Elbistan (Old Anatolian Turkish: Ablasta, Ablastayn, Ablastin, Ablistan; Kurdish: Elbistan; Arabic: البستان) is a town and district in Kahramanmaraş Province in southern Turkey. Its population is 142,548 (2019) and it is the most populous district of Kahramanmaraş province. It is also the largest district of the province by area and it has the fourth largest plain in the country.
|Coordinates: 38°12′05″N 37°11′18″E / 38.20139°N 37.18833°E|
|• Mayor||Mehmet Gürbüz (AKP)|
|• Kaymakam||Özkan Demir|
|• District||2,319.08 km2 (895.40 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,150 m (3,770 ft)|
|• 2013Population density||60/km2 (160/sq mi)|
The name "Elbistan" was pronounced similarly in Byzantine and Islamic sources. Elbistan was known as Ablasta (Armenian: Աբլաստա) according to Armenian historians in the early 11th century. According to Baldric of Dol the city was known as "Ablistan" till 15th century. Egyptian-Mamluk historian Muhammad ibn Iyas wrote the city's name as "Albistan". Alaüddevle Bozkurt Bey from Dulkadirids used the name "Elbistan" in the official documents. After Dulkadirids were conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century, the current name became prevalent. Among the rural people of Elbistan it is pronounced as "Albıstan". Albistan means "the orchard" in Arabic.
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The beginnings of Elbistan are to be found in the mid-10th century and seems to have been settled first by Armenian immigrants. By the end of the 11th century, the town had become the most important one in the Elbistan plain, was fortified against Turkish raiders and was seat of an Armenian bishop.
In 1277 the Mamluks led by Baybars defeated a Mongol army in the Battle of Elbistan. In 1337 Zeyneddin Karaca Bey captured the town from the Mamluks and established the Beylik of Dulkadir with the region around Elbistan and Marash as its center. The Dulkadirids controlled the region for 178 years until the Ottomans finally conquered it in 1515.
Elbistan became then known as "vilayet-i Türkmân" in the Ottoman documents. Evliya Çelebi's Seyahatnâme from the 17th century gives information about the region that in the mountains and towns mostly reside Turkmens who originally migrated from Bukhara. It seems that some local chiefdoms were given varying degrees of autonomy, notably around the localities of Haticepınar and Kasanlı.
Evliya Çelebi noted that the majority of the town's population was Turkoman in his seyahatname. Currently, the majority of the population of the district is Sunni Turkish with a significant Alevi and Sunni Kurdish population. Turkish Alevis are also present. The Turkmen Alevism of the region is historically rooted in the Alevi Turcoman Beylik of Dulkadir in the 14th century.
|Climate data for Elbistan|
|Average high °C (°F)||2.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−6.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||53
The Elbistan coalfield supplies lignite to the nearby Afşin-Elbistan power stations in Afşin.
It is said that air pollution in Turkey from the nearby coal-fired power stations also affects Elbistan, as well as smoke from landfill. In late 2020 the oldest plant Afşin-Elbistan A, was said by opposition MP Ali Öztunç to be still operating without filters.
|Total population||Town Center|
- Mustafa Atici, Swiss politician of Kurdish descent
- Mazlum Çimen, ballet dancer, award-winning film score composer and folk singer
- Fidan Doğan, murdered Kurdish activist
- Tulay Goren, missing Kurdish schoolgirl
- Kemal Gözükara, mathematician, businessman and president of the Istanbul Arel University
- Mahir Ünal, Turkish MP and former minister of Culture and Tourism
- Tahsin Yücel, Turkish translator, novelist, essayist and literary critic
- İğde – a belde administered by Elbistan
- ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- ^ a b Aksüt, Ali. "On the Alevism of Elbistan, Nurhak, Ekinozu and Afsin - Elbistan Nurhak Ekinözü Afşin Aleviliği Üzerine - Zum Alevitentum in Elbistan, Nurhak, Ekinözü und Afşin" - Alevilik-Bektaşilik Araştırmaları Dergisi 2017 (No.15), pp.264-265, 279 doi:10.24082/abked.2017.15.011
- ^ Adem Avcıkıran (2009). Kürtçe Anamnez Anamneza bi Kurmancî (PDF) (in Turkish and Kurdish). p. 56. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
- ^ "معلومات عن البستان على موقع geonames.org". geonames.org. Archived from the original on 11 December 2019.
- ^ "Elbistan". Elbistan Olay (in Turkish). Retrieved 16 July 2020.
- ^  Elbistan İsminin Tarihçesi
- ^ a b Sinclair, T A (1989). Eastern Turkey: An Architectural and Archaeological Survey, Volume II. ISD LLC. ISBN 9781904597735.
- ^ a b Har-El, Shai (1995). Struggle for Domination in the Middle East: The Ottoman-Mamluk War, 1485-91. Brill. p. 40. ISBN 9789004101807. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
- ^ Akdeniz'in Altın Kenti Kahramanmaraş. Kahramanmaraş Valiliği İl Kültür ve Turizm Müdürlüğü. p.33 ISBN 978-605-149-657-3 (PDF)
- ^ Derviş Mehmet Zılli bin, Evliya Çelebi (2006). "Mar-iş (Maraş)". Seyahatname. Yeni Şafak Gazetesi. p. 297. ISBN 975-363-798-5.
- ^ "Elbistan" - Official website of the Kahramanmaras Governor (Kahramanmaraş Valiliği)
- ^ Evliyâ Çelebi Seyahatnâmesi: III. p. 201. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
- ^ "'Maraş'ta Alevi Kürtlerin nüfusu yüzde 10'lara düştü'". 15 June 2017.
- ^ McDowall, Donald (November 2002). "Asylum seekers from Turkey II" (PDF). p. 64.
- ^ Turkish state (2014), Aşiretler Raporu (in Turkish) (3 ed.), Kaynak Yayınları, p. 205, ISBN 978-975-343-220-7
- ^ Dursun, Mehmet E.; Kirik, Esra. Elbistan Ağzı (Kahramanmaraş Ağızları - II). Turkish Studies - International Periodical For The Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic Volume 7/1 Winter 2012, p.1045 DOI:10.7827/TurkishStudies.3174 (PDF)
- ^ Aras, Bahtiyar Murat; Gökhan, İlyas. "Pazarcık Türkmen Alevileri" - Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Bölümleri . pp.18, 30, 78, 94, 110-111, 156, 433, 439, 443-444,
- ^ Sesi, Elbistanın. "Dumanı hem boğuyor hem zehirliyor, kokusu da cabası!". Elbistanın Sesi (in Turkish). Retrieved 5 October 2020.
- ^ Akdemir -, Özer (11 September 2020). "Afşin Elbistan Termik Santrali A Ünitesi hâlâ filtresiz çalışıyor! | Özer Akdemir". Ekoloji Birliği (in Turkish). Retrieved 5 October 2020.