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|Ab urbe condita||2069|
|Balinese saka calendar||1237–1238|
|English Regnal year||9 Edw. 2 – 10 Edw. 2|
|Chinese calendar||乙卯年 (Wood Rabbit)|
4012 or 3952
— to —
丙辰年 (Fire Dragon)
4013 or 3953
|- Vikram Samvat||1372–1373|
|- Shaka Samvat||1237–1238|
|- Kali Yuga||4416–4417|
|Japanese calendar||Shōwa 5|
|Minguo calendar||596 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1858–1859|
1442 or 1061 or 289
— to —
1443 or 1062 or 290
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1316.|
- January 28–March 18 – Llywelyn Bren revolts against English rule in Wales.
- February 22 – Battle of Picotin: Ferdinand of Majorca defeats the forces of Matilda of Hainaut on the Peloponnese.
- July 5 – Battle of Manolada: Forces of the Duchy of Burgundy defeat the Kingdom of Majorca, kill its king, Ferdinand, and conquer the Principality of Achaea.
- August – Battle of Gransee: A North German-Danish alliance, led by Henry II of Mecklenburg, decisively defeats the forces of Waldemar of Brandenburg.
- August 7 – Pope John XXII succeeds Pope Clement V as the 196th pope.
- August 10 – Second Battle of Athenry: Norman rule is retained in Ireland, at the cost of over 5,000 dead.
- The Great Famine of 1315–1317 is at its peak.
- The Pound sterling experiences the greatest year of inflation in its history, at 100.04 percent, losing over half its value.
- The Au peninsula in Switzerland is first mentioned as "Owe", belonging to the commandry of the Knights Hospitaller in Bubikon.
- March 2 – King Robert II of Scotland (d. 1390)
- April or May – Magnus IV, king of Sweden 1319–1364 (d. 1374)
- May 14 – Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1378)
- November 7 – Simeon of Russia (d. 1353)
- November 15 – King John I of France (d. November 20)
- date unknown – Fa Ngum, King of Lan Xang (d. 1393)
- March 2 – Marjorie Bruce, Scottish princess, daughter of Robert I of Scotland (b. 1296)
- March 12 – King Stefan Dragutin of Serbia
- June 5 – King Louis X of France (b. 1289)
- July 5 – Infante Ferdinand of Majorca (b. 1278)
- August 2 – Louis of Burgundy, Prince of Achaea (b. 1297)
- August 10 – Felim mac Aedh Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht (in battle)
- November 20 – King John I of France (b. November 15)
- date unknown