Taungoo Kyone
- Taungoo Gyi old city
- Taungoo Nge old city
- Dwaryarwadi old city
- Danyawadi old city
- Phoe Kyar Elephant garden
- Pathi Cheek
- Sittaung River
- Naw Bu Paw Mountain (Kayin State, over sea level 4,824 ft)
- Than Daung Kyi Mountain city
- Military Intelligence No.3 (MI)
- Special Intelligence (Special Branch) SB
- Bureau of special investigations (BSI)
- Special Police Force
The population of Taungoo in the 2014 census was 108,569; in the 1983 census it was 65,851.
The majority of residents are Theravada Buddhists, followed by Baptist and Roman Catholic Christians. Taungoo is home to a number of Karen Christian association headquarters and churches. See list of churches.
The main transport options to Taungoo is rail and motorways.
The Taungoo railway station is on the main north line of Myanmar Railways, and the Taungoo Highway bus station is served by domestic bus lines.
Intra-city transport is mainly through a circular railway line which serves around the Taungoo District and bus lines, which serve downtown, and suburban areas:
- Gandawin Express Bus
- Yoma Express Bus
- Zay Yar Shwe Pyi Express Bus
- Say Taman Express Bus
- Sein Myittar Express Bus
- Shwe Man Thu Express Bus
- Taw Win Express Bus (Naypyitaw)
- Tabin Shwehtee Express Bus
- Mya Yadana Express Bus (Mandalay)
- Shwe Lonn Pyan Express Bus (Taungyi)
- Pyu Min Thar (Pyay)
Taungoo Airport is the area's only airport and is a military-only air base of Myanmar Air Force. MAF's No.47 Helicopter Squadron is stationed at the airport.
Public universities and collegesEdit
- Taungoo University
- Taungoo Educational College
- University of Computer Studies
- Technological University
- Government Technical Institute
Nursing and midwifery schoolsEdit
- Taungoo Nursing Training School
- Taungoo Midwifery Training School
- Paku Divinity School
- St. Peter's Bible School (Anglican)
- Taungoo General Hospital
- Taungoo Railways Hospital
- Taungoo Traditional Hospital
- Defence Services General Hospital
- Thaw Thee Kho Hospital
- Kaytu Hospital
- Royal Hospital
- Myat Thitsar Hospital
- Thargaya Elephant Camp
- Kandawggyi Garden
- Kaytumaddy Garden
- Kaphaung Creek Bridge
- Sittaung Bridge
- Electronic Library
- Taungoo Gym
- Taungoo Stadium
- Kha Baung Hall
- Taungoo Municipal Market
- Taungoo Market
- Bayinnaung Market
- Kayinmazay Market
- New 3D Cinema
- Statue of Min Gyi Nyo
- Statue of Ba Yint Naung
- Statue of Bogoke Aung San
- Icon Shopping Center - Taungoo
- Mingalar Cinemas Icon - Taungoo
- Dr. Saw Durmay (Po Min) (fl. 1928), president of Loyal Karen Association of Burma-India, owner of white elephant and descendant of Karen chief priest
- Ringo aka Maung Maung Lwin, singer, composer, and guitarist
- Naw Li Zar, singer and composer
- Saw Say Wah, chairman of Eastern Bago Division Anti-Drug Association and retired chief of police (deputy-director)
- Soe Pyae Thazin, actress
- MTV or MTV1 – broadcasts in Burmese language.
- MTV2 – broadcast in Burmese language and some local languages
- MTV4 – 24-hour sport channel. (pay TV)
- MTV3 – broadcasts in Thai, Khmer, Vietnamese and English. (pay TV)
- MRTV – broadcasts in Burmese, Arakanese, Shan, Karen, Kachin, Kayah, Chin, Mon and English
- MWD 1,2 
- MRTV3 
- The Mirror (Burmese: ကြေးမုံ)(Burmese: ေၾကးမံု-Kyehmonn) – state-run daily (newspaper)
- The Voice (newspaper)
- Eleven (newspaper)
- 7Days (newspaper)
- The New Light of Myanmar (Burmese: Myanma A-lin) – English and Burmese language (newspaper)
- The Myanmar Times (Burmese: Myanma Taing) – private-run English-language weekly (newspaper)
- Myanmar Radio National Service (Radio)
- VOA (Radio)
- BBC (Radio)
- Myanmar Teleport (ISP)
- Information Technology Central Services (ITCS)-(ISP)
- Myanmar Post and Telecommunication (MPT)- (ISP)
- Mandalay FM
- Shwe FM
- Channel 7 – Digital broadcasting free-to-air channel
- MRTV 4 – Digital and analogue free-to-air channel
- "Myanmar". City Population. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
- The Baptist Missionary Magazine. 1856.
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- Victor B Lieberman (2003). Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800-1830, volume 1, Integration on the Mainland. Cambridge University Press. pp. 150–154.
- Maung Htin Aung (1967). A History of Burma. New York and London: Cambridge University Press. p. 140.
- Sir James George Scott, John Percy Hardiman (1901). Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States, Part 2. 3. Printed by the superintendent, Government printing, Burma. p. 374.
- public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Toungoo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 101. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the
- "Myanmar Climate Report" (PDF). Norwegian Meteorological Institute. pp. 23–36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
- "Toungoo (Myanmar)" (PDF). Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
- "Saw Durmay (Po Min) in Myanmar". Koehl D, Elephant Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
- San C. Po, Dr. (1928). "VII Karen Celebrities". Burma and the Karens. London: Elliott Stock.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20111125072352/http://myanmarmp3.net/artist.aspx?ArtID=107. Archived from the original on 25 November 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2012. Missing or empty
- https://web.archive.org/web/20101125114814/http://myanmarmp3.net/artist.aspx?ArtID=357. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 6 July 2012. Missing or empty
- https://web.archive.org/web/20130306003732/http://www.mizzima.com/political-pro/new-parties/kpp.html. Archived from the original on 6 March 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013. Missing or empty
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Taungoo.|
- San C. Po, Dr. (1928). Burma and the Karens. London: Elliott Stock.
| Capital of Burma
16 October 1510 – January 1539
| Capital of Burma
11 January 1551 – 12 March 1552